Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: drawings

108 Drawings as a Methodical Access to Reconstruct Children's Perspective on a Horse-Assisted Intervention

Authors: Annika Barzen


In this article, the collection and analysis of drawings are implemented and discussed as a methodological approach to reconstruct children's perspective on horse-assisted interventions. For this purpose, drawings of three children (8-10 years old) were included in the research process in order to clarify the question of what insights can be derived from the drawings about the child's perspective on the intervention. The children were asked to draw a picture of themselves at the horse stable. Practical implementation considerations are disclosed. The developed analysis steps consider the work of two art historians (Erwin Panofsky and Max Imdahl) to capture the visual sense and to interpret the children's drawings. Relevant topics about the children's perspective can be inferred from the drawings. In the drawings, the following topics are important for the children: Overcoming challenges and fears in handling the horse, support from an adult in handling the horse and feeling self-confident and competent to act after completing tasks with the horse. The drawings show the main topics which are relevant for the children and can be used as a basis for conversation. All in all, the child's drawing offers a useful addition to other survey methods in order to gain further insights into the experiences of children in a horse-assisted setting.

Keywords: children's perspective, interpret children's drawings, equine-assisted-intervention, methodical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
107 Cross-Cultural Variations in Creative Perception Modulate Creative Performance

Authors: Anatoliy Kharkhurin


The study argues that variations in creative performance may be stipulated by cross-cultural differences in perception of the creativity construct. In Experiment 1, 50 Russian and 50 Emirati college students received structured imagination test that requires producing a drawing of an alien creature. In Experiment 2, 53 Russian and 53 Emirati college students (different from Experiment 1) on 5-point Likert-type scale evaluated the level of creativity of the drawings produced in the Experiment I. Repeated-measure ANOVA revealed an interaction between the country where the drawings were produced and the country where they were evaluated. Russians evaluated their country mates’ drawings as more creative than the Emiratis evaluated their country mates’ drawings. Regression analysis revealed that the creativity level of the drawings was positively predicted by the Russians’ evaluation and negatively predicted by the Emiratis’ evaluation. Finally, the evaluation of the drawings by the Russians predicted divergent thinking performance.

Keywords: creativity, culture, cross-cultural, perception, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
106 Children of Syria: Using Drawings for Diagnosing and Treating Trauma

Authors: Fatten F. Elkomy


The Syrian refugees are the largest refugee population since World War II. Mostly, children, these individuals were exposed to intense traumatic events in their homeland, throughout their journey, and during settlement in foreign lands. Art is a universal language to express feelings and tough human experiences. It is also a medium for healing and promoting creativity and resilience. Literature review was conducted to examine the use of art to facilitate psychiatric interviews, diagnosis, and therapy with traumatized children. Results show a severe impact of childhood trauma on the increased risk for abuse, neglect, and psychiatric disorders. Clinicians must recognize, evaluated and provide help for these children. In conclusion, drawings are used to tell a story, reflect deep emotions, and create a meaningful self-recognition and determination. Participants will understand art therapy using the expressive therapies continuum framework to evaluate drawings and to promote healing for refugee children.

Keywords: art therapy, children drawings, Syrian refugees, trauma in childhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
105 Analysis on the Need of Engineering Drawing and Feasibility Study on 3D Model Based Engineering Implementation

Authors: Parthasarathy J., Ramshankar C. S.


Engineering drawings these days play an important role in every part of an industry. By and large, Engineering drawings are influential over every phase of the product development process. Traditionally, drawings are used for communication in industry because they are the clearest way to represent the product manufacturing information. Until recently, manufacturing activities were driven by engineering data captured in 2D paper documents or digital representations of those documents. The need of engineering drawing is inevitable. Still Engineering drawings are disadvantageous in re-entry of data throughout manufacturing life cycle. This document based approach is prone to errors and requires costly re-entry of data at every stage in the manufacturing life cycle. So there is a requirement to eliminate Engineering drawings throughout product development process and to implement 3D Model Based Engineering (3D MBE or 3D MBD). Adopting MBD appears to be the next logical step to continue reducing time-to-market and improve product quality. Ideally, by fully applying the MBD concept, the product definition will no longer rely on engineering drawings throughout the product lifecycle. This project addresses the need of Engineering drawing and its influence in various parts of an industry and the need to implement the 3D Model Based Engineering with its advantages and the technical barriers that must be overcome in order to implement 3D Model Based Engineering. This project also addresses the requirements of neutral formats and its realisation in order to implement the digital product definition principles in a light format. In order to prove the concepts of 3D Model Based Engineering, the screw jack body part is also demonstrated. At ZF Windpower Coimbatore Limited, 3D Model Based Definition is implemented to Torque Arm (Machining and Casting), Steel tube, Pinion shaft, Cover, Energy tube.

Keywords: engineering drawing, model based engineering MBE, MBD, CAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
104 Drawings Reveal Beliefs of Japanese University Students

Authors: Sakae Suzuki


Although Japanese students study English for six years in secondary schools, they demonstrate little success with it when they enter higher education. Learners’ beliefs can predict the future behavior of students, so it may be effective to investigate how learners’ beliefs limit their success and how beliefs might be nudged in a positive direction. While many researchers still depend on a questionnaire called BALLI to reveal explicit beliefs, alternative approaches, especially those designed to reveal implicit beliefs, might be helpful for promoting learning. The present study seeks to identify beliefs with a discursive approach using visual metaphors and narratives. Employing a sociocultural framework, this study investigates how students’ beliefs are revealed by drawings of themselves and their surrounding environments and artifacts while they are engaged in language learning. Research questions are: (1) Can we identify beliefs through an analysis of students’ visual narratives? (2) What environments and artifacts can be found in students’ drawings, and what do they mean? (3) To what extent do students see language learning as a solitary, rather than a social, activity? Participants are university students majoring in science and technology in Japan. The questionnaire was administered to 70 entering students in April, 2014. Data included students drawings of themselves as learners of English as well as written descriptions of students’ backgrounds, English-learning experiences, and analogies and metaphors that they used in written descriptions of themselves as learners. Data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Anticipated results include students’ perceptions of themselves as language learners, including their sense of agency, awareness of artifacts, and social contexts of language learning. Comments will be made on implications for teaching, as well as the use of visual narratives as research tools, and recommended further research.

Keywords: drawings, learners' beliefs, metaphors, BALLI

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
103 The Effectiveness of a Program Based on the Employment of the Proposed Folk Songs to Enrich the Visual Expressive Drawings with the Artistic Connotations for the Early Stage Childhood

Authors: Ahmed Mousa, Huda Mazeed


The research aims to determine the appropriate songs and artistic indications for the kindergarten child. In addition, it aims to use the songs of folk to develop expressive visual drawings with artistic connotations for the kindergarten child. The current research used a one group semi-experimental approach to identify the impact of songs on expressive children's drawings. The research community is represented in the educational administration in Giza Governorate for the academic year (2018 - 2019). The sample was taken from the kindergarten of Gamal Abdel Nasser School of Dokki Educational Administration in Giza Governorate. The study was applied to the second level children sample (5-6 years), where they numbered 20 children, males and females. The research results show that there are statistically significant differences between the average scores of the children of the experimental group in the pre and post-measurements on the observation card for children after hearing the songs of social and national folk in favor of post measurement. Moreover, the results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences between the average scores of children in the experimental group in the measurements, the post and follow-up, on the observation card of children's drawings for social and national folk.

Keywords: folk songs, visual expressive, artistic connotations, early childhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
102 Marginalized Children's Drawings Speak for Themselves: Self Advocacy for Protecting Their Rights

Authors: Bhavneet Bharti, Prahbhjot Malhi, Vandana Thakur


Introduction: Children of the urban migrant laborers have great difficulty in accessing government programs which are otherwise routinely available in rural settings. These include programs for child care, nutrition, health and education. There are major communicative fault-lines preventing advocacy for these marginalized children. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of an innovative strategy of children’s drawings in supporting communication between children, social workers, pediatricians and other child advocates to fulfil their fundamental child rights. Materials and Methods: The data was collected over a period of one-year April 2015 to April 2016 during the routine visits by the members of the Social Pediatrics team including a social worker, pediatricians and an artist to the makeshift colony of migrant laborers. Once a week a drawing session was organized where the children including adolescents were asked to any drawing and provide a narrative thereafter. 5-30 children attended these weekly sessions for one year. All these drawings were then classified into various themes and exhibited on 16th April 2016 in the Govt. College of Art Museum. The forum was used for advocacy of Child Rights of these underprivileged children to Secretary social welfare. Results: Mean (SD) age of children in present observational study was 8.5 (2.5) years, with 60% of the boys. Majority of children demonstrated themes which were local and contextualized to their daily needs, threats and festivals which clearly underscored their fundamental right to basic services and equality of opportunities to achieve their full development Drawings of tap with flowing water, queues of people collecting water from hand pumps reflect the local problem of water availability for these children. Young children talking about fear of rape and murder following their drawings indicate the looming threat of potential abuse and neglect. Besides reality driven drawing, children also echoed supernatural beliefs, dangers and festivities in their drawings. Anyone who watched these children at work with art materials was able to see the intense level of absorption, clearly indicating the enjoyment they received, making it a meaningful activity. Indeed, this self-advocacy through art exhibition led to the successful establishment of mobile Anganwadi (A social safety net programme of the government) in their area of stay. Conclusions: This observational study is an example of how children were able to do self-advocacy to protect their rights. Of particular importance, these drawings address how psychologists and other child advocates can ensure in a child-centered manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options.

Keywords: child advocacy, children drawings, child rights, marginalized children

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
101 Child-Friendly Cities: A Child's Participation in the Local Government to Improve the Status of Rights of the Child

Authors: Asma Khalid


Children’s drawings are unique as children are. Children manifest their happiness, sadness, future dreams, likes, dislikes through drawings. Research with children aged 8-12 was conducted in 2017 in which it was asked to them ‘what they think about child-friendly cities?’ The focus was to get ideas from children about the cities in which they live and what they want in their cities. The research was conducted in different private schools. Children were accessed through teachers and principals of the schools (the gatekeepers). Consent forms were developed for children which contained information about the research project and their consent was taken on paper. It was ensured that children are not forced to take part in the research and they can leave the research whenever they want, without informing anyone. The qualitative participatory approach was taken where children were given papers and colors to draw their ideas. During the research, it was found that children are interested in showing their emotions and liking through drawing as this medium seems easy and comfortable to them as compared to have the individual face to face interviews or participate in surveys. However, the clarity of the ideas presented in the drawings was discussed at length with children in their school’s premises. Results of the research show that children like to live in clean, green places which are also safe for them. Furthermore, they want to live with their families and want to have recreational activities including parks in their nearby vicinity.

Keywords: qualitative participative research clean, children, drawing, clean, green and protected place, family

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
100 The Geometrical Cosmology: The Projective Cast of the Collective Subjectivity of the Chinese Traditional Architectural Drawings

Authors: Lina Sun


Chinese traditional drawings related to buildings and construction apply a unique geometry differentiating with western Euclidean geometry and embrace a collection of special terminologies, under the category of tu (the Chinese character for drawing). This paper will on one side etymologically analysis the terminologies of Chinese traditional architectural drawing, and on the other side geometrically deconstruct the composition of tu and locate the visual narrative language of tu in the pictorial tradition. The geometrical analysis will center on selected series of Yang-shi-lei tu of the construction of emperors’ mausoleums in Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), and will also draw out the earlier architectural drawings and the architectural paintings such as the jiehua, and paintings on religious frescoes and tomb frescoes as the comparison. By doing these, this research will reveal that both the terminologies corresponding to different geometrical forms respectively indicate associations between architectural drawing and the philosophy of Chinese cosmology, and the arrangement of the geometrical forms in the visual picture plane facilitates expressions of the concepts of space and position in the geometrical cosmology. These associations and expressions are the collective intentions of architectural drawing evolving in the thousands of years’ tradition without breakage and irrelevant to the individual authorship. Moreover, the architectural tu itself as an entity, not only functions as the representation of the buildings but also express intentions and strengthen them by using the Chinese unique geometrical language flexibly and intentionally. These collective cosmological spatial intentions and the corresponding geometrical words and languages reveal that the Chinese traditional architectural drawing functions as a unique architectural site with subjectivity which exists parallel with buildings and express intentions and meanings by itself. The methodology and the findings of this research will, therefore, challenge the previous researches which treat architectural drawings just as the representation of buildings and understand the drawings more than just using them as the evidence to reconstruct the information of buildings. Furthermore, this research will situate architectural drawing in between the researches of Chinese technological tu and artistic painting, bridging the two academic areas which usually treated the partial features of architectural drawing separately. Beyond this research, the collective subjectivity of the Chinese traditional drawings will facilitate the revealing of the transitional experience from traditions to drawing modernity, where the individual subjective identities and intentions of architects arise. This research will root for the understanding both the ambivalence and affinity of the drawing modernity encountering the traditions.

Keywords: Chinese traditional architectural drawing (tu), etymology of tu, collective subjectivity of tu, geometrical cosmology in tu, geometry and composition of tu, Yang-shi-lei tu

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
99 The Impact of Scientific Content of National Geographic Channel on Drawing Style of Kindergarten Children

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Mona Yacoub


This study depends on tracking children style through what they have drawn after being introduced to 16 visual content through National Geographic Abu Dhabi Channel programs and the study of the changing features in their drawings before applying the visual act with them. The researchers used Goodenough-Harris Test to analyse children drawings and to extract the features which changed in their drawing before and after the visual content. The results showed a positive change especially in the shapes of animals and their properties. Children become more aware of animals’ shapes. The study sample was 220 kindergarten children divided into 130 girls and 90 boys at the Orman Experimental Language School in Dokki, Giza, Egypt. The study results showed an improvement in children drawing with 85% than they were before watching videos.

Keywords: National Geographic, children drawing, kindergarten, Goodenough-Harris Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
98 Preservation of Artistic Heritage: Effect of Modernization on Antiquities and Traditional Murals in Nigeria

Authors: Uchenna Bella Onu


Traditional art is one of Nigerian cultural heritage. It is an excellent instrument for documentation and identification. Antiquities are priceless and irreplaceable. They are basically preserved for future generations. Sadly, preserving these highly prized cultural heritage is becoming a serious challenge. This paper examines the extent modernization has affected the preservation of traditional art in Nigeria. Particularly hit is the antiquities and traditional murals of eastern part of Nigeria. Participatory visual methods were used for this study. Efforts were made to reach the few surviving and aged mural artists. Oral information was collected from them as well as first hand drawings and some photographs of their works. Findings indicate that modernization has seriously affected the preservation of Nigerian artistic heritage. Further findings show that traditional mural artists are gradually dwindling and dangerously going into extinct. Antiquities are indiscriminately destroyed due to sheer ignorance and the blind quest to fit into the so called modern world.  

Keywords: antiquities, artistic heritage, cultural preservation, drawings, modernization, murals

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
97 Reliability Estimation of Bridge Structures with Updated Finite Element Models

Authors: Ekin Ozer


Assessment of structural reliability is essential for efficient use of civil infrastructure which is subjected hazardous events. Dynamic analysis of finite element models is a commonly used tool to simulate structural behavior and estimate its performance accordingly. However, theoretical models purely based on preliminary assumptions and design drawings may deviate from the actual behavior of the structure. This study proposes up-to-date reliability estimation procedures which engages actual bridge vibration data modifying finite element models for finite element model updating and performing reliability estimation, accordingly. The proposed method utilizes vibration response measurements of bridge structures to identify modal parameters, then uses these parameters to calibrate finite element models which are originally based on design drawings. The proposed method does not only show that reliability estimation based on updated models differs from the original models, but also infer that non-updated models may overestimate the structural capacity.

Keywords: earthquake engineering, engineering vibrations, reliability estimation, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
96 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman


Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: classmates, disability, students, tolerance

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95 The Effect of Collapse Structure on Economic Growth and Influence of Soil Investigation

Authors: Fatai Shola Afolabi


The study identified and evaluates the causes of building failure and examined the effects of building failure with respect to cost in Lagos State, Nigeria. The method employed in the collection of data includes the administration of questionnaire to professionals in the construction industry and case studies for the sites. A purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sites visited, and selecting the construction professionals. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency distribution and percentages and mean response analysis were used to analyze data. The study revealed that the major causes of building failures were bad design, faulty construction, over loading, non-possession of approved drawings, Possession of approved drawings but non-compliance, and the use of quarks. In the two case studies considered, the total direct loss to the building owners was thirty eight million three hundred and eight five thousand, seven hundred and twenty one naira (38,385,721) which is about One hundred and ninety four thousand, eighty hundred and fifty one dollars ($194,851) at one hundred and ninety seven naira to one US dollars, central bank Nigeria of exchange rate as at 14th March, 2015.

Keywords: building structures, building failure, building collapse, structural failure, cost, direct loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
94 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero


Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
93 A Cross-Sectional Examination of Children’s Developing Understanding of the Rainbow

Authors: Michael Hast


Surprisingly little is known from a research perspective about children’s understanding of rainbows and rainbow formation, and how this understanding changes with increasing age. Yet this kind of research is useful when conceptualizing pedagogy, lesson plans, or more general curricula. The present study aims to rectify this shortcoming. In a cross-sectional approach, children of three different age groups (4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years) were asked to draw pictures that included rainbows. The pictures will be evaluated according to their scientific representation of rainbows, such as the order of colors, as well as according to any non-scientific conceptions, such as solidity. In addition to the drawings, the children took part in small focus groups where they had to discuss various questions about rainbows and rainbow formation. Similar to the drawings, these conversations will be evaluated around the degree of scientific accuracy of the children’s explanations. Gaining a complete developmental picture of children’s understanding of the rainbow may have important implications for pedagogy in early science education. Many other concepts in science, while not explicitly linked to rainbows and rainbow formation, can benefit from the use of rainbows as illustrations – such as understanding light and color, or the use of prisms. Even in non-science domains, such as art and even storytelling, recognizing the differentiation between fact and myth in relation to rainbows could be of value. In addition, research has pointed out that teachers tend to overestimate the proportion of students’ correct answers, so clarifying the actual level of conceptual understanding is crucial in this respect.

Keywords: conceptual development, cross-sectional research, primary science education, rainbows

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
92 Fifth Grade Student Skills of Reading Illustrated Drawings in Physical and Chemical Changes Included in Science Textbook

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Lina L. Al-Rewaili


The current study aimed to measure the fifth Grade student skills of reading illustrates in physical and chemical chapter included in science textbook, as well as identity the tasks the dispersants related to designing these illustrates which obstruct the students to read them properly. The researcher applied the test instrument of open discuss questions to measure the skill of: recognizing, description, interpretation and assessment for a sample of this research consisted of (269) students who read three illustrates, and conduct an interview with sample of them (27) students to recognize the dispersants related to designing of these illustrates. The study results showed that there are poor levels in illustrated drawing reading skills: description, interpretation, and assessment. The most important dispersants which obstruct the students to read theses illustrates properly representing: Art impacts of these illustrates, there are some elements which don’t serve these illustrates. In the light of the above results, the researcher provided some recommendations such as training the students on using the images and illustrates properly in science textbooks, as well as create simple designs of illustrates and they should be free of crowded elements and impacts which don’t serve the illustrates.

Keywords: reading illustrated drawings skills, fifth grade science, physical and chemical changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
91 Determining Factors of Suspended Glass Systems with Pre-Stress Cable Truss

Authors: Cemil Atakara, Hüseyin Eryaman


The use of glass as an envelope of a building has been increasing in the twentieth century. For more transparency and dematerialization new glass facade types have emerged in the past two decades which depends on point fixed glazing system (PFGS). The aim of this study is to analyze of the PFGS systems which are used on the glass curtain wall according to their types, degree, architectural and structural effects. This new system is desired because it enhances the transparency of the façade and it minimizes the component of the frames or of the profiles. This PFGS led to new structural elements which use cables, rods, trusses when designing a glass building facades, this structural element called the suspended glass system with pre-stressed cable truss (SGSPCT) which has been used for the first time in 1980 in Serres building. The twenty glass buildings which are designed in different systems have been analyzed during this study. After these analyses five selected SGSPCT building analyzed deeply and one skeletal frame building selected from Lefkosa redesigned according to the analysis results. These selected buildings have been included of various cable-truss system typologies and degree. The methodology of this study is building analysis method and literature survey with the help of books, articles, magazines, drawings, internet sources and applied connection details of the glass buildings. The selected five glass buildings and case building have been detailed analyzed with their architectural drawings, photographs and details. A gridshell structure can be compared with a shell structure; it consists of discrete members connecting nodal points. As these nodal points lie on the surface of an imaginary shell, their shapes function almost identically. Difference between shell and gridshell structures can be found in the fact that, due to their free-form and thus, due to the presence of bending forces, gridshells are required to resist loading through their cross-section. This research is divided into parts. A general study about the glass building and cable-glass and grid shell system will be done in the first chapters. Structural analyses and detailed analyses with schematic drawings with the plans, sections of the selected buildings will be explained in the second part. The third part it consists of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the SGSPCT and Grid Shell in architecture. The study consists of four chapters including the introduction chapter. The general information of the SGSPCT and glazing system has been mentioned in the first chapter. Structural features, typologies, transparency principle and analytical information on systems have been explained of the selected buildings in the second chapter. The detailed analyses of case building have been done according to their schematic drawings with the plans, sections in the third chapter. After third chapter SGSPCT discussed on to the case building and selected buildings. SGSPCT systems have been compared with their advantages and disadvantages to the other systems. Advantages of cable-truss systems and SGSPCT have been concluded that the use of glass substrates in the last chapter.

Keywords: cable truss, glass, grid shell, transparency

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
90 Structural Analysis of Kamaluddin Behzad's Works Based on Roland Barthes' Theory of Communication, 'Text and Image'

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani, Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand


Text and image have always been two important components in Iranian layout. The interactive connection between text and image has shaped the art of book design with multiple patterns. In this research, first the structure and visual elements in the research data were analyzed and then the position of the text element and the image element in relation to each other based on Roland Barthes theory on the three theories of text and image, were studied and analyzed and the results were compared, and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pattern of text and image in the works of Kamaluddin Behzad based on three Roland Barthes communication theories, 1. Descriptive communication, 2. Reference communication, 3. Matched communication. The questions of this research are what is the relationship between text and image in Behzad's works? And how is it defined according to Roland Barthes theory? The method of this research has been done with a structuralist approach with a descriptive-analytical method in a library collection method. The information has been collected in the form of documents (library) and is a tool for collecting online databases. Findings show that the dominant element in Behzad's drawings is with the image and has created a reference relationship in the layout of the drawings, but in some cases it achieves a different relationship that despite the preference of the image on the page, the text is dispersed proportionally on the page and plays a more active role, played within the image. The text and the image support each other equally on the page; Roland Barthes equates this connection.

Keywords: text, image, Kamaluddin Behzad, Roland Barthes, communication theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
89 Mathematical Toolbox for editing Equations and Geometrical Diagrams and Graphs

Authors: Ayola D. N. Jayamaha, Gihan V. Dias, Surangika Ranathunga


Currently there are lot of educational tools designed for mathematics. Open source software such as GeoGebra and Octave are bulky in their architectural structure. In addition, there is MathLab software, which facilitates much more than what we ask for. Many of the computer aided online grading and assessment tools require integrating editors to their software. However, there are not exist suitable editors that cater for all their needs in editing equations and geometrical diagrams and graphs. Some of the existing software for editing equations is Alfred’s Equation Editor, Codecogs, DragMath, Maple, MathDox, MathJax, MathMagic, MathFlow, Math-o-mir, Microsoft Equation Editor, MiraiMath, OpenOffice, WIRIS Editor and MyScript. Some of them are commercial, open source, supports handwriting recognition, mobile apps, renders MathML/LaTeX, Flash / Web based and javascript display engines. Some of the diagram editors are GeoKone.NET, Tabulae, Cinderella 1.4, MyScript, Dia, Draw2D touch, Gliffy, GeoGebra, Flowchart, Jgraph, JointJS, J painter Online diagram editor and 2D sketcher. All these software are open source except for MyScript and can be used for editing mathematical diagrams. However, they do not fully cater the needs of a typical computer aided assessment tool or Educational Platform for Mathematics. This solution provides a Web based, lightweight, easy to implement and integrate solution of an html5 canvas that renders on all of the modern web browsers. The scope of the project is an editor that covers equations and mathematical diagrams and drawings on the O/L Mathematical Exam Papers in Sri Lanka. Using the tool the students can enter any equation to the system which can be on an online remote learning platform. The users can also create and edit geometrical drawings, graphs and do geometrical constructions that require only Compass and Ruler from the Editing Interface provided by the Software. The special feature of this software is the geometrical constructions. It allows the users to create geometrical constructions such as angle bisectors, perpendicular lines, angles of 600 and perpendicular bisectors. The tool correctly imitates the functioning of rulers and compasses to create the required geometrical construction. Therefore, the users are able to do geometrical drawings on the computer successfully and we have a digital format of the geometrical drawing for further processing. Secondly, we can create and edit Venn Diagrams, color them and label them. In addition, the students can draw probability tree diagrams and compound probability outcome grids. They can label and mark regions within the grids. Thirdly, students can draw graphs (1st order and 2nd order). They can mark points on a graph paper and the system connects the dots to draw the graph. Further students are able to draw standard shapes such as circles and rectangles by selecting points on a grid or entering the parametric values.

Keywords: geometrical drawings, html5 canvas, mathematical equations, toolbox

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
88 Project Design Deliverables Sequence (PDD)

Authors: Nahed Al-Hajeri


There are several reasons which lead to a delay in project completion, out of all, one main reason is the delay in deliverable processing, i.e. submission and review of documents. Most of the project cycles start with a list of deliverables but without a sequence of submission of the same, means without a direction to move, leading to overlapping of activities and more interdependencies. Hence Project Design Deliverables (PDD) is developed as a solution to Organize Transmittals (Documents/Drawings) received from contractors/consultants during different phases of an EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction) projects, which gives proper direction to the stakeholders from the beginning, to reduce inter-discipline dependency, avoid overlapping of activities, provide a list of deliverables, sequence of activities, etc. PDD attempts to provide a list and sequencing of the engineering documents/drawings required during different phases of a Project which will benefit both client and Contractor in performing planned activities through timely submission and review of deliverables. This helps in ensuring improved quality and completion of Project in time. The successful implementation begins with a detailed understanding the specific challenges and requirements of the project. PDD will help to learn about vendor document submissions including general workflow, sequence and monitor the submission and review of the deliverables from the early stages of Project. This will provide an overview for the Submission of deliverables by the concerned during the projects in proper sequence. The goal of PDD is also to hold responsible and accountability of all stakeholders during complete project cycle. We believe that successful implementation of PDD with a detailed list of documents and their sequence will help organizations to achieve the project target.

Keywords: EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction), project design deliverables (PDD), econometrics sciences, management sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
87 Meanings and Construction: Evolution of Inheriting the Traditions in Chinese Modern Architecture in the 1980s

Authors: Wei Wang


Queli Hotel, Xixi Scenery Spot Reception and Square Pagoda Garden are three important landmarks of localized Chinese modern architecture (LCMA) in the architectural design context of "Inheriting the Traditions in Modern Architecture" in the 1980s. As the most representative cases of LCMA in the 1980s, they interpret the traditions of Chinese garden and imperial roof from different perspectives. Based on the research text, conceptual drawings, construction drawings and site investigation, this paper extracts two groups of prominent contradictions in practice ("Pattern-Material-Structure" and "Type-Topography-Body") for keyword-based analysis to compare and examine different choices and balances by architects. Based on this, this paper attempts to indicate that the ideographic form derived from macro-narrative and the innovative investigation in construction is a pair of inevitable contradictions that must be handled and coordinated in these practices. The collision of the contradictions under specific conditions results in three cognitive attitudes and practical strategies towards traditions: Formal symbolism, spatial abstraction and construction-based narrative. These differentiated thoughts about Localization and Chineseness reflect various professional ideologies and value standpoints in the transition of Chinese Architecture discipline in the 1980s. The great variety in this particular circumstance suggests tremendous potential and possibilities of the future LCMA.

Keywords: construction, meaning, Queli Hotel, square pagoda garden, tradition, Xixi scenery spot reception

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86 Use of Smartphone in Practical Classes to Facilitate Teaching and Learning of Microscopic Analysis and Interpretation of Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Krisnayne S. Ribeiro, Nicolle P. dos Santos


An unrecorded experiment of use of the smartphone as a tool for practical classes of histology is presented in this article. Behavior, learning of the students of three science courses at the University were analyzed and compared as well as the mode of teaching of this discipline and the appreciation of the students, using either digital photographs taken by phone or drawings for record microscopic observations, analyze and interpret histological sections of human or animal tissues.

Keywords: cell phone, digital micrographies, learning of sciences, teaching practices

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85 Engaging Students in Learning through Visual Demonstration Models in Engineering Education

Authors: Afsha Shaikh, Mohammed Azizur Rahman, Ibrahim Hassan, Mayur Pal


Student engagement in learning is instantly affected by the sources of learning methods available for them, such as videos showing the applications of the concept or showing a practical demonstration. Specific to the engineering discipline, there exist enormous challenging concepts that can be simplified when they are connected to real-world scenarios. For this study, the concept of heat exchangers was used as it is a part of multidisciplinary engineering fields. To make the learning experience enjoyable and impactful, 3-D printed heat exchanger models were created for students to use while working on in-class activities and assignments. Students were encouraged to use the 3-D printed heat exchanger models to enhance their understanding of theoretical concepts associated with its applications. To assess the effectiveness of the method, feedback was received by students pursuing undergraduate engineering via an anonymous electronic survey. To make the feedback more realistic, unbiased, and genuine, students spent nearly two to three weeks using the models in their in-class assignments. The impact of these tools on their learning was assessed through their performance in their ungraded assignments as well as their interactive discussions with peers. ‘Having to apply the theory learned in class whilst discussing with peers on a class assignment creates a relaxed and stress-free learning environment in classrooms’; this feedback was received by more than half the students who took the survey and found 3-D models of heat exchanger very easy to use. Amongst many ways to enhance learning and make students more engaged through interactive models, this study sheds light on the importance of physical tools that help create a lasting mental representation in the minds of students. Moreover, in this technologically enhanced era, the concept of augmented reality was considered in this research. E-drawings application was recommended to enhance the vision of engineering students so they can see multiple views of the detailed 3-D models and cut through its different sides and angles to visualize it properly. E-drawings could be the next tool to implement in classrooms to enhance students’ understanding of engineering concepts.

Keywords: student engagement, life-long-learning, visual demonstration, 3-D printed models, engineering education

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84 A Method To Assess Collaboration Using Perception of Risk from the Architectural Engineering Construction Industry

Authors: Sujesh F. Sujan, Steve W. Jones, Arto Kiviniemi


The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architectural-Engineering-Construction (AEC) industry is a form of systemic innovation. Unlike incremental innovation, (such as the technological development of CAD from hand based drawings to 2D electronically printed drawings) any form of systemic innovation in Project-Based Inter-Organisational Networks requires complete collaboration and results in numerous benefits if adopted and utilised properly. Proper use of BIM involves people collaborating with the use of interoperable BIM compliant tools. The AEC industry globally has been known for its adversarial and fragmented nature where firms take advantage of one another to increase their own profitability. Due to the industry’s nature, getting people to collaborate by unifying their goals is critical to successful BIM adoption. However, this form of innovation is often being forced artificially in the old ways of working which do not suit collaboration. This may be one of the reasons for its low global use even though the technology was developed more than 20 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to develop a metric/method to support and allow industry players to gain confidence in their investment into BIM software and workflow methods. This paper departs from defining systemic risk as a risk that affects all the project participants at a given stage of a project and defines categories of systemic risks. The need to generalise is to allow method applicability to any industry where the category will be the same, but the example of the risk will depend on the industry the study is done in. The method proposed seeks to use individual perception of an example of systemic risk as a key parameter. The significance of this study lies in relating the variance of individual perception of systemic risk to how much the team is collaborating. The method bases its notions on the claim that a more unified range of individual perceptions would mean a higher probability that the team is collaborating better. Since contracts and procurement devise how a project team operates, the method could also break the methodological barrier of highly subjective findings that case studies inflict, which has limited the possibility of generalising between global industries. Since human nature applies in all industries, the authors’ intuition is that perception can be a valuable parameter to study collaboration which is essential especially in projects that utilise systemic innovation such as BIM.

Keywords: building information modelling, perception of risk, systemic innovation, team collaboration

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83 Evaluating and Examining Pictures of Children of Five Years Old

Authors: Emine Yılmaz Bolat


Early childhood is a very important period in terms of identifying and developing early skills and abilities. It is likely that the child's development will be in the same direction in the future. This study was conducted with 26 children for the purpose of examining pictures of children of five years old. In the survey, children were asked to draw a picture with pastel dyes. The drawings were collected and evaluated by the researcher. At the end of the research, it was found that the children used the yellow color (N = 17, 16,34%) and the least gray color (N = 1, 0,96%). When the features of children's pictures are examined, the children's paintings have been found to have hierarchy, transparency, completion, the use of vivid colors, and the presence of vertical and horizontal painting lines.

Keywords: early childhood, kindergarten, pictures of children, features of pictures

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82 Undocumented Migrants on the Northern Border of Mexico: Social Imaginary, and Social Representations

Authors: César Enrique Jiménez Yañez, Yessica Martinez Soto


In the present work, the phenomenon of undocumented migration in the northern border of Mexico is analyzed through the graphic representation of the experience of people who migrate in an undocumented way to the United States. 33 of them drew what it meant for them to migrate. Our objective is to analyze the social phenomenon of migration through the drawings of migrants, using the concepts of social imaginary and social representations, identifying the different significant elements with which this symbolically builds their experience. Drawing, as a methodological tool, will help us to understand the migratory experience beyond words.

Keywords: Mexico, social imaginary, social representations, undocumented migrants

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81 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

Authors: Farshad Ghassemi Toosi, Nikola S. Nikolov


We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

Keywords: Radial drawing, Visualization, Algorithm, Use of node-link diagrams

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80 The Use of Computer-Aided Design in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea

Authors: Myunghoun Jang


A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's computer-aided design (CAD) competence. Most of small-size contractors use CAD software to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.

Keywords: CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor

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79 The Psychologist's Role in a Social Assistance Reference Center: A Case of Violence and Child Sexual Abuse in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: G. Melo, J. Felix, S. Maciel, C. Fernandes, W. Rodrigues


In Brazilian public policy, the Centres of Reference for Social Assistance (CRAS in Portuguese) are part of the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS in Portuguese). SUAS is responsible for addressing spontaneous or currently active cases that are brought forth from other services in the social assistance network. The following case was reviewed by CRAS’s team in Recife, Brazil, after a complaint of child abuse was filed against the mother of a 7-year-old girl by the girl’s aunt. The girl is the daughter of an incestuous relationship between her mother and her older brother. The complaint was registered by service staff and five interventions were subsequently carried out on behalf of the child. These interventions provided a secure place for dialogue with both the child and her family and allowed for an investigation of the abuse to proceed. They took place in the child’s school as well as her aunt’s residence. At school, the child (with her classmates) watched a video and listened to a song about the prevention of child abuse. This was followed up with a second intervention to determine any signs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), by having the child play with the mobile app ‘My Angela’. Books on the themes of family and fear were also read to the child on different occasions at her school – after every intervention she was asked to draw something related to fear and her concept of a family. After the interventions and discussing the case as a team, we reached several conclusions: 1) The child did not appear to show any symptoms of PTSD; 2) She normally fantasized about her future and life story; 3) She did not allow herself to be touched by strangers with whom she lacks a close relationship (such as classmates or her teacher); 4) Through her drawings, she reproduced the conversations she had had with the staff; 5) She habitually covered her drawings when asked questions about the abuse. In this particular clinical case, we want to highlight that the role of the Psychologist’s intervention at CRAS is to attempt to resolve the issue promptly (and not to develop a prolonged clinical study based on traditional methods), by making use of the available tools from the social assistance network, and by making referrals to the relevant authorities, such as the Public Ministry, so that final protective actions can be taken and enforced. In this case, the Guardian Council of the Brazilian Public Ministry was asked to transfer the custody of the child to her uncle. The mother of the child was sent to a CAPS (Centre for Psychosocial Care), having been diagnosed with psychopathology. The child would then participate in NGO programs that allow for a gradual reduction of social exposure to her mother before being transferred to her uncle’s custody in Sao Paulo.

Keywords: child abuse, intervention, social psychology, violence

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