Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Tokyo

56 Effectiveness of Multi-Business Core Development Policy in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

Authors: Takashi Nakamura


In the Tokyo metropolitan area, traffic congestion and long commute times are caused by overconcentration in the central area. To resolve these problems, a core business city development policy was adopted in 1988. The core business cities, which include Yokohama, Chiba, Saitama, Tachikawa, and others, have designated business facilities accumulation districts where assistance measures are applied. Focusing on Yokohama city, this study investigates the trends in the number of offices, employees, and commuters at 2001 and 2012 Economic Census, as well as the average commute time in the Tokyo metropolitan area from 2005 to 2015 Metropolitan Transportation Census. Surveys were administered in 2001 and 2012 Economic Census to participants who worked in Yokohama, according to their distribution in the city's 1,757 subregions. Four main findings emerged: (1) The number of offices increased in Yokohama when the number of offices decreased in the Tokyo metropolitan area overall. Additionally, the number of employees at Yokohama increased. (2) The number of commuters to Tokyo's central area increased from Saitama prefecture, Tokyo Tama area, and Tokyo central area. However, it decreased from other areas. (3) The average commute time in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 67.7 minutes in 2015, a slight decrease from 2005 and 2010. (4) The number of employees at business facilities accumulation districts in Yokohama city increased greatly.

Keywords: core business city development policy, commute time, number of employees, Yokohama city, distribution of employees

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55 Social Innovation, Change and the Future of Resilient Communities in Tokyo

Authors: Heide Imai


The paper will introduce and discuss specific examples of urban practices which take place within the dynamic urban landscape of contemporary Tokyo. The rising interest and importance of derelict places as resilient and creative clusters will be analysed, before relating this to the rediscovery of small urban niches and the emergence of different forms of social entrepreneurs. Secondly, two different case study areas will be introduced before discussing different forms of hybrid lifestyles, social micro scale enterprises and social innovations, understanding the concept of ‘small places of resilience’ as zones of human interaction, desire and care in which spontaneous practices take place.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, social innovation, Tokyo, urban regeneration

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54 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson


Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: citizen participation, smart cities, urban governance, Singapore, Tokyo

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53 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind: Applying to the part of the Tokyo Subway Map

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa


This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: color-blind, JPEG, monochrome image, denoise

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52 Tokyo Skyscrapers: Technologically Advanced Structures in Seismic Areas

Authors: J. Szolomicki, H. Golasz-Szolomicka


The architectural and structural analysis of selected high-rise buildings in Tokyo is presented in this paper. The capital of Japan is the most densely populated city in the world and moreover is located in one of the most active seismic zones. The combination of these factors has resulted in the creation of sophisticated designs and innovative engineering solutions, especially in the field of design and construction of high-rise buildings. The foreign architectural studios (as, for Jean Nouvel, Kohn Pedesen Associates, Skidmore, Owings & Merill) which specialize in the designing of skyscrapers, played a major role in the development of technological ideas and architectural forms for such extraordinary engineering structures. Among the projects completed by them, there are examples of high-rise buildings that set precedents for future development. An essential aspect which influences the design of high-rise buildings is the necessity to take into consideration their dynamic reaction to earthquakes and counteracting wind vortices. The need to control motions of these buildings, induced by the force coming from earthquakes and wind, led to the development of various methods and devices for dissipating energy which occur during such phenomena. Currently, Japan is a global leader in seismic technologies which safeguard seismic influence on high-rise structures. Due to these achievements the most modern skyscrapers in Tokyo are able to withstand earthquakes with a magnitude of over seven degrees at the Richter scale. Damping devices applied are of a passive, which do not require additional power supply or active one which suppresses the reaction with the input of extra energy. In recent years also hybrid dampers were used, with an additional active element to improve the efficiency of passive damping.

Keywords: core structures, damping system, high-rise building, seismic zone

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51 [Keynote Talk]: Study of Cooperative Career Education between Universities and Companies

Authors: Azusa Katsumata


Where there is collaboration between universities and companies in the educational context, companies seek ‘knowledge’ from universities and provide a ‘place of practice’ to them. Several universities have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered Tokyo Tourism, a Project-Based Learning course, as a first-year career education course until 2016. In cooperation with a travel agency, students participate in planning actual tourism products for foreigners visiting Japan, undertake tours serving as guides. This paper aims to study the 'learning platform' created by a series of processes such as the fieldwork, planning tours, the presentation, selling the tourism products, and guiding the tourists. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of work-related skills in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students demonstrated an increased desire to be pro-active and an improved motivation to learn. Students have not, however, acquired policy or business skills. This is appropriate for first-year careers education, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. In the questionnaire filled out by the students after the class, the following results were found. Planning and implementing travel products while learning from each other, and helping the teams has led to improvements in the student workforce. This course is a collaborative project between Japanese universities and the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic Games committee.

Keywords: university career education, platform of learning, project-based learning, collaboration between university and company

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50 Eco-Friendly Electricity Production from the Waste Heat of Air Conditioners

Authors: Anvesh Rajak


This is a new innovation that can be developed. Here I am going to use the waste heat of air conditioner so as to produce the electricity by using the Stirling engine because this waste heat creates the thermal pollution in the environment. The waste heat from the air conditioners has caused a temperature rise of 1°–2°C or more on weekdays in the Tokyo office areas. This heating promotes the heat-island phenomenon in Tokyo on weekdays. Now these air conditioners creates the thermal pollution in the environment and hence rising the temperature of the environment. Air conditioner generally emit the waste heat air whose temperature is about 50°C which heat the environment. Today the demand of energy is increasing tremendously, but available energy lacks in supply. Hence, there is no option for proper and efficient utilization and conservation of energy. In this paper the main stress is given on energy conservation by using technique of utilizing waste heat from Air-conditioning system. Actually the focus is on the use of the waste heat rather than improving the COP of the air- conditioners; if also we improve the COP of air conditioners gradually it would emit some waste heat so I want that waste heat to be used up. As I have used air conditioner’s waste heat to produce electricity so similarly there are various other appliances which emit the waste heat in the surrounding so here also we could use the Stirling engines and Geothermal heat pump concept to produce the electricity and hence can reduce the thermal pollution in the environment.

Keywords: stirling engine, geothermal heat pumps, waste heat, air conditioners

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49 A Discussion on Urban Planning Methods after Globalization within the Context of Anticipatory Systems

Authors: Ceylan Sozer, Ece Ceylan Baba


The reforms and changes that began with industrialization in cities and continued with globalization in 1980’s, created many changes in urban environments. City centers which are desolated due to industrialization, began to get crowded with globalization and became the heart of technology, commerce and social activities. While the immediate and intense alterations are planned around rigorous visions in developed countries, several urban areas where the processes were underestimated and not taken precaution faced with irrevocable situations. When the effects of the globalization in the cities are examined, it is seen that there are some anticipatory system plans in the cities about the future problems. Several cities such as New York, London and Tokyo have planned to resolve probable future problems in a systematic scheme to decrease possible side effects during globalization. The decisions in urban planning and their applications are the main points in terms of sustainability and livability in such mega-cities. This article examines the effects of globalization on urban planning through 3 mega cities and the applications. When the applications of urban plannings of the three mega-cities are investigated, it is seen that the city plans are generated under light of past experiences and predictions of a certain future. In urban planning, past and present experiences of a city should have been examined and then future projections could be predicted together with current world dynamics by a systematic way. In this study, methods used in urban planning will be discussed and ‘Anticipatory System’ model will be explained and relations with global-urban planning will be discussed. The concept of ‘anticipation’ is a phenomenon that means creating foresights and predictions about the future by combining past, present and future within an action plan. The main distinctive feature that separates anticipatory systems from other systems is the combination of past, present and future and concluding with an act. Urban plans that consist of various parameters and interactions together are identified as ‘live’ and they have systematic integrities. Urban planning with an anticipatory system might be alive and can foresight some ‘side effects’ in design processes. After globalization, cities became more complex and should be designed within an anticipatory system model. These cities can be more livable and can have sustainable urban conditions for today and future.In this study, urban planning of Istanbul city is going to be analyzed with comparisons of New York, Tokyo and London city plans in terms of anticipatory system models. The lack of a system in İstanbul and its side effects will be discussed. When past and present actions in urban planning are approached through an anticipatory system, it can give more accurate and sustainable results in the future.

Keywords: globalization, urban planning, anticipatory system, New York, London, Tokyo, Istanbul

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48 Meiji Centennial as a Media Event: Ideas for Upcoming Turkish Republic Centennial

Authors: Hasan Topacoglu


The Meiji Restoration was a chain of events that restored Japan in 1868 and considered as the beginning of Japanese Modernization by many scholars. In 1968, to honor its modern incarnation, Japan celebrated Meiji Centennial as one of the biggest Media Events in the country after the World War II. It was celebrated all around the country throughout the year following with a central event in Tokyo. Meanwhile, Japanese scholars started an opposition movement and claimed that Government was using this event to raise nationalism, pointing at Government’s statement on the meaning of Meiji. Most of the scholars, unfortunately, were hooked into the ideological problem of the Government’s way of planning and evaluated it as a failure. However, scholars missed out an important point that apart from the central event in Tokyo, each city planned its own event and celebrated it on a different date, also with a different theme. For example, Kyoto showed a regional characteristic and focused on Kyoto’s own culture, tradition etc., and highlighted a further past than 100 years. This was mainly because some areas/cities had a different ‘memory’ for Meiji Restoration than Tokyo which was reflected through the way they celebrated Meiji Centennial. On the other hand, 2023 will be the year of Turkish Republic Centennial. A year which will be marked by national and maybe even international events. Although an official committee has not been announced yet, The 2023 Vision, a list of goals has been released by the Government to coincide with the centenary of the Republic of Turkey in 2023 and there are some ongoing projects that are planned to be completed by then. By looking at the content of these projects, it is possible to say that Government is aiming to focus on Modernization through the Centennial. However, some of the projects are already showing some interesting characteristics such as the Istanbul New Airport whose design is inspired by Selimiye Mosque’s Islamic-Ottoman figure. It is true that Turkey and Japan have different historical backgrounds and the timeline of the Meiji Restoration and Foundation of Turkish Republic are different. Therefore, a particular comparison between these two events is not justified. However, they may have more in common than we are up to think because, each country marked the start of a new nation conceived on modern principles. For that reason, it is important to understand the similarities or differences between Meiji Centennial and Turkish Republic Centennial as a media event. This study introduces Meiji Centennial as a media event and analyses opposition movement along with the meaning of Meiji Centennial. Additionally, it explains regional characteristic differences and gives Kyoto as an example. Moreover, it introduces some of the ongoing Centennial projects in Turkey and analyses the meaning of the Turkish Republic Centennial through these projects. Without comparing Japan and Turkey, it explains the case of Japan but the discussion centers on deepening our understanding of Centennial as a Media Event and remarks some important aspects for Turkey’s upcoming Centennial events.

Keywords: media events, Meiji centennial, the 2023 vision, Turkish republic centennial

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47 Between the House and the City: An Investigation of the Structure of the Family/Society and the Role of the Public Housing in Tokyo and Berlin

Authors: Abudjana Babiker


The middle of twenty century witnessed an explosion in public housing. After the great depression, some of the capitalists and communist countries have launched policies and programs to produce public housing in the urban areas. Concurrently, modernity was the leading architecture style at the time excessively supported the production, and principally was the instrument for the success of the public housing program due to the modernism manifesto for manufactured architecture as an international style that serves the society and parallelly connect it to the other design industries which allowed for the production of the architecture elements. After the second world war, public housing flourished, especially in communist’s countries. The idea of public housing was conceived as living spaces at the time, while the Workplaces performed as the place for production and labor. Michel Foucault - At the end of the twenty century- the introduction of biopolitics has had highlighted the alteration in the production and labor inter-function. The house does not precisely perform as the sanctuary, from the production, for the family, it opens the house to be -part of the city as- a space for production, not only to produce objects but to reproduce the family as a total part of the production mechanism in the city. While the public housing kept altering from one country to another after the failure of the modernist’s public housing in the late 1970s, the society continued changing parallelly with the socio-economic condition in each political-economical system, and the public housing thus followed. The family structure in the major cities has been dramatically changing, single parenting and the long working hours, for instance, have been escalating the loneliness in the major cities such as London, Berlin, and Tokyo and the public housing for the families is no longer suits the single lifestyle for the individuals. This Paper investigates the performance of both the single/individual lifestyle and the family/society structure in Tokyo and Berlin in a relation to the utilization of public housing under economical policies and the socio-political environment that produced the individuals and the collective. The study is carried through the study of the undercurrent individual/society and case studies to examine the performance of the utilization of the housing. The major finding is that the individual/collective are revolving around the city; the city identified and acts as a system that magnetized and blurred the line between production and reproduction lifestyle. The mass public housing for families is shifting to be a combination between neo-liberalism and socialism housing.

Keywords: loneliness, production reproduction, work live, publichousing

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46 The Role of Japan's Land-Use Planning in Farmland Conservation: A Statistical Study of Tokyo Metropolitan District

Authors: Ruiyi Zhang, Wanglin Yan


Strict land-use plan is issued based on city planning act for controlling urbanization and conserving semi-natural landscape. And the agrarian land resource in the suburbs has indispensable socio-economic value and contributes to the sustainability of the regional environment. However, the agrarian hinterland of metropolitan is witnessing severe farmland conversion and abandonment, while the contribution of land-use planning to farmland conservation remains unclear in those areas. Hypothetically, current land-use plan contributes to farmland loss. So, this research investigated the relationship between farmland loss and land-use planning at municipality level to provide base data for zoning in the metropolitan suburbs, and help to develop a sustainable land-use plan that will conserve the agrarian hinterland. As data and methods, 1) Farmland data of Census of Agriculture and Forestry for 2005 to 2015 and population data of 2015 and 2018 were used to investigate spatial distribution feathers of farmland loss in Tokyo Metropolitan District (TMD) for two periods: 2005-2010;2010-2015. 2) And the samples were divided by four urbanization facts. 3) DID data and zoning data for 2006 to 2018 were used to specify urbanization level of zones for describing land-use plan. 4) Then we conducted multiple regression between farmland loss, both abandonment and conversion amounts, and the described land-use plan in each of the urbanization scenario and in each period. As the results, the study reveals land-use plan has unignorable relation with farmland loss in the metropolitan suburbs at ward-city-town-village level. 1) The urban promotion areas planned larger than necessity and unregulated urbanization promote both farmland conversion and abandonment, and the effect weakens from inner suburbs to outer suburbs. 2) And the effect of land-use plan on farmland abandonment is more obvious than that on farmland conversion. The study advocates that, optimizing land-use plan will hopefully help the farmland conservation in metropolitan suburbs, which contributes to sustainable regional policy making.

Keywords: Agrarian land resource, land-use planning, urbanization level, multiple regression

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45 Analyzing Students’ Preferences for Academic Advising: Cases of Two Institutions in Greater Tokyo in Japan

Authors: Megumi Yamasaki, Eiko Shimizu


The term academic advisor system first appeared in 2012 in Japan. After ten years, it is not yet functioning. One of Japanese college students’ characteristics is that they choose an institution but may not be interested in a major and want to earn a degree for a career. When the university encourages students to develop competencies as well as students to set personal goals during college life, it is critical to support students develop self-directed attitudes and advocacy skills. This paper will analyze the students’ current stage and how academic advising supports their development.

Keywords: academic advising, student development, self-directed, self-advocacy

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44 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan's Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng-Wei Hsu


Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Taiwanese traditional music, piano performance research, Kuo Chih-Yuan, fugue, variations

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43 Current Status of Nitrogen Saturation in the Upper Reaches of the Kanna River, Japan

Authors: Sakura Yoshii, Masakazu Abe, Akihiro Iijima


Nitrogen saturation has become one of the serious issues in the field of forest environment. The watershed protection forests located in the downwind hinterland of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are believed to be facing nitrogen saturation. In this study, we carefully focus on the balance of nitrogen between load and runoff. Annual nitrogen load via atmospheric deposition was estimated to 461.1 t-N/year in the upper reaches of the Kanna River. Annual nitrogen runoff to the forested headwater stream of the Kanna River was determined to 184.9 t-N/year, corresponding to 40.1% of the total nitrogen load. Clear seasonal change in NO3-N concentration was still observed. Therefore, watershed protection forest of the Kanna River is most likely to be in Stage-1 on the status of nitrogen saturation.

Keywords: atmospheric deposition, nitrogen accumulation, denitrification, forest ecosystems

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42 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida


The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

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41 Significant Growth in Expected Muslim Inbound Tourists in Japan Towards 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Still Incipient Stage of Current Halal Implementations in Hiroshima

Authors: Kyoko Monden


Tourism has moved to the forefront of national attention in Japan since September of 2013 when Tokyo won its bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. The number of foreign tourists has continued to break records, reaching 13.4 million in 2014, and is now expected to hit 20 million sooner than initially targeted 2020 due to government stimulus promotions; an increase in low cost carriers; the weakening of the Japanese yen, and strong economic growth in Asia. The tourism industry can be an effective trigger in Japan’s economic recovery as foreign tourists spent two trillion yen ($16.6 million) in Japan in 2014. In addition, 81% of them were all from Asian countries, and it is essential to know that 68.9% of the world’s Muslims, about a billion people, live in South and Southeast Asia. An important question is ‘Do Muslim tourists feel comfortable traveling in Japan?’ This research was initiated by an encounter with Muslim visitors in Hiroshima, a popular international tourist destination, who said they had found very few suitable restaurants in Hiroshima. The purpose of this research is to examine halal implementation in Hiroshima and suggest the next steps to be taken to improve current efforts. The goal will be to provide anyone, Muslims included, with first class hospitality in the near future in preparation for the massive influx of foreign tourists in 2020. The methods of this research were questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, phone interviews, and internet research. First, this research aims to address the significance of growing inbound tourism in Japan, especially the expected growth in Muslim tourists. Additionally, it should address the strong popularity of eating Japanese foods in Asian Muslim countries and as ranked no. 1 thing foreign tourists want to do in Japan. Secondly, the current incipient stage of Hiroshima’s halal implementation at hotels, restaurants, and major public places were exposed, and the existing action plans by Hiroshima Prefecture Government were presented. Furthermore, two surveys were conducted to clarify basic halal awareness of local residents in Hiroshima, and to gauge the inconveniences Muslims living in Hiroshima faced. Thirdly, the reasons for this lapse were observed and compared to the benchmarking data of other major tourist sites, Hiroshima’s halal implementation plans were proposed. The conclusion is, despite increasing demands and interests in halal-friendly businesses, overall halal actions have barely been applied in Hiroshima. 76% of Hiroshima residents had no idea what halal or halaal meant. It is essential to increase halal awareness and its importance to the economy and to launch further actions to make Muslim tourists feel welcome in Hiroshima and the entire country.

Keywords: halaal, halal implementation, Hiroshima, inbound tourists in Japan

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40 Automated Evaluation Approach for Time-Dependent Question Answering Pairs on Web Crawler Based Question Answering System

Authors: Shraddha Chaudhary, Raksha Agarwal, Niladri Chatterjee


This work demonstrates a web crawler-based generalized end-to-end open domain Question Answering (QA) system. An efficient QA system requires a significant amount of domain knowledge to answer any question with the aim to find an exact and correct answer in the form of a number, a noun, a short phrase, or a brief piece of text for the user's questions. Analysis of the question, searching the relevant document, and choosing an answer are three important steps in a QA system. This work uses a web scraper (Beautiful Soup) to extract K-documents from the web. The value of K can be calibrated on the basis of a trade-off between time and accuracy. This is followed by a passage ranking process using the MS-Marco dataset trained on 500K queries to extract the most relevant text passage, to shorten the lengthy documents. Further, a QA system is used to extract the answers from the shortened documents based on the query and return the top 3 answers. For evaluation of such systems, accuracy is judged by the exact match between predicted answers and gold answers. But automatic evaluation methods fail due to the linguistic ambiguities inherent in the questions. Moreover, reference answers are often not exhaustive or are out of date. Hence correct answers predicted by the system are often judged incorrect according to the automated metrics. One such scenario arises from the original Google Natural Question (GNQ) dataset which was collected and made available in the year 2016. Use of any such dataset proves to be inefficient with respect to any questions that have time-varying answers. For illustration, if the query is where will be the next Olympics? Gold Answer for the above query as given in the GNQ dataset is “Tokyo”. Since the dataset was collected in the year 2016, and the next Olympics after 2016 were in 2020 that was in Tokyo which is absolutely correct. But if the same question is asked in 2022 then the answer is “Paris, 2024”. Consequently, any evaluation based on the GNQ dataset will be incorrect. Such erroneous predictions are usually given to human evaluators for further validation which is quite expensive and time-consuming. To address this erroneous evaluation, the present work proposes an automated approach for evaluating time-dependent question-answer pairs. In particular, it proposes a metric using the current timestamp along with top-n predicted answers from a given QA system. To test the proposed approach GNQ dataset has been used and the system achieved an accuracy of 78% for a test dataset comprising 100 QA pairs. This test data was automatically extracted using an analysis-based approach from 10K QA pairs of the GNQ dataset. The results obtained are encouraging. The proposed technique appears to have the possibility of developing into a useful scheme for gathering precise, reliable, and specific information in a real-time and efficient manner. Our subsequent experiments will be guided towards establishing the efficacy of the above system for a larger set of time-dependent QA pairs.

Keywords: web-based information retrieval, open domain question answering system, time-varying QA, QA evaluation

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39 Focus on the Bactericidal Efficacies of Alkaline Agents in Solid and the Required Time for Bacterial Inactivation

Authors: Hakimullah Hakim, Chiharu Toyofuku, Mari Ota, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Masashi Yamada, Md. Shahin Alam, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara


Disinfectants and their application are essential part of infection control strategies and enhancement of biosecurity at farms, worldwide. Alkaline agents are well known for their strong and long term antimicrobial capacities and most frequently are applied at farms for control and prevention of biological hazards. However, inadequate information regarding such materials’ capacities to inactivate pathogens and their improper applications fail farmers to achieve the mentioned goal. Thus, this requires attention to further evaluate their efficacies, under different conditions and in different ways. Here in this study we evaluated bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade of calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) powder derived from natural calcium carbonates obtained from limestone (Fine Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and bioceramic powder (BCX) derived from chicken feces at pH 13 (NMG environmental development Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), for their efficacies to inactivate bacteria in feces. [Materials & Methods] Chicken feces were inoculated by 100 µl Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in falcon tubes, individually, then FdCa(OH)2 or BCX powders were individually added to make final concentration of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) in total weight of 0.5g, followed by properly mixing and incubating at room temperature for certain periods of time, in a dark place. Afterwards, 10 ml 1M Tris-HCl (pH 7.2) was added onto them to reduce their pH, in order to stop powders’ activities and to harvest the remained viable bacteria, whereas using normal medium or dW2 to recover bacteria increases the mixture pH, and as a result bacteria would be inactivated soon; therefore, the latter practice brings about incorrect and misleading results. Samples were then inoculated on DHL agar plates in order to calculate colony forming units (CFU)/ml of viable bacteria. [Results and Discussion] FdCa(OH)2 powder at 10% and 5% required 3 hr and 6 hr exposure times, respectively, while BCX powder at 20% concentrations required 6 hr exposure time to kill the mentioned bacteria in feces down to lower than detectable level (≤ 3.6 log10 CFU/ml). This study confirmed capacities of FdCa(OH)2 and BCX powders to inactivate bacteria in feces, and both materials are environment friendly materials, with no risk to human or animal’s health. This finding helps farmers to properly apply alkaline agents in appropriate concentrations and exposure times in their farms, in order to prevent and control infectious diseases outbreaks and to enhance biosecurity. Finally, this finding may help farmers to implement better strategies for infections control in their livestock farms.

Keywords: bacterial inactivation, bioceramic, biosecurity at livestock farms, chicken feces

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38 Evaluating the Business Improvement District Redevelopment Model: An Ethnography of a Tokyo Shopping Mall

Authors: Stefan Fuchs


Against the backdrop of the proliferation of shopping malls in Japan during the last two decades, this paper presents the results of an ethnography conducted at a recently built suburban shopping mall in Western Tokyo. Through the analysis of the lived experiences of local residents, mall customers and the mall management this paper evaluates the benefits and disadvantages of the Business Improvement District (BID) model, which was implemented as urban redevelopment strategy in the area surrounding the shopping mall. The results of this research project show that while the BID model has in some respects contributed to the economic prosperity and to the perceived convenience of the area, it has led to gentrification and the redevelopment shows some deficiencies with regard to the inclusion of the elderly population as well as to the democratization of the decision-making process within the area. In Japan, shopping malls have been steadily growing both in size and number since a series of deregulation policies was introduced in the year 2000 in an attempt to push the domestic economy and to rejuvenate urban landscapes. Shopping malls have thereby become defining spaces of the built environment and are arguably important places of social interaction. Notwithstanding the vital role they play as factors of urban transformation, they have been somewhat overlooked in the research on Japan; especially with respect to their meaning for people’s everyday lives. By examining the ways, people make use of space in a shopping mall the research project presented in this paper addresses this gap in the research. Moreover, the research site of this research project is one of the few BIDs of Japan and the results presented in this paper can give indication on the scope of the future applicability of this urban redevelopment model. The data presented in this research was collected during a nine-months ethnographic fieldwork in and around the shopping mall. This ethnography includes semi-structured interviews with ten key informants as well as direct and participant observations examining the lived experiences and perceptions of people living, shopping or working at the shopping mall. The analysis of the collected data focused on recurring themes aiming at ultimately capturing different perspectives on the same aspects. In this manner, the research project documents the social agency of different groups within one communal network. The analysis of the perceptions towards the urban redevelopment around the shopping mall has shown that mainly the mall customers and large businesses benefit from the BID redevelopment model. While local residents benefit to some extent from their neighbourhood becoming more convenient for shopping they perceive themselves as being disadvantaged by changing demographics due to rising living expenses, the general noise level and the prioritisation of a certain customer segment or age group at the shopping mall. Although the shopping mall examined in this research project is just an example, the findings suggest that in future urban redevelopment politics have to provide incentives for landowners and developing companies to think of other ways of transforming underdeveloped areas.

Keywords: business improvement district, ethnography, shopping mall, urban redevelopment

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37 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita


This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project

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36 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač


The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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35 Shield Tunnel Excavation Simulation of a Case Study Using a So-Called 'Stress Relaxation' Method

Authors: Shengwei Zhu, Alireza Afshani, Hirokazu Akagi


Ground surface settlement induced by shield tunneling is addressing increasing attention as shield tunneling becomes a popular construction technique for tunnels in urban areas. This paper discusses a 2D longitudinal FEM simulation of a tunneling case study in Japan (Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line). Tunneling-induced field data was already collected and is used here for comparison and evaluating purposes. In this model, earth pressure, face pressure, backfilling grouting, elastic tunnel lining, and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soil elements are considered. A method called ‘stress relaxation’ is also exploited to simulate the gradual tunneling excavation. Ground surface settlements obtained from numerical results using the introduced method are then compared with the measurement data.

Keywords: 2D longitudinal FEM model, tunneling case study, stress relaxation, shield tunneling excavation

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34 The Filipino Catholics in Japan: Traces and Cues of De/Ghettoization

Authors: Willard Enrique R. Macaraan


Filipino Catholics' historicized narrative in the Church of Japan is found to be marked by contestation and negotiation. This paper aims to uncover the nuances of this marginality by utilizing Loic Wacquant's theorization of urban ghettos as well as Pierre Bourdieu's field ideation. In an attempt to illustrate the dynamics of the power-play that is implicit in any situation of marginality, the paper proposes a 'diamond-quadrant' (DQ) plane that may serve as a heuristic device for analytical purposes. This study is drawn from data collected and gathered through ten-month field research in selected church communities in the Archdiocese of Tokyo, Japan employing qualitative methodologies like participant observation, interviews, and document reviews. Reconstructing their historicized struggle since the late 70s, it is discovered that the arena of contested space has shifted from the right plane of "ghettoization" tendencies in the early years towards the left plane of "deghettoization" strategies in recent years. Still, a highly negotiated space, several situational factors, and emerging trends in and outside the ecclesial grounds have led to this major shift.

Keywords: Wacquant, ghetto, migration, religion

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33 Integration of Ukrainian Refugee Athletes into the Olympic Channel of Their Neighboring Countries

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste


It is a matter of common knowledge the fact that the International Olympic Movement is characterized by dynamism and adaptability to the challenges of modern society. A significant proof of this is the establishment of the IOC Refugee Olympic Team in 2016, at the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, a practice continued in Tokyo in 2020 and with a great chance to be successfully repeated in subsequent editions: Paris 2024 and Dakar 2026. This phenomenon is all the more welcome as, after the global refugee crisis of 2015, when the whole world has seen millions of people in the world displaced, we are now experiencing the negative effects of the war that started in February 2022 in Ukraine; which caused the exodus of the population to neighboring countries. Therefore, the international Olympic community must decide how to integrate Ukrainian athletes with refugee status into the Olympic system. Until the establishment of an internationally agreed policy, Romania and the Republic of Moldova, as countries directly involved in this process, must find urgent solutions to allow athletes to continue their Olympic careers. This article proposes a description of the strategies adopted both at the national level and at the level of sports clubs and an analysis of their impact on the performance of athletes.

Keywords: olympic movement, olympic games, refugees, performance, integration

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32 CLOUD Japan: Prospective Multi-Hospital Study to Determine the Population-Based Incidence of Hospitalized Clostridium difficile Infections

Authors: Kazuhiro Tateda, Elisa Gonzalez, Shuhei Ito, Kirstin Heinrich, Kevin Sweetland, Pingping Zhang, Catia Ferreira, Michael Pride, Jennifer Moisi, Sharon Gray, Bennett Lee, Fred Angulo


Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and infectious diarrhea in healthcare settings. Japan has an aging population; the elderly are at increased risk of hospitalization, antibiotic use, and C. difficile infection (CDI). Little is known about the population-based incidence and disease burden of CDI in Japan although limited hospital-based studies have reported a lower incidence than the United States. To understand CDI disease burden in Japan, CLOUD (Clostridium difficile Infection Burden of Disease in Adults in Japan) was developed. CLOUD will derive population-based incidence estimates of the number of CDI cases per 100,000 population per year in Ota-ku (population 723,341), one of the districts in Tokyo, Japan. CLOUD will include approximately 14 of the 28 Ota-ku hospitals including Toho University Hospital, which is a 1,000 bed tertiary care teaching hospital. During the 12-month patient enrollment period, which is scheduled to begin in November 2018, Ota-ku residents > 50 years of age who are hospitalized at a participating hospital with diarrhea ( > 3 unformed stools (Bristol Stool Chart 5-7) in 24 hours) will be actively ascertained, consented, and enrolled by study surveillance staff. A stool specimen will be collected from enrolled patients and tested at a local reference laboratory (LSI Medience, Tokyo) using QUIK CHEK COMPLETE® (Abbott Laboratories). which simultaneously tests specimens for the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and C. difficile toxins A and B. A frozen stool specimen will also be sent to the Pfizer Laboratory (Pearl River, United States) for analysis using a two-step diagnostic testing algorithm that is based on detection of C. difficile strains/spores harboring toxin B gene by PCR followed by detection of free toxins (A and B) using a proprietary cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) developed by Pfizer. Positive specimens will be anaerobically cultured, and C. difficile isolates will be characterized by ribotyping and whole genomic sequencing. CDI patients enrolled in CLOUD will be contacted weekly for 90 days following diarrhea onset to describe clinical outcomes including recurrence, reinfection, and mortality, and patient reported economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes (e.g., health-related quality of life, worsening of comorbidities, and patient and caregiver work absenteeism). Studies will also be undertaken to fully characterize the catchment area to enable population-based estimates. The 12-month active ascertainment of CDI cases among hospitalized Ota-ku residents with diarrhea in CLOUD, and the characterization of the Ota-ku catchment area, including estimation of the proportion of all hospitalizations of Ota-ku residents that occur in the CLOUD-participating hospitals, will yield CDI population-based incidence estimates, which can be stratified by age groups, risk groups, and source (hospital-acquired or community-acquired). These incidence estimates will be extrapolated, following age standardization using national census data, to yield CDI disease burden estimates for Japan. CLOUD also serves as a model for studies in other countries that can use the CLOUD protocol to estimate CDI disease burden.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, disease burden, epidemiology, study protocol

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31 One-Shot Text Classification with Multilingual-BERT

Authors: Hsin-Yang Wang, K. M. A. Salam, Ying-Jia Lin, Daniel Tan, Tzu-Hsuan Chou, Hung-Yu Kao


Detecting user intent from natural language expression has a wide variety of use cases in different natural language processing applications. Recently few-shot training has a spike of usage on commercial domains. Due to the lack of significant sample features, the downstream task performance has been limited or leads to an unstable result across different domains. As a state-of-the-art method, the pre-trained BERT model gathering the sentence-level information from a large text corpus shows improvement on several NLP benchmarks. In this research, we are proposing a method to change multi-class classification tasks into binary classification tasks, then use the confidence score to rank the results. As a language model, BERT performs well on sequence data. In our experiment, we change the objective from predicting labels into finding the relations between words in sequence data. Our proposed method achieved 71.0% accuracy in the internal intent detection dataset and 63.9% accuracy in the HuffPost dataset. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by NCKU-B109-K003, which is the collaboration between National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, and SoftBank Corp., Tokyo.

Keywords: OSML, BERT, text classification, one shot

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30 Characteristics of Regional Issues in Local Municipalities of Japan in Consideration of Socio-Economic Condition

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo


We are facing serious problems related to a long-term depopulation and an aging society with a falling birth rate in Japan. In this situation, we are suffering from a shortfall in human resources as well as a shortage of workforce in rural regions. In addition, we are struggling with a protracted economic slump and excess concentration of population in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. It is an urgent national issue to consider how to live in this country and what kind of structure of society and administration policy is needed. It is necessary to clarify people’s desire for their way of living and social assistance to be provided. The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of regional issues and the degree of their seriousness in local municipalities of Japan. We conducted a questionnaire survey about regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the degree of seriousness of regional issues and degree of importance of policies. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that many local municipalities are facing an aging population and declining population. We constructed a model to analyze factors for declining population. Using the model, it was clarified that a population’s age structure, job opportunities, and income level affect the decline of population. In addition, we showed the way of the evaluation of the state of a local municipality.

Keywords: evaluation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue

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29 The Phonology and Phonetics of Second Language Intonation in Case of “Downstep”

Authors: Tayebeh Norouzi


This study aims to investigate the acquisition process of intonation. It examines the intonation structure of Tokyo Japanese and its realization by Iranian learners of Japanese. Seven Iranian learners of Japanese, differing in fluency, and two Japanese speakers participated in the experiment. Two sentences were used to test the phonological and phonetic characteristics of lexical pitch-accent as well as the intonation patterns produced by the speakers. Both sentences consisted of similar words with the same number of syllables and lexical pitch-accents but different syntactic structure. Speakers were asked to read each sentence three times at normal speed, and the data were analyzed by Praat. The results show that lexical pitch-accent, Accentual Phrase (AP) and AP boundary tone realization vary depending on sentence type. For sentences of type XdeYwo, the lexical pitch-accent is realized properly. However, there is a rise in AP boundary tone regardless of speakers’ level of fluency. In contrast, in sentences of type XnoYwo, the lexical pitch-accent and AP boundary tone vary depending on the speakers’ fluency level. Advanced speakers are better at grouping words into phrases and produce more native-like intonation patterns, though they are not able to realize downstep properly. The non-native speakers tried to realize proper intonation patterns by making changes in lexical accent and boundary tone.

Keywords: intonation, Iranian learners, Japanese prosody, lexical accent, second language acquisition.

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28 Architectural Design Strategies: Enhance Train Station Performance as the Catalyst of Transit Oriented Development in Jakarta, Case Study of Beos Commuter Line Station

Authors: Shinta Ardiana Sari, Dini Puti Angelia


A high number of urban population in Jakarta has been a substantial issue for mobility strategy. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) becomes one of the strategies to improve community livability based on the design of transit place and the system of its context. TOD principle is trying to win over pedestrian motorization habit, makes people would rather transit and travel more than using private vehicle. Train station takes the main role as the catalyst to emerge TOD, in Jakarta this role will be taken by Commuter line and the future MRT. For advancing its development, architectural design perspective is needed to perform evaluation while seeking for the strategies between accessibility transportation modes with convenience and safety for increasing human behavioral intention. This paper discovers design strategy for transit place that appropriates with Jakarta condition use the basic theories of liminal space and transit-oriented development goal. This paper use evidence-based approach with typology method to analyze the present condition of Commuter Line station in Jakarta and precedent of Asian Cities, Tokyo and Seoul, as the secondary sources, and also with numbers of valid questionnaires. Furthermore, the result of this paper aims to the emerging of a transit-oriented community by giving design requirements and suggestion transportation policies preparing for the operational of MRT in the future Jakarta and other similar cities.

Keywords: station design, transit place, transit-oriented development, urban

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27 [Keynote Talk] The Practices and Issues of Career Education: Focusing on Career Development Course on Various Problems of Society

Authors: Azusa Katsumata


Several universities in Japan have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered excursion focusing Various Problems of Society, as second year career education course, Students will learn about contraception, infertility, homeless people, LGBT, and they will discuss based on the excursion. This paper aims to study the ‘learning platform’ created by a series of processes such as the excursion, the discussion, and the presentation. In this course, students looked back on their lives and imagined the future in concrete terms, performing tasks in groups. The students came across a range of values through lectures and conversations, thereby developing feelings of self-efficacy. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of career in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students respected diversity and understood the importance of uncertainty and discontinuity. Whereas the students developed career awareness, they actually did not come across that scene and would do so only in the future when it became necessary. In this class, students consciously considered social problems, but did not develop the practical skills necessary to deal with these. This is appropriate for one of project, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. University constitutes only a single period in life-long career formation. Thus, further research may be indicated to determine whether the positive effects of career education at university continue to contribute to individual careers going forward.

Keywords: career education of university, excursion, learning platform, problems of society

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