Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: G. Venkatesha

2 Oxidation of Amitriptyline by Bromamine-T in Acidic Buffer Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Chandrashekar, R. T. Radhika, B. M. Venkatesha, S. Ananda, Shivalingegowda, T. S. Shashikumar, H. Ramachandra


The kinetics of the oxidation of amitriptyline (AT) by sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide (C6H5SO2NBrNa) has been studied in an acidic buffer medium of pH 1.2 at 303 K. The oxidation reaction of AT was followed spectrophotometrically at maximum wavelength, 410 nm. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence each on concentration of AT and concentration of sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide. The reaction also shows an inverse fractional order dependence at low or high concentration of HCl. The dielectric constant of the solvent shows negative effect on the rate of reaction. The addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT have no significant effect on the rate. The rate is unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength (NaClO4) of the medium. Addition of reaction mixtures to be aqueous acrylamide solution did not initiate polymerization, indicating the absence of free radical species. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and oxidation product of AT is identified. The Michaelis-Menton type of kinetics has been proposed. The CH3C6H5SO2NHBr has been assumed to be the reactive oxidizing species. Thermodynamical parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is presented.

Keywords: amitriptyline, bromamine-T, kinetics, oxidation

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1 Groundwater Geophysical Studies in the Developed and Sub-Urban BBMP Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, South India

Authors: G. Venkatesha, Urs Samarth, H. K. Ramaraju, Arun Kumar Sharma


The projection for Groundwater states that the total domestic water demand for greater Bangalore would increase from 1,170 MLD in 2010 to 1,336 MLD in 2016. Dependence on groundwater is ever increasing due to rapid Industrialization & Urbanization. It is estimated that almost 40% of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater. Due to the unscientific disposal of domestic and industrial waste generated, groundwater is getting highly polluted in the city. The scale of this impact will depend mainly upon the water-service infrastructure, the superficial geology and the regional setting. The quality of ground water is equally important as that of quantity. Jointed and fractured granites and gneisses constitute the major aquifer system of BBMP area. Two new observatory Borewells were drilled and lithology report has been prepared. Petrographic Analysis (XRD/XRF) and Water quality Analysis were carried out as per the standard methods. Petrographic samples were analysed by collecting chip of rock from the borewell for every 20ft depth, most of the samples were similar and samples were identified as Biotite-Gneiss, Schistose Amphibolite. Water quality analysis was carried out for individual chemical parameters for two borewells drilled. 1st Borewell struck water at 150ft (Total depth-200ft) & 2nd struck at 740ft (Total depth-960ft). 5 water samples were collected till end of depth in each borewell. Chemical parameter values such as, Total Hardness (360-348, 280-320) mg/ltr, Nitrate (12.24-13.5, 45-48) mg/ltr, Chloride (104-90, 70-70)mg/ltr, Fe (0.75-0.09, 1.288-0.312)mg/ltr etc. are calculated respectively. Water samples were analysed from various parts of BBMP covering 750 sq kms, also thematic maps (IDW method) of water quality is generated for these samples for Post-Monsoon season. The study aims to explore the sub-surface Lithological layers and the thickness of weathered zone, which indirectly helps to know the Groundwater pollution source near surface water bodies, dug wells, etc. The above data are interpreted for future ground water resources planning and management.

Keywords: lithology, petrographic, pollution, urbanization

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