Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: nanogenerator

9 Modeling and Optimization of Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Fawzi Srairi, Abderrahmane Dib


Recently, the desire for a self-powered micro and nanodevices has attracted a great interest of using sustainable energy sources. Further, the ultimate goal of nanogenerator is to harvest energy from the ambient environment in which a self-powered device based on these generators is needed. With the development of nanogenerator-based circuits design and optimization, the building of new device simulator is necessary for the study and the synthesis of electromechanical parameters of this type of models. In the present article, both numerical modeling and optimization of piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide have been carried out. They aim to improve the electromechanical performances, robustness, and synthesis process for nanogenerator. The proposed model has been developed for a systematic study of the nanowire morphology parameters in stretching mode. In addition, heuristic optimization technique, namely, particle swarm optimization has been implemented for an analytic modeling and an optimization of nanogenerator-based process in stretching mode. Moreover, the obtained results have been tested and compared with conventional model where a good agreement has been obtained for excitation mode. The developed nanogenerator model can be generalized, extended and integrated into simulators devices to study nanogenerator-based circuits.

Keywords: electrical potential, heuristic algorithms, numerical modeling, nanogenerator

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8 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee


Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

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7 Hierarchical Surface Inspired by Lotus-Leaf for Electrical Generators from Waterdrop

Authors: Jaewook Ha, Jin-beak Kim, Seongmin Kim


In order to solve global warming and climate change issues, increased efforts have been devoted towards clean and sustainable energy sources as well as new energy generating devices. Nanogenerator is a device that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. Here we propose that nature-leaf surface could be used for preparation of a triboelectric nanogenerator. The nature-leaf surface consists of polydimethylsiloxane microscale pillars and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. Interaction between the nature-leaf surface and water was studied and the electrical outputs from the motion of single water drop were measured. A 40-μL water drop can generate a peak voltage of 1 V and a peak current of 0.7 μA. This nanogenerator might be used to drive electric devices in the outdoor environments in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: hierarchical surface, lotus-leaf, electrical generator, waterdrop

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6 Surface Modified Thermoplastic Polyurethane and Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Nanofiber Based Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Wearable Bio-Sensor

Authors: Sk Shamim Hasan Abir, Karen Lozano, Mohammed Jasim Uddin


Over the last few years, nanofiber-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has caught great attention among researchers all over the world due to its inherent capability of converting mechanical energy to usable electrical energy. In this study, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiber prepared by Forcespinning® (FS) technique were used to fabricate TENG for self-charging energy storage device and biomechanical body motion sensor. The surface of the TPU nanofiber was modified by uniform deposition of thin gold film to enhance the frictional properties; yielded 254 V open-circuit voltage (Voc) and 86 µA short circuit current (Isc), which were 2.12 and 1.87 times greater in contrast to bare PVDF-TPU TENG. Moreover, the as-fabricated PVDF-TPU/Au TENG was tested against variable capacitors and resistive load, and the results showed that with a 3.2 x 2.5 cm2 active contact area, it can quick charge up to 7.64 V within 30 seconds using a 1.0 µF capacitor and generate significant 2.54 mW power, enough to light 75 commercial LEDs (1.5 V each) by the hand tapping motion at 4 Hz (240 beats per minutes (bpm)) load frequency. Furthermore, the TENG was attached to different body parts to capture distinctive electrical signals for various body movements, elucidated the prospective usability of our prepared nanofiber-based TENG in wearable body motion sensor application.

Keywords: biomotion sensor, forcespinning, nanofibers, triboelectric nanogenerator

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5 Enhancing Aerodynamic Performance of Savonius Vertical Axis Turbine Used with Triboelectric Generator

Authors: Bhavesh Dadhich, Fenil Bamnoliya, Akshita Swaminathan


This project aims to design a system to generate energy from flowing wind due to the motion of a vehicle on the road or from the flow of wind in compact areas to utilize the wasteful energy into a useful one. It is envisaged through a design and aerodynamic performance improvement of a Savonius vertical axis wind turbine rotor and used in an integrated system with a Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) that can generate a good amount of electrical energy. Aerodynamic calculations are performed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, and TENG's performance is evaluated analytically. The Turbine's coefficient of power is validated with published results for an inlet velocity of 7 m/s with a Tip Speed Ratio of 0.75 and found to reasonably agree with that of experiment results. The baseline design is modified with a new blade arc angle and rotor position angle based on the recommended parameter ranges suggested by previous researchers. Simulations have been performed for different T.S.R. values ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 with an interval of 0.25 with two applicable free stream velocities of 5 m/s and 7m/s. Finally, the newly designed VAWT CFD performance results are used as input for the analytical performance prediction of the triboelectric nanogenerator. The results show that this approach could be feasible and useful for small power source applications.

Keywords: savonius turbine, power, overlap ratio, tip speed ratio, TENG

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4 Wind Energy Harvester Based on Triboelectricity: Large-Scale Energy Nanogenerator

Authors: Aravind Ravichandran, Marc Ramuz, Sylvain Blayac


With the rapid development of wearable electronics and sensor networks, batteries cannot meet the sustainable energy requirement due to their limited lifetime, size and degradation. Ambient energies such as wind have been considered as an attractive energy source due to its copious, ubiquity, and feasibility in nature. With miniaturization leading to high-power and robustness, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been conceived as a promising technology by harvesting mechanical energy for powering small electronics. TENG integration in large-scale applications is still unexplored considering its attractive properties. In this work, a state of the art design TENG based on wind venturi system is demonstrated for use in any complex environment. When wind introduces into the air gap of the homemade TENG venturi system, a thin flexible polymer repeatedly contacts with and separates from electrodes. This device structure makes the TENG suitable for large scale harvesting without massive volume. Multiple stacking not only amplifies the output power but also enables multi-directional wind utilization. The system converts ambient mechanical energy to electricity with 400V peak voltage by charging of a 1000mF super capacitor super rapidly. Its future implementation in an array of applications aids in environment friendly clean energy production in large scale medium and the proposed design performs with an exhaustive material testing. The relation between the interfacial micro-and nano structures and the electrical performance enhancement is comparatively studied. Nanostructures are more beneficial for the effective contact area, but they are not suitable for the anti-adhesion property due to the smaller restoring force. Considering these issues, the nano-patterning is proposed for further enhancement of the effective contact area. By considering these merits of simple fabrication, outstanding performance, robust characteristic and low-cost technology, we believe that TENG can open up great opportunities not only for powering small electronics, but can contribute to large-scale energy harvesting through engineering design being complementary to solar energy in remote areas.

Keywords: triboelectric nanogenerator, wind energy, vortex design, large scale energy

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3 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang


This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

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2 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik


We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: GaN, flexible, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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1 Study of Electro-Chemical Properties of ZnO Nanowires for Various Application

Authors: Meera A. Albloushi, Adel B. Gougam


The development in the field of piezoelectrics has led to a renewed interest in ZnO nanowires (NWs) as a promising material in the nanogenerator devices category. It can be used as a power source for self-powered electronic systems with higher density, higher efficiency, longer lifetime, as well as lower cost of fabrication. Highly aligned ZnO nanowires seem to exhibit a higher performance compared with nonaligned ones. The purpose of this study was to develop ZnO nanowires and to investigate their electrical and chemical properties for various applications. They were grown on silicon (100) and glass substrates. We have used a low temperature and non-hazardous method: aqueous chemical growth (ACG). ZnO (non-doped) and AZO (Aluminum doped) seed layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputteringunder Argon pressure of 3 mTorr and deposition power of 180 W, the times of growth were selected to obtain thicknesses in the range of 30 to 125 nm. Some of the films were subsequently annealed. The substrates were immersed tilted in an equimolar solution composed of zinc nitrate and hexamine (HMTA) of 0.02 M and 0.05 M in the temperature range of 80 to 90 ᵒC for 1.5 to 2 hours. The X-ray diffractometer shows strong peaks at 2Ө = 34.2ᵒ of ZnO films which indicates that the films have a preferred c-axis wurtzite hexagonal (002) orientation. The surface morphology of the films is investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) which proved the uniformity of the film since the roughness is within 5 nm range. The scanning electron microscopes(SEM) (Quanta FEG 250, Quanta 3D FEG, Nova NanoSEM 650) are used to characterize both ZnO film and NWs. SEM images show forest of ZnO NWs grown vertically and have a range of length up to 2000 nm and diameter of 20-300 nm. The SEM images prove that the role of the seed layer is to enhance the vertical alignment of ZnO NWs at the pH solution of 5-6. Also electrical and optical properties of the NWs are carried out using Electrical Force Microscopy (EFM). After growing the ZnO NWs, developing the nano-generator is the second step of this study in order to determine the energy conversion efficiency and the power output.

Keywords: ZnO nanowires(NWs), aqueous chemical growth (ACG), piezoelectric NWs, harvesting enery

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