Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: lithology

65 Research on Reservoir Lithology Prediction Based on Residual Neural Network and Squeeze-and- Excitation Neural Network

Authors: Li Kewen, Su Zhaoxin, Wang Xingmou, Zhu Jian Bing


Conventional reservoir prediction methods ar not sufficient to explore the implicit relation between seismic attributes, and thus data utilization is low. In order to improve the predictive classification accuracy of reservoir lithology, this paper proposes a deep learning lithology prediction method based on ResNet (Residual Neural Network) and SENet (Squeeze-and-Excitation Neural Network). The neural network model is built and trained by using seismic attribute data and lithology data of Shengli oilfield, and the nonlinear mapping relationship between seismic attribute and lithology marker is established. The experimental results show that this method can significantly improve the classification effect of reservoir lithology, and the classification accuracy is close to 70%. This study can effectively predict the lithology of undrilled area and provide support for exploration and development.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, lithology, prediction of reservoir, seismic attributes

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64 Mudlogging, a Key Tool in Effective Well Delivery: A Case Study of Bisas Field Niger Delta, Nigeria

Authors: Segun Steven Bodunde


Mudlogging is the continuous analysis of rock cuttings and drilling fluids to ascertain the presence or absence of oil and gas from the formation penetrated by the drilling bit. This research highlighted a case study of Well BSS-99ST from ‘Bisas Field’, Niger Delta, with depth extending from 1950m to 3640m (Measured Depth). It was focused on identifying the lithologies encountered at specified depth intervals and to accurately delineate the targeted potential reservoir on the field and prepare the lithology and Master log. Equipment such as the Microscope, Fluoroscope, spin drier, oven, and chemicals, which includes: hydrochloric acid, chloroethene, and phenolphthalein, were used to check the cuttings for their calcareous nature, for oil show and for the presence of Cement respectively. Gas analysis was done using the gas chromatograph and the Flame Ionization Detector, which was connected to the Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer (THA). Drilling Parameters and Gas concentration logs were used alongside the lithology log to predict and accurately delineate the targeted reservoir on the field. The result showed continuous intercalation of sand and shale, with the presence of small quantities of siltstone at a depth of 2300m. The lithology log was generated using Log Plot software. The targeted reservoir was identified between 3478m to 3510m after inspection of the gas analysis, lithology log, electric logs, and the drilling parameters. Total gas of about 345 units and five Alkane Gas components were identified in the specific depth range. A comparative check with the Gamma ray log from the well further confirmed the lithologic sequence and the accurate delineation of the targeted potential reservoir using mudlogging.

Keywords: mudlogging, chromatograph, drilling fluids, calcareous

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
63 Downhole Logging and Dynamics Data Resolving Lithology-Related Drilling Behavior

Authors: Christopher Viens, Steve Krase


Terms such as “riding a hard streak”, “formation push”, and “fighting formation” are commonly used in the directional drilling world to explain BHA behavior that causes unwanted trajectory change. Theories about downhole directional tendencies are commonly speculated from various personal experiences with little merit due to the lack of hard data to reveal the actual mechanisms behind the phenomenon, leaving interpretation of the root cause up to personal perception. Understanding and identifying in real time the lithological factors that influence the BHA to change or hold direction adds tremendous value in terms reducing sliding time and targeting zones for optimal ROP. Utilizing surface drilling parameters and employing downhole measurements of azimuthal gamma, continuous inclination, and bending moment, a direct measure of the rock related directional phenomenon have been captured and quantified. Furthermore, identifying continuous zones of like lithology with consistent bit to rock interaction has value from a reservoir characterization and completions standpoint. The paper will show specific examples of lithology related directional tendencies from the Spraberry and Wolfcamp in the Delaware Basin.

Keywords: Azimuthal gamma imaging, bending moment, continuous inclination, downhole dynamics measurements, high frequency data

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
62 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan


Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: lithology, porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, mishrif formation

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61 Predictive Spectral Lithological Mapping, Geomorphology and Geospatial Correlation of Structural Lineaments in Bornu Basin, Northeast Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Abdullahi Isyaku


Semi-arid Bornu basin in northeast Nigeria is characterised with flat topography, thick cover sediments and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops discernible for field geology. This paper presents the methodology for the characterisation of neotectonic surface structures and surface lithology in the north-eastern Bornu basin in northeast Nigeria as an alternative approach to field geological mapping using free multispectral Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM DEM and ASAR Earth Observation datasets. Spectral lithological mapping herein developed utilised spectral discrimination of the surface features identified on Landsat 7 ETM+ images to infer on the lithology using four steps including; computations of band combination images; band ratio images; supervised image classification and inferences of the lithological compositions. Two complementary approaches to lineament mapping are carried out in this study involving manual digitization and automatic lineament extraction to validate the structural lineaments extracted from the Landsat 7 ETM+ image mosaic covering the study. A comparison between the mapped surface lineaments and lineament zones show good geospatial correlation and identified the predominant NE-SW and NW-SE structural trends in the basin. Topographic profiles across different parts of the Bama Beach Ridge palaeoshorelines in the basin appear to show different elevations across the feature. It is determined that most of the drainage systems in the northeastern Bornu basin are structurally controlled with drainage lines terminating against the paleo-lake border and emptying into the Lake Chad mainly arising from the extensive topographic high-stand Bama Beach Ridge palaeoshoreline.

Keywords: Bornu Basin, lineaments, spectral lithology, tectonics

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60 Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models in the Municipality of Oudka, Northern of Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. C. Aoudjehane, M. Hakdaoui, R. El Hamdouni, H. Mansouri, T. Benchelha, M. Layelmam, M. Alaoui


The logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MarSpline) are applied and verified for analysis of landslide susceptibility map in Oudka, Morocco, using geographical information system. From spatial database containing data such as landslide mapping, topography, soil, hydrology and lithology, the eight factors related to landslides such as elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to road, distance to faults, lithology map and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated or extracted. Using these factors, landslide susceptibility indexes were calculated by the two mentioned methods. Before the calculation, this database was divided into two parts, the first for the formation of the model and the second for the validation. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis were verified using success and prediction rates to evaluate the quality of these probabilistic models. The result of this verification was that the MarSpline model is the best model with a success rate (AUC = 0.963) and a prediction rate (AUC = 0.951) higher than the LR model (success rate AUC = 0.918, rate prediction AUC = 0.901).

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, regression logistic, multivariate adaptive regression spline, Oudka, Taounate

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59 Deposit Characteristics of Jakarta, Indonesia: A Stratigraphy Study of Jakarta Subsurface

Authors: Girlly Marchlina Listyono, Abdurrokhim Abdurrokhim, Emi Sukiyah, Pulung Arya Pranantya


Jakarta Area is composed by deposit which has various lithology characteristics. Based on its lithology types, colors, textures, mineral dan organic content from 22 wells scattered on Jakarta, lithofacies analysis and intra-wells data correlation can be done. From the analysis, it can be interpretated that Jakarta deposit deposited in marine, transition and terrestrial depositional environments. Terrestrial deposit characterized by domination of relatively coarse clastics and content of remaining roots, woods, plants, high content of quartz, lithic fragment, calcareous and oxidated appearace. The thickness of terrestrial deposit is thickening to south. Transitional deposit characterized by fine to medium clastics with dark color, high content of organic matter, various thickness in any ways. Marine deposit characterized by finer clastics, contain remain of shells, fosil, coral, limestone fragments, glauconites, calcareous. Marine deposit relatively thickening to north. Those lateral variety caused by tectonic, subsidence and stratigraphic condition. Deposition of Jakarta deposit from the data research was started on marine depositional environment which surrounded by the event of cycle of regression and transgression then ended with regression which ongoing until form shore line in north Jakarta nowadays.

Keywords: deposit, Indonesia, Jakarta, sediment, stratigraphy

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58 Analysis of High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data to Identify Different Regional Lithologies of the Zaria Batholith Located in the Basement Complex of North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, A. Onugba, P. Sule


High resolution seismic reflection has recently been carried out on Zaria batholith, with the aim of characterizing the granitic Zaria batholiths in terms of its lithology. The geology of the area has revealed that the older granite outcrops in the vicinity of Zaria are exposures of a syntectonics to late-tectonic granite batholiths which intruded a crystalline gneissic basement during the Pan-African Orogeny. During the data acquisition the geophone were placed at interval of 1 m, variable offset of 1 and 10 m was used. The common midpoint (CMP) method with 12 fold coverage was employed for the survey. Analysis of the generated 3D surface of the p wave velocities from different profiles for densities and bulk modulus revealed that the rock material is more consolidated in South East part of the batholith and less consolidated in the North Western part. This was in conformity with earlier identified geology of the area, with the South Eastern part majorly of granitic outcrop, while the North Western part is characterized with the exposure of gneisses and thick overburden cover. The difference in lithology was also confirmed by the difference in seismic sections and Arial satellite photograph. Hence two major lithologies were identified, the granitic and gneisses complex which are characterized by gradational boundaries.

Keywords: basement complex, batholith, high resolution, lithologies, seismic reflection

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57 Evaluation of Shale Gas Resource Potential of Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India

Authors: Vaishali Sharma, Anirbid Sircar


Energy is one of the most eminent and fundamental strategic commodity, scarcity of which may poses great impact on the functioning of the entire commodity. According to the present study, the estimated reserves of gas in India as on 31.03.2015 stood at 1427.15 BCM. It is expected that the gas demand is set to grow significantly at a CAGR of 7% from 226.7 MMSCMD in 2012-13 to 713.5 MMSCMD in 2009-30. To bridge the gap between the demand and supply of energy, the interest towards the exploration and exploitation of unconventional resources like – Shale gas, Coal bed methane, Gas hydrates, tight gas etc has immensed. Nowadays, Shale gas prospects are emerging rapidly as a promising energy source globally. The United States of America (USA) has 240 TCF of proved reserves of shale gas and presently contributed more than 17% of total gas production. As compared to USA, shale gas production in India is at nascent stage. A resource potential of around 2000 TCF is estimated and according to preliminary data analysis, basins like Gondwana, Cambay, Krishna – Godavari, Cauvery, Assam-Arakan, Rajasthan, Vindhyan, and Bengal are the most promising shale gas basins. In the present study, the careful evaluation of Cambay Shale (Indian Shale) properties like geological age, lithology, depth, organically rich thickness, TOC, thermal maturity, porosity, permeability, clay content, quartz content, Kerogen type, Hydrocarbon window etc. has been done. And then the detailed comparison of Indian shale with USA shale will be discussed. This study investigates qualitative and quantitative nature of potential shale basins which will be helpful from exploration and exploitation point of view.

Keywords: shale, shale gas, energy source, lithology

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56 Exploration for Magnetic Minerals Using Geophysical Logging Techniques in the Northwestern Part of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Selim Reza, Mohammad Zohir Uddin


Geophysical logging technique was conducted in a borehole in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The main objectives of this study were to identify the subsurface lithology and the presence of magnetic minerals within the basement complex. In this survey, full waveform sonic, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma logs were conducted up to the depth of 660 m. From sonic log, three distinct velocity zones were observed at depths ranging from 20 m to 81 m, 81m to 360 m and 420 m to 660 m having the average velocity of 1600 m/s indicating unconsolidated sediment, 2500 m/s indicating hard, compact and matured sediments and 6300 m/s indicating basement complex respectively. Some low-velocity zones within the basement were identified as fractures/fissures. Natural gamma log was carried out only in the basement complex. According to magnetic susceptibility log, broadly three important zones were identified which had good agreement with the natural gamma, sonic as well as geological logs. The zone at the depth from 460 m to 470 m had the average susceptibility value of 3445 cgs unit. The average natural gamma value and sonic velocity in this zone are 150 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. The zone at the depth from 571 m to 598 m had the average susceptibility value of 5158 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity are 160 cps and 6000 m/s respectively. On the other hand, the zone at the depth from 598 m to 620 m had the average susceptibility value of 1998 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity show 200 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. From the interpretation of geophysical logs the 1st and 3rd zones within the basement complex are considered to be less significant whereas the 2nd zone is described as the most significant for magnetic minerals. Therefore, more drill holes are recommended on the anomalous body to delineate the extent, thickness and reserve of the magnetic body and further research are needed to determine the quality of mineral resources.

Keywords: basement complex, fractures/fissures, geophysical logging, lithology, magnetic susceptibility

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55 Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data for Identification Structure in Subsurface of Geothermal Manifestation at Candi Umbul Area, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: N. A. Kharisa, I. Wulandari, R. Narendratama, M. I. Faisal, K. Kirana, R. Zipora, I. Arfiansah, I. Suyanto


Acquisition of geophysical survey with magnetic method has been done in manifestation of geothermalat Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. This objective research is interpretation to interpret structural geology that control geothermal system in CandiUmbul area. The research has been finished with area size 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement space of 150 m. And each point of line space survey is 150 m using PPM Geometrics model G-856. Data processing was started with IGRF and diurnal variation correction to get total magnetic field anomaly. Then, advance processing was done until reduction to pole, upward continuation, and residual anomaly. That results become next interpretation in qualitative step. It is known that the biggest object position causes low anomaly located in central of area survey that comes from hot spring manifestation and demagnetization zone that indicates the existence of heat source activity. Then, modeling the anomaly map was used for quantitative interpretation step. The result of modeling is rock layers and geological structure model that can inform about the geothermal system. And further information from quantitative interpretations can be interpreted about lithology susceptibility. And lithology susceptibilities are andesiteas heat source has susceptibility value of (k= 0.00014 emu), basaltic as alteration rock (k= 0.0016 emu), volcanic breccia as reservoir rock (k= 0.0026 emu), andesite porfirtic as cap rock (k= 0.004 emu), lava andesite (k= 0.003 emu), and alluvium (k= 0.0007 emu). The hot spring manifestation is controlled by the normal fault which becomes a weak zone, easily passed by hot water which comes from the geothermal reservoir.

Keywords: geological structure, geothermal system, magnetic, susceptibility

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54 Groundwater Geophysical Studies in the Developed and Sub-Urban BBMP Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, South India

Authors: G. Venkatesha, Urs Samarth, H. K. Ramaraju, Arun Kumar Sharma


The projection for Groundwater states that the total domestic water demand for greater Bangalore would increase from 1,170 MLD in 2010 to 1,336 MLD in 2016. Dependence on groundwater is ever increasing due to rapid Industrialization & Urbanization. It is estimated that almost 40% of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater. Due to the unscientific disposal of domestic and industrial waste generated, groundwater is getting highly polluted in the city. The scale of this impact will depend mainly upon the water-service infrastructure, the superficial geology and the regional setting. The quality of ground water is equally important as that of quantity. Jointed and fractured granites and gneisses constitute the major aquifer system of BBMP area. Two new observatory Borewells were drilled and lithology report has been prepared. Petrographic Analysis (XRD/XRF) and Water quality Analysis were carried out as per the standard methods. Petrographic samples were analysed by collecting chip of rock from the borewell for every 20ft depth, most of the samples were similar and samples were identified as Biotite-Gneiss, Schistose Amphibolite. Water quality analysis was carried out for individual chemical parameters for two borewells drilled. 1st Borewell struck water at 150ft (Total depth-200ft) & 2nd struck at 740ft (Total depth-960ft). 5 water samples were collected till end of depth in each borewell. Chemical parameter values such as, Total Hardness (360-348, 280-320) mg/ltr, Nitrate (12.24-13.5, 45-48) mg/ltr, Chloride (104-90, 70-70)mg/ltr, Fe (0.75-0.09, 1.288-0.312)mg/ltr etc. are calculated respectively. Water samples were analysed from various parts of BBMP covering 750 sq kms, also thematic maps (IDW method) of water quality is generated for these samples for Post-Monsoon season. The study aims to explore the sub-surface Lithological layers and the thickness of weathered zone, which indirectly helps to know the Groundwater pollution source near surface water bodies, dug wells, etc. The above data are interpreted for future ground water resources planning and management.

Keywords: lithology, petrographic, pollution, urbanization

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53 Geospatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation to Predict Landslide Hazard Potential in the Catchment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Authors: Abdel Rahman Khider Hassan


This paper describes a multi-criteria geospatial model for prediction of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for Lake Naivasha catchment (Kenya), based on spatial analysis of integrated datasets of location intrinsic parameters (slope stability factors) and external landslides triggering factors (natural and man-made factors). The intrinsic dataset included: lithology, geometry of slope (slope inclination, aspect, elevation, and curvature) and land use/land cover. The landslides triggering factors included: rainfall as the climatic factor, in addition to the destructive effects reflected by proximity of roads and drainage network to areas that are susceptible to landslides. No published study on landslides has been obtained for this area. Thus, digital datasets of the above spatial parameters were conveniently acquired, stored, manipulated and analyzed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using a multi-criteria grid overlay technique (in ArcGIS 10.2.2 environment). Deduction of landslide hazard zonation is done by applying weights based on relative contribution of each parameter to the slope instability, and finally, the weighted parameters grids were overlaid together to generate a map of the potential landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for the lake catchment. From the total surface of 3200 km² of the lake catchment, most of the region (78.7 %; 2518.4 km²) is susceptible to moderate landslide hazards, whilst about 13% (416 km²) is occurring under high hazards. Only 1.0% (32 km²) of the catchment is displaying very high landslide hazards, and the remaining area (7.3 %; 233.6 km²) displays low probability of landslide hazards. This result confirms the importance of steep slope angles, lithology, vegetation land cover and slope orientation (aspect) as the major determining factors of slope failures. The information provided by the produced map of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) could lay the basis for decision making as well as mitigation and applications in avoiding potential losses caused by landslides in the Lake Naivasha catchment in the Kenya Highlands.

Keywords: decision making, geospatial, landslide, multi-criteria, Naivasha

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52 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Safwat E. Musa, Nuha E. Mohamed, Nuha A. Bagi


In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: basin, Blue Nile, inversion, seismic

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51 On the Lithology of Paleocene-Lower Eocene Deposits of the Achara-Trialeti Fold Zone: The Lesser Caucasus

Authors: Nino Kobakhidze, Endi Varsimashvili, Davit Makadze


The Caucasus is a link of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belt and involves the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus fold systems and the Intermountain area. The study object is located within the northernmost part of the Lesser Caucasus orogen, in the eastern part of Achara-Trialeti fold -thrust belt. This area was rather well surveyed in 70th of the twentieth century in terms of oil-and-gas potential, but to our best knowledge, detailed sedimentological studies have not been conducted so far. In order to fill this gap, the authors of the present thesis started research in this direction. One of the objects selected for the research was the deposits of the Kavtura river valley situated on the northern slope of the Trialeti ridge. Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits known in scientific literature as ‘Borjomi Flysch’ (Turbidites) are exposed in the mentioned area. During the research, the following methodologies were applied: selection of key cross sections, a collection of rock samples, microscopic description of thin sections, mineralogical and petrological analysis of material and identification of trace fossils. The study of Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits starts with Kavtura river valley in the east, where they are well characterized by microfauna. The cross-section of the deposits starts with Danian variegated marlstone conformably overlain by the alternation of thick and thin-bedded sandstones (thickness 40-50 cm). They are continued with interbedded of thin-bedded sandstones and shales(thickness 4-5 m). On the sole surface of sandstones ichnogenera ‘Helmintopsis’ and ‘Scolicia’ are recorded and within the bed –‘Chondrites’ is found. Towards the Riverhead, there is a 1-2 m gap in sedimentation; then again the Paleocene-Lower Eocene sediments crop out. They starting with alternation of grey-green medium-grained sandstones and shales enclosing dark color plant detritus. They are overlain by the interbedded of calcareous sandstones and marls, where the thickness of sandstones is variable (20-70 cm). Ichnogenus – ‘Scolicia’ is found here. Upwards the above-mentioned deposits pass into Middle Eocenian volcanogenic-sedimentary suits. In the Kavtura river valley, the thickness of the Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits is 300-400 m. In the process of research, the following activities are conducted: the facial analysis of host rocks, correlation of the study section with other cross sections and interpretation of depositional environment of the area. In the area the authors have found and described ichnogenera; their preliminary determination have shown that they belong to pre-depositional (‘Helmintopsis’) and post-depositional (‘Chondrites’) forms. As known, during the Cretaceous-Paleogene time, the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt extensional basin was the accumulation area with great thicknesses (from shallow to deep marine sediments). It is confirmed once more by the authors investigations preliminary results of paleoichnological studies inclusive.

Keywords: flysh deposits, lithology, The Lesser Caucasus, trace fossils

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50 The Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment Aptian Sediments of the Massive Serdj, North Central Tunisia

Authors: H. Khaled, F. Chaabani, F. Boulvain


This paper focuses on the studied of Aptian series that crops out at the Jebel Serdj in the north central Tunisia. The study series is about 590 meters thick and it is consisting of limestones, marly limestones associated with some levels of siltstones and marls. Two sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during this period. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone–wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone- packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as rudists and ooids and mudstone–wackestone coastal facies rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xᵢₙ) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. We show that high values of magnetic susceptibility are correlated with the distal facies.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj Formation, geochemical, mineralogy

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49 The Effects of Lithofacies on Oil Enrichment in Lucaogou Formation Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks in Santanghu Basin, China

Authors: Guoheng Liu, Zhilong Huang


For more than the past ten years, oil and gas production from marine shale such as the Barnett shale. In addition, in recent years, major breakthroughs have also been made in lacustrine shale gas exploration, such as the Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin in China. Lucaogou Formation shale, which is also lacustrine shale, has also yielded a high production in recent years, for wells such as M1, M6, and ML2, yielding a daily oil production of 5.6 tons, 37.4 tons and 13.56 tons, respectively. Lithologic identification and classification of reservoirs are the base and keys to oil and gas exploration. Lithology and lithofacies obviously control the distribution of oil and gas in lithological reservoirs, so it is of great significance to describe characteristics of lithology and lithofacies of reservoirs finely. Lithofacies is an intrinsic property of rock formed under certain conditions of sedimentation. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale formed under different sedimentary conditions display great particularity and distinctiveness. Hence, to our best knowledge, no constant and unified criteria and methods exist for fine-grained sedimentary rocks regarding lithofacies definition and classification. Consequently, multi-parameters and multi-disciplines are necessary. A series of qualitative descriptions and quantitative analysis were used to figure out the lithofacies characteristics and its effect on oil accumulation of Lucaogou formation fine-grained sedimentary rocks in Santanghu basin. The qualitative description includes core description, petrographic thin section observation, fluorescent thin-section observation, cathode luminescence observation and scanning electron microscope observation. The quantitative analyses include X-ray diffraction, total organic content analysis, ROCK-EVAL.II Methodology, soxhlet extraction, porosity and permeability analysis and oil saturation analysis. Three types of lithofacies were mainly well-developed in this study area, which is organic-rich massive shale lithofacies, organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies and organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies mainly include massive shale and tuffaceous shale, of which quartz and clay minerals are the major components. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies contain lamina and cloddy structure. Rocks from this lithofacies chiefly consist of dolomite and quartz. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies mainly contains massive bedding fine-grained carbonate rocks, of which fine-grained dolomite accounts for the main part. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies contain the highest content of free hydrocarbon and solid organic matter. Moreover, more pores were developed in organic-rich massive shale lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies contain the lowest content solid organic matter and develop the least amount of pores. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies develop the largest number of cracks and fractures. To sum up, organic-rich massive shale lithofacies is the most favorable type of lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies is impossible for large scale oil accumulation.

Keywords: lithofacies classification, tuffaceous shale, oil enrichment, Lucaogou formation

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48 Delineation of the Geoelectric and Geovelocity Parameters in the Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, G. C. Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


The geology of Northern Nigeria is under intense investigation particularly that of the northwest believed to be of the basement complex. The variability of the lithology is consistently inconsistent. Hence, the need for a close range study, it is, in view of the above that, two geophysical techniques, the vertical electrical sounding employing the Schlumberger array and seismic refraction methods, were used to delineate the geoelectric and geovelocity parameters of the basement complex of northwestern Nigeria. A total area of 400,000 m² was covered with sixty geoelectric stations established and sixty sets of seismic refraction data collected using the forward and reverse method. From the interpretation of the resistivity data, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by not more than five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities when a maximum half electrode spread of 100m was used. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. The results of the two techniques, suggests that the area of study has an undulating bedrock topography with geoeletric and geovelocity layers composed of weathered rock materials.

Keywords: basement complex, delineation, geoelectric, geovelocity, Nigeria

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47 Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface

Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan


Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.

Keywords: chandryaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, mineral, mare orientale, moon

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
46 Estimation of Aquifer Parameters Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in Ochudo City, Abakaliki Urban Nigeria

Authors: Moses. O. Eyankware, Benard I. Odoh, Omoleomo O. Omo-Irabor, Alex O. I. Selemo


Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity is essential for the determination of natural water flow through an aquifer. These parameters are commonly estimated from the analysis of electrical conductivity, soil properties and fluid flow data. In order to achieve a faster and cost effective analysis of aquifer parameters in Ochudo City in Abakaliki, this study relied on non-invasive geophysical methods. As part of this approach, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was conducted at 20 sites in the study area for the identification of the vertical variation in subsurface lithology and for the characterization of the groundwater system. The area variously consists of between five to seven geoelectric layers of different thicknesses. Depth to aquifer ranges from 9.94 m-134.0 m while the thickness of the identified aquifer varies between 8.43 m and 44.31 m. Based on the electrical conductivity values of water samples collected from two boreholes and two hand-dug wells within the study area, the hydraulic conductivity was determined to range from 0.10 to 0.433 m/day. The estimated thickness of the aquifer and calculated hydraulic conductivity were used to derive the aquifer transmissivity. The results indicate that this parameter ranges from 1.58-7.56 m²/day with a formation factor of between 0.31-3.6.

Keywords: Asu river group, transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, abakaliki, vertical electrical sounding (VES)

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
45 Risk Indicators of Massive Removal Phenomena According to the Mora - Vahrson Method, Applied in Pitalito and Campoalegre Municipalities

Authors: Laura Fernanda Pedreros Araque, Sebastian Rivera Pardo


The massive removal phenomena have been one of the most frequent natural disasters in the world, causing thousands of deaths, victims, damage to homes and diseases. In Pitalito, and Campoalegre department of Huila municipalities - Colombia, disasters have occurred due to various events such as high rainfall, earthquakes; it has caused landslides, floods, among others, affected the economy, the community, and transportation. For this reason, a study was carried out on the area’s most prone to suffer these phenomena to take preventive measures in favor of the protection of the population, the resources of management, and the planning of civil works. For the proposed object, the Mora-Varshon method was used, which allows classifying the degree of susceptibility to landslides in which the areas are found. Also, various factors or parameters were evaluated such as the soil moisture, lithology, slope, seismicity, and rain, each of these indicators were obtained using information from IDEAM, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) and using geographic information for geoprocessing in the Arcgis software to realize a mapping to indicate the susceptibility to landslides, classifying the areas of the municipalities such as very low, low, medium, moderate, high or very high.

Keywords: geographic information system, landslide, mass removal phenomena, Mora-Varshon method

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
44 Schematic Study of Groundwater Potential Zones in Granitic Terrain Using Remotesensing and GIS Techniques, in Miyapur and Bollaram Areas of Hyderabad, India

Authors: Ishrath, Tapas Kumar Chatterjee


The present study aims developing interpretation and evaluation to integrate various data types for management of existing water resources for sustainable use. Proper study should be followed based on the geomorphology of the area. Thematic maps such as lithology, base map, land use/land cover, geomorphology, drainage and lineaments maps are prepared to study the area by using area toposheet, IRS P6 and LISIII Satellite imagery. These thematic layers are finally integrated by using Arc GIS, Arc View, and software to prepare a ground water potential zones map of the study area. In this study, an integrated approach involving remote sensing and GIS techniques has successfully been used in identifying groundwater potential zones in the study area to classify them as good, moderate and poor. It has been observed that Pediplain shallow (PPS) has good recharge, Pediplain moderate (PPM) has moderately good recharge, Pediment Inselberg complex (PIC) has poor recharge and Inselberg (I) has no recharge. The study has concluded that remote sensing and GIS techniques are very efficient and useful for identifying ground water potential zones.

Keywords: satellite remote sensing, GIS, ground water potential zones, Miyapur

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
43 Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: K. M. Kheiralla, M. A. Ali, M. Y. Abdelgalil, N. E. Mohamed, G. Boutsis


The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

Keywords: ERT, magnetic, mineralization, Red Sea, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
42 Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection in Thiruvananthapuram Corporation Area by Data Analysis Using GIS and Remote Sensing Tools

Authors: C. Asha Poorna, P. G. Vinod, A. R. R. Menon


Currently increasing population and their activities like urbanization and industrialization generating the greatest environmental, issue called Waste. And the major problem in waste management is selection of an appropriate site for waste disposal. The selection of suitable site have constrains like environmental, economical and political considerations. In this paper we discuss the strategies to be followed while selecting a site for decentralized system for solid waste disposal, using Geographic Information System (GIS), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the remote sensing method for Thiruvananthapuram corporation area. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. It lies on the shores of Killiyar and Karamana River. Being on the basin the waste managements must be regulated with the water body. The different criteria considered for waste disposal site selection are lithology, surface water, aquifer, groundwater, land use, contours, aspect, elevation, slope, and distance to road, distance from settlement are examined in relation to land fill site selection. Each criterion was identified and weighted by AHP score and mapped using GIS technique and suitable map is prepared by overlay analysis.

Keywords: waste disposal, solid waste management, Geographic Information System (GIS), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
41 Aptian Ramp Sedimentation of the Jebel Serdj Massif, North-Central Tunisia, and Sea Level Variations Recorded in Magnetic Susceptibility

Authors: Houda Khaled, Fredj Chaabani, Frederic Boulvain


The Aptian series in north-central Tunisia was studied in detail regarding to lithology, microfacies, and magnetic susceptibility to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and sea level changes in the carbonate platform. The study series is about 350 meters thick, and it consists of fives sequences of limestones, separated by four levels of marlstones and marly limestones. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies which are successively recorded along the Serdj section into the outer ramp, mid-ramp, inner ramp and coastal facies associations. The magnetic susceptibility of all samples was measured and compared with the facies and microfacies. There is a clear link between facies and magnetic susceptibility; the distal facies show high values while the proximal areas show lower values. The magnetic susceptibility profile reflects stratigraphic variations in response to relative changes in sea level and input of detrital materials. During the Aptian, kaolinite/illite intensity ratios show high values possibly indicating a warming trend followed then by decreasing values that may indicate a cooling trend. During the Albian, this cooling trend is reverted into humid/warming.

Keywords: Aptian, mineralogy, petrology, Serdj massif

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
40 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed


The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: ERT, magnetic, mineralization, Red Sea, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
39 Geological Structure as the Main Factor in Landslide Deployment in Purworejo District Central Java Province Indonesia

Authors: Hilman Agil Satria, Rezky Naufan Hendrawan


Indonesia is vulnerable to geological hazard because of its location in subduction zone and have tropical climate. Landslide is one of the most happened geological hazard in Indonesia, based on Indonesia Geospasial data, at least 194 landslides recorded in 2013. In fact, research location is placed as the third city that most happened landslide in Indonesia. Landslide caused damage of many houses and wrecked the road. The purpose of this research is to make a landslide zone therefore can be used as one of mitigation consideration. The location is in Bruno, Porworejo district Central Java Province Indonesia at 109.903 – 109.99 and -7.59 – -7.50 with 10 Km x 10 Km wide. Based on geological mapping result, the research location consist of Late Miocene sandstone and claystone, and Pleistocene volcanic breccia and tuff. Those landslide happened in the lithology that close with fault zone. This location has so many geological structures: joints, faults and folds. There are 3 thrust faults, 1 normal faults, 4 strike slip faults and 6 folds. This geological structure movement is interpreted as the main factor that has triggered landslide in this location. This research use field data as well as samples of rock, joint, slicken side and landslide location which is combined with DEM SRTM to analyze geomorphology. As the final result of combined data will be presented as geological map, geological structure map and landslide zone map. From this research we can assume that there is correlation between geological structure and landslide locations.

Keywords: geological structure, landslide, Porworejo, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
38 Wave Velocity-Rock Property Relationships in Shallow Marine Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek S. Duzan, Abdulaziz F. Ettir


Wave velocities, Core and Log petrophysical data were collected from recently drilled four new wells scattered through-out the Dahra/Jofra (PL-5) Reservoir. The collected data were analyzed for the relationships of Wave Velocities with rock property such as Porosity, permeability and Bulk Density. Lots of Literature review reveals a number of differing results and conclusions regarding wave velocities (Compressional Waves (Vp) and Shear Waves (Vs)) versus rock petrophysical property relationships, especially in carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between wave velocities (Vp , Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs with rock properties for shallow marine libyan carbonate reservoir (Real Case). Upon data analysis, a relationship between petrophysical properties and wave velocities (Vp, Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs has been found. Porosity and bulk density properties have shown exponential relationship with wave velocities, while permeability has shown a power relationship in the interested zone. It is also clear that wave velocities (Vp , Vs) seems to be a good indicator for the lithology change with true vertical depth. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use the output relationships to predict porosity, bulk density and permeability of the similar reservoir type utilizing the most recent seismic data.

Keywords: conventional core analysis (porosity, permeability bulk density) data, VS wave and P-wave velocities, shallow carbonate reservoir in D/J field

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
37 The Scenario of Disaster Management in Nepal: A Case Study of Nepal Earthquakes, 2015

Authors: Sandesh Yadav


Earthquake constitutes one of the most terrible natural hazards which often turn into a disaster or causing extensive devastation and loss of human lives and their properties. In the year 2015, Nepal experienced the most devastating earthquakes on 25th April, 2015 and 12th May, 2015 respectively. Several villages, towns, human constructions and their properties, lives were completely damaged. The hazardous effect of Nepal earthquakes depends not only on their magnitude of Richter Scale on intensity alone, but also on so many factors, such as geology of earth crust (lithology, elasticity, soil condition, permissible stress, rock structures etc.). The unscientifically and non-seismically designed buildings resulted in huge loss of life and property. Further, the loss due to earthquake can be grouped into three broad categories namely agriculture sector (loss of livestock, poultry and food stocks), industrial sector (mainly brick production industry) and infrastructural sector (transportation infrastructure). The present research study begins with the tracing of Geological history of earthquakes in Nepal along with identification of causes of Nepal earthquakes, 2015. Secondly, research study identifies the extent of tremors of earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal and surrounding areas along with their sphere of impact. Thirdly, the research study tries to assess the agricultural loss, industrial loss and infrastructural loss due to earthquakes in Nepal. Lastly, the research study ends with the various recommendations and suggestions in order to minimize the loss due to earthquakes in the future.

Keywords: earthquake, richter scale, sphere of impact, tremors

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
36 Statistical and Analytical Comparison of GIS Overlay Modelings: An Appraisal on Groundwater Prospecting in Precambrian Metamorphics

Authors: Tapas Acharya, Monalisa Mitra


Overlay modeling is the most widely used conventional analysis for spatial decision support system. Overlay modeling requires a set of themes with different weightage computed in varied manners, which gives a resultant input for further integrated analysis. In spite of the popularity and most widely used technique; it gives inconsistent and erroneous results for similar inputs while processed in various GIS overlay techniques. This study is an attempt to compare and analyse the differences in the outputs of different overlay methods using GIS platform with same set of themes of the Precambrian metamorphic to obtain groundwater prospecting in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The objective of the study is to emphasize the most suitable overlay method for groundwater prospecting in older Precambrian metamorphics. Seven input thematic layers like slope, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), soil thickness, lineament intersection density, average groundwater table fluctuation, stream density and lithology have been used in the spatial overlay models of fuzzy overlay, weighted overlay and weighted sum overlay methods to yield the suitable groundwater prospective zones. Spatial concurrence analysis with high yielding wells of the study area and the statistical comparative studies among the outputs of various overlay models using RStudio reveal that the Weighted Overlay model is the most efficient GIS overlay model to delineate the groundwater prospecting zones in the Precambrian metamorphic rocks.

Keywords: fuzzy overlay, GIS overlay model, groundwater prospecting, Precambrian metamorphics, weighted overlay, weighted sum overlay

Procedia PDF Downloads 24