Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Shihomi Nakao

3 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as building blocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5 µm and 200 nm, respectively. UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: zinc oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing

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2 Differences in Patient Satisfaction Observed between Female Japanese Breast Cancer Patients Who Receive Breast-Conserving Surgery or Total Mastectomy

Authors: Keiko Yamauchi, Motoyuki Nakao, Yoko Ishihara

Abstract:

The increase in the number of women with breast cancer in Japan has required hospitals to provide a higher quality of medicine so that patients are satisfied with the treatment they receive. However, patients’ satisfaction following breast cancer treatment has not been sufficiently studied. Hence, we investigated the factors influencing patient satisfaction following breast cancer treatment among Japanese women. These women underwent either breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n = 380) or total mastectomy (TM) (n = 247). In March 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional internet survey of Japanese women with breast cancer in Japan. We assessed the following factors: socioeconomic status, cancer-related information, the role of medical decision-making, the degree of satisfaction regarding the treatments received, and the regret arising from the medical decision-making processes. We performed logistic regression analyses with the following dependent variables: extreme satisfaction with the treatments received, and regret regarding the medical decision-making process. For both types of surgery, the odds ratio (OR) of being extremely satisfied with the cancer treatment was significantly higher among patients who did not have any regrets compared to patients who had. Also, the OR tended to be higher among patients who chose to play a wanted role in the medical decision-making process, compared with patients who did not. In the BCS group, the OR of being extremely satisfied with the treatment was higher if, at diagnosis, the patient’s youngest child was older than 19 years, compared with patients with no children. The OR was also higher if patient considered the stage and characteristics of their cancer significant. The OR of being extremely satisfied with the treatments was lower among patients who were not employed on full-time basis, and among patients who considered the second medical opinions and medical expenses to be significant. These associations were not observed in the TM group. The OR of having regrets regarding the medical decision-making process was higher among patients who chose to play a role in the decision-making process as they preferred, and was also higher in patients who were employed on either a part-time or contractual basis. For both types of surgery, the OR was higher among patients who considered a second medical opinion to be significant. Regardless of surgical type, regret regarding the medical decision-making process decreases treatment satisfaction. Patients who received breast-conserving surgery were more likely to have regrets concerning the medical decision-making process if they could not play a role in the process as they preferred. In addition, factors associated with the satisfaction with treatment in BCS group but not TM group included the second medical opinion, medical expenses, employment status, and age of the youngest child at diagnosis.

Keywords: medical decision making, breast-conserving surgery, total mastectomy, Japanese

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1 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

Procedia PDF Downloads 188