Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Anatolia

50 Representation of the Kurdish Opposition: From Periphery to Center

Authors: Songul Miftakhov

Abstract:

This study explores political representation and engagement of Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia regions, known to have dense Kurdish population and referred further to as Eastern region, in the Turkish parliament between 1946 and 1980. Traditional local notables had most of the privileges to be represented given their connectedness with political parties. Traditional local notables integrated into right-wing parties considering political and economic aspects. At the same time, they kept control over local political involvement channels. As a result, political representation and presence were monopolized at central, local and civil society levels. One part of Kurdish intellectuals was marginalized from the parliament after addressing issues in Eastern Anatolia and trying to develop solutions apart from the mainstream. Some of them took part in Kurdish oppositional left wing in the 1960s and jounced power of settled notables in 1970s in local administrations or as independent members of the parliament.

Keywords: Kurdish representation, parliament, local nobles, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia

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49 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli

Abstract:

Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

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48 The Evaluation of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Materials Collected from Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey

Authors: M. Kubilay Önal

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the adaptabilities of native apricot materials collected from Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey to Aegean Region conditions. Different phenological and pomological characteristics of the cultivars were observed during study. Determination of promising types for adaptation trials were performed employing the 'weighed-ranking' method. To determine them the relative points were given to the characteristics such as yield, average fruit weight, attractiveness, soluble solid, seed ratio by weight and aroma. As a result of two-year evaluation studies on the phenological and pomological characteristics of 22 types, 9 out of them, viz., nos. 2235, 2236, 2237, 2239, 2242, 2244, 2246, 2249, 2257 were selected as promising ones.

Keywords: apricot, phenological characters, pomological characters, weight-ranking method

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47 Evaluation of Traditional Housing Texture in Context of Sustainability

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

Sustainability is a term that provides deciding about the future considering environment and investigates the harmony and balance between protection and usage of the resource. The main objective of sustainability is creating residential areas is nature compatible or providing continuance thereby adapting existing residential area to nature. In this context, historical and traditional areas must have utilized according to sustainability. Traditional housing texture are identified as a traditional architectural product has been designed based on this term. General characteristics of traditional housing within the context of sustainable architecture are their specific dynamics and components and their harmonisation of environment and nature. Owing to the fact that traditional housing texture harmonizes natural conditions of the region, topography, climate and their context, construction materials are provided from environment and traditional techniques and their forms are used and due to construction materials has natural insulation traditional housing create healthy and comfortable living environment, traditional housing is rather significant in terms of sustainable architecture. The basis of this study comprise the routers in traditional housing design in accordance with the principles of sustainability. These are, accommodating topography, climate, and geography, accessibility, structuring at the scale of human, utilization of green zones, unique to the region used construction materials, the form of construction, building envelope and space organization of dwelling. In this context, the purpose of this study is that vernacular architecture approaches of traditional housing textures which are in Central Anatolia Region Located in Anatolia are utilized with regard to sustainability.

Keywords: Anatolia, sustainability, traditional housing texture, vernacular architecture

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46 Determination of Weathering at Kilistra Ancient City by Using Non-Destructive Techniques, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: İsmail İnce, Osman Günaydin, Fatma Özer

Abstract:

Stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on climatic conditions. Building stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of this exposure. The historic structures are important symbols of any cultural heritage. Therefore, it is important to protect and restore these historical structures. The aim of this study is to determine the weathering conditions at the Kilistra ancient city. It is located in the southwest of the Konya city, Central Anatolia, and was built by carving into pyroclastic rocks during the Byzantine Era. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the pyroclastic rocks were determined. In the assessment of weathering of structures in the ancient city, in-situ non-destructive testing (i.e., Schmidt hardness rebound value, relative humidity measurement) methods were applied.

Keywords: cultural heritage, Kilistra ancient city, non-destructive techniques, weathering

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45 Geochemical Investigation of Weathering and Sorting for Tepeköy Sandstones

Authors: M. Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Late Eocene-Oligocene aged sandstones that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Lake (Central Anatolia, Turkey) range from 49 to 59 with an average of 51. The A-CN-K diagram indicates that sandstones underwent post-depositional K-metasomatism. The original average CIA value before the K-metasomatism is calculated as 55. This value is lower than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines a low intense chemical weathering in the source-area. Extrapolation of sandstones back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests a high average plagioclase to alkali feldspar ratio in the provenance and a composition close to granodiorite. The Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios with the Al₂O₃-Zr-TiO₂ space do not show zircon addition that refuse both recycling of sediments and sorting effect. All these data suggest direct and rapid transportation from the source due to topographic uplift and probably arid to semi-arid climate conditions for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, sandstone, sorting, weathering

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44 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, provenance, rare earth elements, REE, Tepeköy sandstone

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43 Post-Islamism, Turkish Referendum and the Anatolian Middle Class

Authors: Firmanda Taufiq

Abstract:

Turkey as a country with great political power and political dynamics that occurred in Turkey shows symptoms that make this country interesting enough to be studied. In addition, there is also Post-Islamism phenomenon that causes fluctuations and changes in Turkish politics. In this regard, Turkey carved out history by holding a referendum that changed the state system from a parliamentary system with a presidential system. This change has major implications in the life of Turkish society and politics. The condition is not only influenced by the government of Recep Tayyib Erdogan alone, but actually there is also anxiety middle class Turkish (Middle Class Anatolia). So there was a Turkish referendum held on 16 April 2017. This research using descriptive-analysis method to analyzing problems of research, that's how the post-Islamism situation in Turkey and Anatolian Middle Class impact to Turkish referendum. Actually, the political process that took place in Turkey is inseparable from Post-Islamism which became an important part in the change and transition of government system. The AKP Party as the basis of the Erdogan government movement became an important actor in the political and policy dynamics produced by the Erdogan government. It is then why the Turkish referendum took place.

Keywords: post-Islamism, Turkish politic, AKP, middle class Anatolia

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42 Departures from Anatolian Seljuk Building Complex with Iwan/Eyvan: The Tradition of Iwan Tombs

Authors: Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat, Uğur Tuztaşı

Abstract:

As man constructed the spaces that he lived in he also designed spaces where their dead will stay according to their belief systems. These spaces are sometimes monumentalized by the means of a stone on the top of a mountain, sometimes signed by totems and sometimes became structures to protect graves and symbolize the person or make him unforgettable. Various grave monuments have been constructed from the earliest primitive societies to developed societies. Every belief system built structures for itself; Pyramids for pharaohs, grave monuments for kings and emperors, temples and tombs for important men of religion. These spaces are also architectural works like a school or a dwelling and have importance in history of architecture. After Turks embraced Islamism, examples of very beautiful tombs are built in Middle Asia during the Seljuk Period. By the time Seljuks came to Anatolia they built important tombs having peerless architectural characteristics firstly around Ahlat. After Anatolia Seljuks made Konya the capital city and Konya became administrative, cultural and scientific center, very important tombs were built in Konya. Different from the local tomb architecture, the architecture of tombs with half-open “eyvan/Iwan” is significant. Although iwan buildings is vastly used in Anatolian civil architecture and monumental buildings its best exmaples are observed in 13th century Medrese buildings. The iwan tomb tradition which was observed during the time period when this building typology was shaped and departed from the resident tradition in the form of iwan tombs are rarely represented. However, similar tombs were build in resemblance to this tradition. This study provides information on samples of iwan tombs (Gömeç Hatun Tomb, Emir Yavaştagel Tomb, and Beşparmak Tomb) and evaluates the departures from iwan building complexes in view of architectural language. This paper also gives information about iwan tombs among tombs having importance in Islamic Architectural Heritage.

Keywords: Seljuk Building Complex, Eyvan/Iwan, Anatolia, Islamic Architectural Heritage, tomb

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41 A Social Identity Analysis of Ottoman and Safavid Architects in the Historical Documents of the 16th to 17th Centuries

Authors: Farzaneh Farrokhfar, Mohammad Khazaie

Abstract:

The 16th and 17th centuries coincide with the classical age of Ottoman art history. Simultaneously with this age and in the eastern neighborhood of the Ottoman state, the Safavid Shiite state emerged, which, despite political and religious differences with the Ottomans, played an important role in cultural and artistic exchanges with Anatolia. The harmony of arts, including architecture, is one of the most important manifestations of cultural exchange between the two regions, which shows the intellectual commonalities of the two regions. In parallel with the production of works of art, the registration of information and identities of Ottoman and Safavid artists and craftsmen has been done by many historians and biographers, some of whom, fortunately, are available to us today and can be evaluated. This research first intends to read historical documents and reports related to the architects of the two Ottoman states in Anatolia and Safavid states in Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries and then examines the status of architects' information records and their location in the two regions. The results reveal the names and identities of some Ottoman and Safavid architects in the 16th and 17th centuries and show the method of recording information in the documents of the two regions. This research is done in a comparative historical method, and the method of collecting its resources is a documentary library.

Keywords: classical era, Ottoman architecture, Safavid architecture, Central Asian historical documents

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40 Neotectonic Features of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone between Kozluca and Burdur, SW Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Berkant Coşkuner, Rahmi Aksoy

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to present some preliminary stratigraphic and structural evidence for the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone between Kozluca and Burdur. The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, the easternmost extension of the west Anatolian extensional province, extends from the Gulf of Fethiye northeastward through Burdur, a distance of about 300 km. The research area is located in the Burdur segment of the fault zone. Here, the fault zone includes several parallel to subparallel fault branching and en-echelon faults that lie within a linear belt, as much as 20 km in width. The direction of movement in the fault zone has been oblique-slip in the left lateral sense. The basement of the study area consists of the Triassic-Eocene Lycian Nappes, the Eocene-Oligocene molasse sediments and the lower Miocene marine rocks. The Burdur basin contains two basin infills. The ancient and deformed basin fill is composed of lacustrine sediments of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene age. The younger and undeformed basin fill comprises Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan and recent basin-floor deposits and unconformably overlies the ancient basin infill. The Burdur basin is bounded by the NE-SW trending, left lateral oblique-slip normal faults, the Karakent fault on the northwest and the Burdur fault on the southeast. These faults played a key role in the development of the Burdur basin as a pull-apart basin.

Keywords: Burdur basin, Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, left lateral oblique-slip fault, Western Anatolia

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39 Evaluation And New Modeling Improvement Of Water Quality

Authors: Sebahat Seker

Abstract:

Since there is a parallel connection between drinking water quality and public health, studies on drinking and domestic water are of vital importance. Ardahan Province is one of the provinces located in the Northeast Anatolian Region, where animal husbandry and agriculture are carried out economically. City mains water uses underground spring water as a source and is chlorinated and given to the city center by gravity. However, mains water cannot be used outside the central district of the city, and the majority of the people meet their drinking and utility water needs from the wells they have opened individually. The water element, which is vital for all living things, is the most important substance that sustains life for humans. Under normal conditions, a healthy person consumes approximately 1.8-2 liters of water. The quality and use of potable water is one of the most important issues in terms of health. The quality parameters of drinking and utility water have been revealed by the scientific world. Scientific studies on drinking water quality in the world and its impact on public health are among the most popular topics. Although our country is surrounded by water on three sides, potable water resources are very few. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, it is difficult for the public to access drinking and utility water due to the difficult conditions both climatically and geographically. In this study, samples taken from drinking and utility water at certain intervals from the stations determined, and water quality parameters will be determined. The fact that such a study has not been carried out in the region before and the knowledge of the local people about water quality is very important in terms of its original and widespread effect.

Keywords: water quality, modelling, evaluation, northeastern anatolia

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38 Analysis of Kilistra (Gokyurt) Settlement within the Context of Traditional Residential Architecture

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Tugba Bulbul Bahtiyar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

Humans meet their need for shelter via housing which they structure in line with habits and necessities. In housing culture, traditional dwelling has an important role as a social and cultural transmitter. It provides concrete data by being planned in parallel with users’ life style and habits, having their own dynamics and components as well as their designs in harmony with nature, environment and the context they exist. Textures of traditional dwelling create a healthy and cozy living environment by means of adaptation to natural conditions, topography, climate, and context; utilization of construction materials found nearby and usage of traditional techniques and forms; and natural isolation of construction materials used. One of the examples of traditional settlements in Anatolia is Kilistra (Gökyurt) settlement of Konya province. Being among the important centers of Christianity in the past, besides having distinctive architecture, culture, natural features, and geographical differences (climate, geological structure, material), Kilistra can also be identified as a traditional settlement consisting of family, religious and economic structures as well as cultural interaction. The foundation of this study is the traditional residential texture of Kilistra with its unique features. The objective of this study is to assess the conformity of traditional residential texture of Kilistra with present topography, climatic data, and geographical values within the context of human scale construction, usage of green space, indigenous construction materials, construction form, building envelope, and space organization in housing.

Keywords: traditional residential architecture, Kilistra, Anatolia, Konya

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37 Historical Geography of Lykaonia Region

Authors: Asuman Baldiran, Erdener Pehlivan

Abstract:

In this study, the root of the name Lykaonia and the geographical area defined as Lykaonia Region are mentioned. In this context, information concerning the settlements of Paleolithic Age, Neolithic Age and Chalcolithic Age are given place. Particularly the settlements belonging to Classical Age are localized and brief information about the history of these settlements is provided. In the light of this information, roads of Antique period in the region are evaluated.

Keywords: ancient cities, central anatolia, historical geography, Lykaonia region

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36 A Tomb Structure in Pursuit of Tradition in 2oth Century Turkey and Its Story; the Tomb of Haci Hâkim Kemal Onsun and His Wife

Authors: Yavuz Arat, Ugur Tuztasi, Mehmet Uysal

Abstract:

Anatolia has been the host of many civilizations and a site where architectural structures of many cultural layers were interpreted. Most significantly the Turks who settled in Central Asia brought their architectural dynamics and cultural accumulation to Anatolia after the 12th century. The tomb structures first observed in Central Asia under the influence of Islamic faith and Turkish cultural heritage has blossomed under Great Seljuk Empire and with the Anatolian Seljuk Empire these tombs changed both in size and form with rich and beautiful samples from Ahlat to Sivas to Kayseri and Konya. This tomb tradition which started during 13th century has continued during the Ottoman Empire period with some alterations of form and evolved into the rarely observed mausoleum type tombs. The Ottoman tradition of building tombs inside mosque gardens and their forms present the clues of an important burial tradition. However this understanding was abandoned in 20th century Turkey. This tradition was abandoned with regard to legal regulations and health conditions. This study investigates the vestiges of this tradition and its spatial reflections over a sample. The present sample is representative of a tradition that started in 1970s and the case of building tombs inside mosque gardens will be illustrated over the tomb of Hacı Kemal Onsun and his wife which is located in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuks. The building process of this tomb will be evaluated with regard to burial traditions and architectural stylization.

Keywords: tomb, language of architectural form, Anatolian Seljuk tombs, Ottoman tombs

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35 Neotectonic Characteristics of the Western Part of Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy

Abstract:

The western part of Konya consists of an area of block faulted basin and ranges. Present day topography is characterized by alternating elongate mountains and depressions trending east-west. A number of depressions occur in the region. One of the large depressions is the E-W trending Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine (KK basin) basin bounded on both sides by normal faults and located on the west of the Konya city. The basin is about 5-12 km wide and 40 km long. Ranges north and south of the basin are composed of undifferentiated low grade metamorphic rocks of Silurian-Cretaceous age and smaller bodies of ophiolites of probable Cretaceous age. The basin fill consists of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, alluvial sediments and volcanic rocks. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor deposits. The paleostress data on the striated fault planes in the basin indicates NW-SE extension and associated with an NE-SW compression. The eastern end of the KK basin is cut and terraced by the active Konya fault zone. The Konya fault zone is NE trending, east dipping normal fault forming the western boundary of the Konya depression. The Konya depression consists mainly of Plio-Quaternary alluvial complex and recent basin floor sediments. The structural data gathered from the Konya fault zone support normal faulting with a small amount of dextral strike-slip tensional tectonic regime that shaped under the WNW-ESE extensional stress regime.

Keywords: central Anatolia, fault kinematics, Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine basin, Konya fault zone, neotectonics

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34 Decoration in Anatolian Seljuk Minarets

Authors: Turkan Harmanbasi, Zeliha Busra Eryigit

Abstract:

The Anatolian Seljuk State was established in Anatolia by the Seljuks and continued its existence between the 11th and 14th centuries. Iznik was the first capital of Anatolian Seljuks. With the conquest of Konya in 1086, this place was declared as the capital. The Anatolian Seljuk State, with its numerous cultural elements, has produced valuable and permanent works for more than two centuries. Most of the important and monumental works were built in Konya. Anatolian Seljuk Art that makes unique; the technique in his works is the difference in material and style. It has gained an important place in Islamic architecture with this feature. In this period, rich embellishment programs emerged with the use of geometrical ornaments, floral motifs and calligraphy belts. In the Anatolian Seljuks, decoration was mainly applied with façade, crown gates, doors, windows, mihrab, mimbar, cover, transition elements and minarets; built with stone, brick and wooden materials. The minarets are located adjacent to the mosques or outside, as a high place that can be reached by stairs, which is made to invite people to worship and to announce this to people. They are architectural elements that have always been important in Islamic architecture with their compositions, construction techniques and ornaments. In different countries where Islam has spread, it has gained different appearances with the influence of local traditions. In the Seljuk art, minarets have become indispensable architectural elements of mosques and masjids. Stone and brick are generally used as a material in the minarets, and in some examples it can be seen that the tile was accompanied by the material. Ornamental motifs are formed by bringing these materials side by side vertically or horizontally. The scope of this study, the decoration details of the minarets built during the Anatolian Seljuk period will be examined. As a study area, samples from various Anatolian cities, especially Konya, were selected. Aim of studying the decoration of the Anatolian Seljuk minaret can shed some light on one of the most important aspects of the Islamic architecture in Anatolia and the development of the minaret in the Islamic World.

Keywords: Anatolian Seljuk, decoration, Islamic architecture, minaret, ornament

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33 Anatolian Geography: Traditional Medicine and Its Herbs

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer

Abstract:

There are more than a thousand endemic plants growing in Turkey. On the other hand, apart from these plantsAnatolia is home to more plant diversitythan the neighboring countries due to its transitional zone. These plants become a part of traditional medicine in the hope of curing the people with whom they have lived for thousands of years. No matter how important the climate is for the plant, the diseases of the region have an important place in the plant's life. While the plants used for tea are in the foreground in regions with heavy winters, the use of raw plants and fruits is common in some gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study is explaining using the area of endemic plants in Anatolia.

Keywords: anatolian traditional medicine, traditional medicine, anatolian medicine, herbs

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32 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar

Abstract:

Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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31 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

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30 Cultural Routes: A Study of Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs

Authors: Zeynep İnan Ocak, Gülsün Tanyeli

Abstract:

One of the most important architectural types of Islamic architecture is madrasah used as educational institutions, hospital or observatory. This type of buildings has one or two storeys, central open or closed courtyards, four iwans and students cells located among the iwans. The main characteristic of the designs featured in the portals. The Islamic art features and adornments are seen well on these buildings made of stone. The earliest examples date to late 12th century in Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Under the Seljuks rule over the one thousand facilities were built in 12th and 13th centuries and there are one hundred thirty five madrasah in total list. But today no all of them are conserved only forty percent are remained. The Seljuks madrasah located in many Anatolian were registered as immovable cultural property in several times by Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry. The first Turkish buildings inscribed on the World Heritage List are the Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği in 1985. Also the nominated site named as Anatolian Seljuks Madrasah is in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage in 2014. The property is composed some of notable madrasah such as İnce Minareli Madrasah and Karatay Madrasah in Konya; Çifte Madrasah and Sahibiye Madrasah in Kayseri; Buruciye Madrasah, Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Gök Madrasah in Sivas; Çifte Minareli Madrasah and Yakutiye Madrasah in Erzurum; Cacabey Madrasah in Kirşehir. Certainly the advantage of tourism is important for conducting the preservation of heritage. It offers much kind of cultural heritage products by means of visiting monuments. In spite of advantage of tourism, it can be the negative effects of tourism on sites and places of cultural significance. While assisting and guiding the conservation works of madrasah, it should be get reference to international charters and other doctrinal texts about the relation between heritage and tourism. Thereby the monuments will be conserved in good condition promoting by tourism. It should be plan a project about the correlation of visitors and heritage to focus on theme of Seljuks architecture. This study aims to set out the principles about the conservation of madrasah as world heritage taking advantages of tourism. The madrasah as a heritage should be evaluated not only a monument but also cultural route. So the cultural route for madrasah is determined by means of a journey through space and time, how the heritage of the different Anatolian cities. Also the cultural route is created visiting both the madrasah and the other medieval structures. In this study, the route, the principles, relation of tourism are represented considering the conservation of Seljuks madrasah.

Keywords: architectural heritage, cultural routes, Seljuks madrasah, Anatolia

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29 Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations

Authors: Irmak Gunes Yuceil

Abstract:

This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.

Keywords: hand-held x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, art and archaeology, interferences and analytical errors, pre-diagnosis in conservation

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28 Effect of Freeze-Thaw (F-T) Processes on the Engineering and Textural Properties of Nevşehir Stone (Nevşehir / Turkey)

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener

Abstract:

Natural stones used as building materials are exposed to various direct or indirect atmospheric effects depending on the climatic and seasonal conditions. Stones deteriorate partially or fully as a result of these effects. Freezing and thawing (F-T) process is the most important interaction. Nevşehir is located in the Central Anatolia region in Turkey and it has a typical continental climate with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Effects of freeze-thaw processes were widely observed on the building stones used in the region. Pyroclastic rocks, which are named as Nevşehir stone in the region, have been used in most of these buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variations in engineering and textural properties of Nevşehir stone during different F-T cycles.

Keywords: Nevşehir stone, freeze-thaw, engineering properties, textural properties

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27 Prevalence of Eimeria spp in Cattle in Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Onur Ceylan

Abstract:

Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by coccidia parasites of the genus Eimeria which develops in the small and the large intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in cattle. This study was conducted between March 2014 and April 2015, involved 624 fecal samples of cattle. Cattle were grouped according to their age as follows: 6-12, 12-24 and >24 months. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of cattle submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. In the laboratory, faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt flotation technique and examined under a microscope for the presence of protozoan oocysts. Eimeria oocysts were found in 4.8% of all the samples. Eimeria infection was detected in 11.8%, 5.3% and 0.4% of the cattle in the age groups, respectively. This study showed that Eimeria infection was commonly seen in 6-24-month-old cattle. Further epidemiological investigation on economic significance and species composition of bovine coccidiosis needs to be pursued.

Keywords: cattle, diarrhea, Eimeria spp, Turkey

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26 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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25 Lateral Heterogeneity of 1/Q in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia

Authors: Ufuk Aydın

Abstract:

The Coda attenuation and frequency dependency of seismic wave are strongly dependent on the effective stresses structures within the upper crust. In this study, the data of three different stations were used to examine the lateral variation of stress. The tectonic structures of these three areas have been examined comparatively using lateral coda tomography. In the study using the single scatter method, the window length selected to be 20 second. Coda values 80 with 94 and frequency dependency values obtained between 0.69 and 1.21. The 1/QC values for the three regions ranged from 0.0012 to 0.017, highlighting the regional differences in the seismotectonic activity of the crust. The lowest absorption values obtained from Erzurum station when the highest absorption values obtained at the Kemaliye station. The low Qc and high frequency dependency values obtained Kemaliye, which indicates that it has highest tectonic activity than other two regions. The seismo-dynamics data obtained from the study found to be in agreement with the tectonic structure of the region.

Keywords: regional coda attenuation, tectonic stress, crustal deformation

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24 A Survey on How Faculty Perceive and Quest for Modes of Internationalization in a Private Higher Education Institution

Authors: Hanife Akar, Basak Calik, Gulcin Gulmez-Dag, Elanur Yilmaz

Abstract:

Internationalization in higher education (IHE) has been a longstanding issue in the Western World but its impact has travelled beyond its borders. As a developing country, universities in Turkey also have put into their agendas strategic plans for IHE to compete with global trends and benchmarked universities. The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty in a private university in Mid Anatolia would like see modes of internationalization in their institution through a survey design and understand their quest for internationalization. Findings indicate that participants (N=49) are internationalized in different ways, from holding international Ph.D. degrees to postdoctoral degrees, or being international faculty themselves. Participants’ visions seem to be affected by the type of programs they are in, and many consider being a part of an international joint program or having international students and faculty are an essential component in IHE. In addition to holding joints degrees, and exchange or international human sources, participants quest for more collaboration for R&D, more comparative research opportunities, and examine or develop curricula from a global perspective.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, internationalization, visions

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23 Provenance and Paleoweathering Conditions of Doganhisar Clay Beds

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Huseyinca

Abstract:

The clay beds are located at the south-southeast of Doğanhisar and northwest of Konya in the Central Anatolia. In the scope of preliminary study, three types of samples were investigated including basement phyllite (Bp) overlain by the clay beds, weathered phyllite (Wp) and Doğanhisar clay (Dc). The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Dc range from 81 to 88 with an average of 85. This value is higher than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines very intense chemical weathering in the source-area. On the other hand, the A-CN-K diagram indicates that Bp underwent high degree post-depositional K-metasomatism. The average reconstructed CIA value of the Bp prior to the K-metasomatism is mainly 81 which overlaps the CIA values of the Wp (83) and Dc (85). Similar CIA values indicate parallel weathering trends. Also, extrapolation of the samples back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests an identical provenance close to granite in composition. Hereby the weathering background of Dc includes two steps. First one is intense weathering process of a granitic source to Bp with post-depositional K-metasomatism and the latter is progressively weathering of Bp to premetasomatised conditions (formation of Wp) ending with Dc deposition.

Keywords: clay beds, Doganhisar, provenance, weathering

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22 Plasterwork Ornamentation Finds of Hoşap Castle Archeological Excavation (2007-2015)

Authors: M. Top, H. Telli

Abstract:

Plaster material has been a preferred material especially in the Middle East geography in terms of economy, easy process and thermal insulation since very old times. However, due to the unstable nature of the material, very little has been reached today. For this reason, both finds and studies about stucco ornamentation are very few. In this study, the excavated plasterwork finds used in the architectural ornamentation in the Hosap Castle (Van/Turkey) were considered worth examining since they are rare examples. The stucco relief finds that were found in the castle is discussed. The finds of engraved artifacts on the plasterworks were not addressed. Only the pieces found in Area II and Area III (harem) and surrounding during the cleaning and excavation work carried out at Hosap Kalesi between 2007-2015, will be discussed. This is a general assessment about the finds. It is unknown where many of the pieces found. For this reason, only general appraisal was able to done. Most of the parts are made of mold technique. The motifs on the fragments are similar to the motifs of Ottoman period tiles. Parallel to the settlement history of the castle, thought that these plaster pieces belong to the 16th-17th centuries.

Keywords: stucco decoration, Eastern Anatolia, Ottoman motifs, ornamentation, plasterwork

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21 Application of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in Predicting Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Pyroclastic Rocks

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener, Sair Kahraman

Abstract:

The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks is an important input parameter for the design of rock engineering project. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Although the test is relatively simple, the method is time consuming and expensive. Therefore many researchers have tried to assess the uniaxial compressive strength values of rocks via relatively simple and indirect tests (e.g. point load strength test, Schmidt Hammer hardness rebound test, P-wave velocity test, etc.). Pyroclastic rocks are widely exposed in the various regions of the world. Cappadocia region located in the Central Anatolia is one of the most spectacular cite of these regions. It is important to determine the mechanical behaviour of the pyroclastic rocks due to their ease of carving, heat insulation properties and building some civil engineering constructions in them. The purpose of this study is to estimate a widely varying uniaxial strength of pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia region by means of point load strength, porosity, dry density and saturated density tests utilizing gene expression programming.

Keywords: pyroclastic rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, gene expression programming (GEP, Cappadocia region

Procedia PDF Downloads 266