Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: heterostructures

25 Unique NiO Based 1 D Core/Shell Nano-Heterostructure Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar

Abstract:

Unique one-dimensional (1D) Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures are fabricated by combining the electrochemical deposition and annealing. The high-performance pseudo-capacitor electrode based on the Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures is designed and demonstrated. The Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures exhibit high specific capacitance (2013 Fg-1 at 2.5 Ag-1), high energy and power density (23 Wh kg-1 and 5.5 kW kg-1, at the discharge current density of 20.8 A g-1.), good capacitance retention, and long cyclicality. The remarkable electrochemical property of the large surface area nano-heterostructures is demonstrated based on the novel nano-architectural design of the electrode with the coexistence of the two highly redox active materials at the surface supported by highly conducting metal alloy channel at the core for faster charge transport.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, energy storage, supercapacitors, electrochemical deposition

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24 Ordinary and Triplet Superconducting Spin Valve Effect in Fe/Pb Based Heterostructures

Authors: P. V. Leksin, A. A. Kamashev, N. N. Garifyanov, I. A. Garifullin, Ya. V. Fominov, J. Schumann, Y. Krupskaya, V. Kataev, O. G. Schmidt, B. Büchner

Abstract:

We report on experimental evidence for the occurrence of the long range triplet correlations (LRTC) of the superconducting (SC) condensate in the spin-valve heterostructures CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Pb. The LRTC generation in this layer sequence is accompanied by a Tc suppression near the orthogonal mutual orientation of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers’ magnetization. This Tc drop reaches its maximum of 60mK at the Fe2 layer thickness dFe2 = 0.6 nm and falls down when dFe2 is increased. The modification of the Fe/Pb interface by using a thin Cu intermediate layer between Fe and Pb layers reduces the SC transition width without preventing the interaction between Pb and Fe2 layers. The dependence of the SSVE magnitude on Fe1 layer thickness dFe1 reveals maximum of the effect when dFe1 and dFe2 are equal and the dFe2 value is minimal. Using the optimal Fe layers thicknesses and the intermediate Cu layer between Pb and Fe2 layer we realized almost full switching from normal to superconducting state due to SSVE.

Keywords: superconductivity, ferromagnetism, heterostructures, proximity effect

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23 Characteristics of GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP Npn Heterostructural Optoelectronic Switches

Authors: Der-Feng Guo

Abstract:

Optoelectronic switches have attracted a considerable attention in the semiconductor research field due to their potential applications in optical computing systems and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs). With high gains and high-speed operations, npn heterostructures can be used to produce promising optoelectronic switches. It is known that the bulk barrier and heterostructure-induced potential spike act important roles in the characteristics of the npn heterostructures. To investigate the effects of bulk barrier and potential spike heights on the optoelectronic switching of the npn heterostructures, GaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP npn heterostructural optoelectronic switches (HSOSs) have been fabricated in this work. It is seen that the illumination decreases the switching voltage Vs and increases the switching current Is, and thus the OFF state is under dark and ON state under illumination in the optical switching of the GaAs/InGaP HSOS characteristics. But in the AlGaAs/GaAs/InAlGaP HSOS characteristics, the Vs and Is present contrary trends, and the OFF state is under illumination and ON state under dark. The studied HSOSs show quite different switching variations with incident light, which are mainly attributed to the bulk barrier and potential spike heights affected by photogenerated carriers.

Keywords: bulk barrier, heterostructure, optoelectronic switch, potential spike

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22 Multifunctional 1D α-Fe2O3/ZnO Core/Shell Semiconductor Nano-Heterostructures: Heterojunction Engineering

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar

Abstract:

This study reports the facile fabrication of 1D ZnO/α-Fe2O3 semiconductor nano-heterostructures (SNHs), and we investigate the strong interfacial interactions at the heterojunction, resulting in novel multifunctionality in the hybrid structure. ZnO-coated α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) have been prepared by combining electrodeposition and wet chemical methods. Significant improvement in electrical conductivity, photoluminescence, and room temperature magnetic properties have been observed for the ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs over the pristine α-Fe2O3 NWs because of the contribution of the ZnO nanolayer. The increase in electrical conductivity in ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs is because of the increase in free electrons in the conduction band of the SNHs due to the formation of type-II n-n band configuration at the heterojunction. The SNHs are found to exhibit enhanced visible green photoluminescence along with the UV emission at room temperature. The band-gap emission of the α-Fe2O3 NWs coupled to the defect emissions of the ZnO in SNHs can be attributed to the profound enhancement of the visible green luminescence. Ferromagnetism of the SNHs is found to be increased nearly five times in magnitude over the primeval α-Fe2O3 NWs, which can be ascribed to the exchange coupling of the interfacial spin at ZnO/α-Fe2O3 interface, the surface spin of ZnO nanolayer, along with the structural defects like the cation vacancies (VZn) and the singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo•) present in SNHs.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, photoluminescence, electrical property, magnetism

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21 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

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20 Facile Synthesis of Heterostructured Bi₂S₃-WS₂ Photocatalysts for Photodegradation of Organic Dye

Authors: S. V. Prabhakar Vattikuti, Chan Byon

Abstract:

In this paper, we report a facile synthetic strategy of randomly disturbed Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheets, which are synthesized via a controlled hydrothermal method without surfactant under an inert atmosphere. We developed a simple hydrothermal method for the formation of heterostructured of Bi₂S₃/WS₂ with a large scale (>95%). The structural features, composition, and morphology were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, N₂ adsorption-desorption, and TG-DTA measurements. The heterostructured Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite has significant photocatalytic efficiency toward the photodegradation of organic dye. The time-dependent UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy measurement was consistent with the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation with the diminishing carrier recombination for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ photocatalyst. Due to their marked synergistic effects, the supported Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheet heterostructures exhibit significant visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of RhB. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite.

Keywords: photocatalyst, heterostructures, transition metal disulfides, organic dye, nanorods

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19 Modification of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Induced by Focused Laser Beam

Authors: I. Wlasny, Z. Klusek, A. Wysmolek

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Hexagonal boron nitride is a representative of a widely popular class of two-dimensional Van Der Waals materials. It finds its uses, among others, in construction of complexly layered heterostructures. Hexagonal boron nitride attracts great interest because of its properties characteristic for wide-gap semiconductors as well as an ultra-flat surface.Van Der Waals heterostructures composed of two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides or graphene give hope for miniaturization of various electronic and optoelectronic elements. In our presentation, we will show the results of our investigations of the not previously reported modification of the hexagonal boron nitride layers with focused laser beam. The electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) images reveal that the irradiation leads to changes of the local electric fields for a wide range of laser wavelengths (from 442 to 785 nm). These changes are also accompanied by alterations of crystallographic structure of the material, as reflected by Raman spectra. They exhibit high stability and remain visible after at least five months. This behavior can be explained in terms of photoionization of the defect centers in h-BN which influence non-uniform electrostatic field screening by the photo-excited charge carriers. Analyzed changes influence local defect structure, and thus the interatomic distances within the lattice. These effects can be amplified by the piezoelectric character of hexagonal boron nitride, similar to that found in nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN). Our results shed new light on the optical properties of the hexagonal boron nitride, in particular, those associated with electron-phonon coupling. Our study also opens new possibilities for h-BN applications in layered heterostructures where electrostatic fields can be used in tailoring of the local properties of the structures for use in micro- and nanoelectronics or field-controlled memory storage. This work is supported by National Science Centre project granted on the basis of the decision number DEC-2015/16/S/ST3/00451.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, hexagonal boron nitride, optical properties, raman spectroscopy

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18 Suspended Nickel Oxide Nano-Beam and Its Heterostructure Device for Gas Sensing

Authors: Kusuma Urs M. B., Navakant Bhat, Vinayak B. Kamble

Abstract:

Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are known to be excellent candidates for solid-state gas sensor devices. However, in spite of high sensitivities, their high operating temperatures and lack of selectivity is a big concern limiting their practical applications. A lot of research has been devoted so far to enhance their sensitivity and selectivity, often empirically. Some of the promising routes to achieve the same are reducing dimensionality and formation of heterostructures. These heterostructures offer improved sensitivity, selectivity even at relatively low operating temperatures compared to bare metal oxides. Thus, a combination of n-type and p-type metal oxides leads to the formation of p-n junction at the interface resulting in the diffusion of the carriers across the barrier along with the surface adsorption. In order to achieve this and to study their sensing mechanism, we have designed and lithographically fabricated a suspended nanobeam of NiO, which is a p-type semiconductor. The response of the same has been studied for various gases and is found to exhibit selective response towards hydrogen gas at room temperature. Further, the same has been radially coated with TiO₂ shell of varying thicknesses, in order to study the effect of radial p-n junction thus formed. Subsequently, efforts have been made to study the effect of shell thickness on the space charge region and to shed some light on the basic mechanism involved in gas sensing of MOS sensors.

Keywords: gas sensing, heterostructure, metal oxide semiconductor, space charge region

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17 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-Based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Karim Mynbaev, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Electroluminescence, InAsSb, light emitting diode, quantum wells

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16 Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions

Authors: Henry Navarro, Martin Sirena, Nestor Haberkorn

Abstract:

We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.

Keywords: thin film, sputtering, conductive atomic force microscopy, tunnel junctions

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15 Tailoring Quantum Oscillations of Excitonic Schrodinger’s Cats as Qubits

Authors: Amit Bhunia, Mohit Kumar Singh, Maryam Al Huwayz, Mohamed Henini, Shouvik Datta

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We report [https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.13518] experimental detection and control of Schrodinger’s Cat like macroscopically large, quantum coherent state of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of spatially indirect electron-hole pairs or excitons using a resonant tunneling diode of III-V Semiconductors. This provides access to millions of excitons as qubits to allow efficient, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this work, we measure phase-coherent periodic oscillations in photo-generated capacitance as a function of an applied voltage bias and light intensity over a macroscopically large area. Periodic presence and absence of splitting of excitonic peaks in the optical spectra measured by photocapacitance point towards tunneling induced variations in capacitive coupling between the quantum well and quantum dots. Observation of negative ‘quantum capacitance’ due to a screening of charge carriers by the quantum well indicates Coulomb correlations of interacting excitons in the plane of the sample. We also establish that coherent resonant tunneling in this well-dot heterostructure restricts the available momentum space of the charge carriers within this quantum well. Consequently, the electric polarization vector of the associated indirect excitons collective orients along the direction of applied bias and these excitons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation below ~100 K. Generation of interference beats in photocapacitance oscillation even with incoherent white light further confirm the presence of stable, long-range spatial correlation among these indirect excitons. We finally demonstrate collective Rabi oscillations of these macroscopically large, ‘multipartite’, two-level, coupled and uncoupled quantum states of excitonic condensate as qubits. Therefore, our study not only brings the physics and technology of Bose-Einstein condensation within the reaches of semiconductor chips but also opens up experimental investigations of the fundamentals of quantum physics using similar techniques. Operational temperatures of such two-component excitonic BEC can be raised further with a more densely packed, ordered array of QDs and/or using materials having larger excitonic binding energies. However, fabrications of single crystals of 0D-2D heterostructures using 2D materials (e.g. transition metal di-chalcogenides, oxides, perovskites etc.) having higher excitonic binding energies are still an open challenge for semiconductor optoelectronics. As of now, these 0D-2D heterostructures can already be scaled up for mass production of miniaturized, portable quantum optoelectronic devices using the existing III-V and/or Nitride based semiconductor fabrication technologies.

Keywords: exciton, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum computation, heterostructures, semiconductor Physics, quantum fluids, Schrodinger's Cat

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14 UV-Enhanced Room-Temperature Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanocomposites Obtained by Hydrothermal Treatment

Authors: Luís F. da Silva, Ariadne C. Catto, Osmando F. Lopes, Khalifa Aguir, Valmor R. Mastelaro, Caue Ribeiro, Elson Longo

Abstract:

Gas detection is important for controlling industrial, and vehicle emissions, agricultural residues, and environmental control. In last decades, several semiconducting oxides have been used to detect dangerous or toxic gases. The excellent gas-sensing performance of these devices have been observed at high temperatures (~250 °C), which forbids the use for the detection of flammable and explosive gases. In this way, ultraviolet light activated gas sensors have been a simple and promising alternative to achieve room temperature sensitivity. Among the semiconductor oxides which exhibit a good performance as gas sensor, the zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO2) have been highlighted. Nevertheless, their poor selectivity is the main disadvantage for application as gas sensor devices. Recently, heterostructures combining these two semiconductors (ZnO-SnO2) have been studied as an alternative way to enhance the gas sensor performance (sensitivity, selectivity, and stability). In this work, we investigated the influence of mass ratio Zn:Sn on the properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal treatment for 4 hours at 200 °C. The crystalline phase, surface, and morphological features were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The gas sensor measurements were carried out at room-temperature under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation using different ozone levels (0.06 to 0.61 ppm). The XRD measurements indicate the presence of ZnO and SnO2 crystalline phases, without the evidence of solid solution formation. HR-TEM analysis revealed that a good contact between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the ZnO nanorods, which are very important since interface characteristics between nanostructures are considered as challenge to development new and efficient heterostructures. Electrical measurements proved that the best ozone gas-sensing performance is obtained for ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. Its sensitivity was around 6 times higher when compared to SnO2 pure, a traditional ozone gas sensor. These results demonstrate the potential of ZnO-SnO2 heterojunctions for the detection of ozone gas at room-temperature when irradiated with UV light irradiation.

Keywords: hydrothermal, zno-sno2, ozone sensor, uv-activation, room-temperature

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13 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence

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12 Optimizing the Field Emission Performance of SiNWs-Based Heterostructures: Controllable Synthesis, Core-Shell Structure, 3D ZnO/Si Nanotrees and Graphene/SiNWs

Authors: Shasha Lv, Zhengcao Li

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Due to the CMOS compatibility, silicon-based field emission (FE) devices as potential electron sources have attracted much attention. The geometrical arrangement and dimensional features of aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have a determining influence on the FE properties. We discuss a multistep template replication process of Ag-assisted chemical etching combined with polystyrene (PS) spheres to fabricate highly periodic and well-aligned silicon nanowires, then their diameter, aspect ratio and density were further controlled via dry oxidation and post chemical treatment. The FE properties related to proximity and aspect ratio were systematically studied. A remarkable improvement of FE propertiy was observed with the average nanowires tip interspace increasing from 80 to 820 nm. On the basis of adjusting SiNWs dimensions and morphology, addition of a secondary material whose properties complement the SiNWs could yield a combined characteristic. Three different nanoheterostructures were fabricated to control the FE performance, they are: NiSi/Si core-shell structures, ZnO/Si nanotrees, and Graphene/SiNWs. We successfully fabricated the high-quality NiSi/Si heterostructured nanowires with excellent conformality. First, nickle nanoparticles were deposited onto SiNWs, then rapid thermal annealing process were utilized to form NiSi shell. In addition, we demonstrate a new and simple method for creating 3D nanotree-like ZnO/Si nanocomposites with a spatially branched hierarchical structure. Compared with the as-prepared SiNRs and ZnO NWs, the high-density ZnO NWs on SiNRs have exhibited predominant FE characteristics, and the FE enhancement factors were attributed to band bending effect and geometrical morphology. The FE efficiency from flat sheet structure of graphene is low. We discussed an effective approach towards full control over the diameter of uniform SiNWs to adjust the protrusions of large-scale graphene sheet deposited on SiNWs. The FE performance regarding the uniformity and dimensional control of graphene protrusions supported on SiNWs was systematically clarified. Therefore, the hybrid SiNWs/graphene structures with protrusions provide a promising class of field emission cathodes.

Keywords: field emission, silicon nanowires, heterostructures, controllable synthesis

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11 Magnetoelectric Coupling in Hetero-Structured Nano-Composite of BST-BLFM Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Jasbir S. HUndal

Abstract:

Hetero-structured nano-composite thin film of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/Bi0.9La0.1Fe0.9Mn0.1O3 (BST/BLFM) has been prepared by chemical solution deposition method with various BST to BLFM thickness ratios. These films have been deposited over on p-type Si (100) substrate. These samples exhibited low leakage current, large grain size and uniform distribution of particles. The maximum remanent polarization (Pr) was achieved in the heterostructures with thickness ratio of 2.65. The dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H), ferromagnetic exchange interaction and magnetoelectric measurements were carried out. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy has been employed to investigate the surface morphology of these heterostructured nano-composite films.

Keywords: magnetoelectric, Schottky emission, interface coupling, dielectric tenability, electric hysteresis (P-E), ME coupling coefficient, magnetic hysteresis (M-H)

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10 Pyroelectric Effect on Thermoelectricity of AlInN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: B. K. Sahoo

Abstract:

Superior thermoelectric (TE) efficiency of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN heterostructure (HS) requires a minimum value of thermal conductivity (k). A smaller k would lead to even further increase of TE figure of merit (ZT). The built-in polarization (BIP) electric field of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN /GaN HS enhances S, and σ of the HS, however, the effect of BIP field on k of the HS has not been explored. Study of thermal conductivities (k: without BIP and kp: including BIP) vs temperature predicts pyroelectric behavior of HS. Both k and kp show crossover at a temperature Tp. The result shows that below Tp, kp < k due to negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). However, above Tp, kp > k. Above Tp, piezoelectric polarization dominates over spontaneous polarization due to positive TEC. This generates more lattice mismatch resulting in the significant contribution of BIP field to thermal conductivity. Thus, Tp can be considered as primary pyroelectric transition temperature of the material as above Tp thermal expansion takes place which is the reason for the secondary pyroelectric effect. It is found that below Tp, kp is decreased; thus enhancing TE efficiency. For x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; Tp are close to 200, 210 and 260 K, respectively. Thus, k of the HS can be modified as per requirement by tailoring the Al composition; making it suitable simultaneously for the design of high-temperature pyroelectric sensors and TE module for maximum power production.

Keywords: AlₓIn₁₋ₓN/GaN heterostructure, built in polarization, pyroelectric behavior, thermoelectric efficiency

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9 Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Yang Xu, Bin Yu

Abstract:

The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h- BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h- BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

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8 Two-Dimensional Nanostack Based On Chip Wiring

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Bin Yu

Abstract:

The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching, chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, heterostructure, interconnects

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7 Nano-Sensors: Search for New Features

Authors: I. Filikhin, B. Vlahovic

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We focus on a novel type of detection based on electron tunneling properties of double nanoscale structures in semiconductor materials. Semiconductor heterostructures as quantum wells (QWs), quantum dots (QDs), and quantum rings (QRs) may have energy level structure of several hundred of electron confinement states. The single electron spectra of the double quantum objects (DQW, DQD, and DQR) were studied in our previous works with relation to the electron localization and tunneling between the objects. The wave function of electron may be localized in one of the QDs or be delocalized when it is spread over the whole system. The localizing-delocalizing tunneling occurs when an electron transition between both states is possible. The tunneling properties of spectra differ strongly for “regular” and “chaotic” systems. We have shown that a small violation of the geometry drastically affects localization of electron. In particular, such violations lead to the elimination of the delocalized states of the system. The same symmetry violation effect happens if electrical or magnetic fields are applied. These phenomena could be used to propose a new type of detection based on the high sensitivity of charge transport between double nanostructures and small violations of the shapes. It may have significant technological implications.

Keywords: double quantum dots, single electron levels, tunneling, electron localizations

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6 Enhanced Properties of Plasma-Induced Two-Dimensional Ga₂O₃/GaS Heterostructures on Liquid Alloy Substrate

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, M. Karbalaei Akbari

Abstract:

Ultra-low-level incorporation of trace impurities and dopants into two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors is a challenging step towards the development of functional electronic instruments based on 2D materials. Herein, the incorporation of sulphur atoms into 2D Ga2O3 surface oxide film of eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn) is achieved through plasma-enhanced metal-catalyst dissociation of H2S gas on EGaIn substrate. This process led to the growth of GaS crystalline nanodomains inside amorphous 2D Ga2O3 sublayer films. Consequently, 2D lateral heterophase was developed between the amorphous Ga2O3 and crystalline GaS nanodomains. The materials characterization revealed the alteration of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics and change of valence band maximum (VBM) of functionalized 2D films. The comprehensive studies by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) showed considerable enhancement of conductivity of 2D Ga2O3/GaS materials (300 times improvement) compared with that of 2D Ga2O3 film. This technique has a great potential for the fabrication of 2D metal oxide devices with tuneable electronic characteristics similar to nano junction memristors and transistors.

Keywords: 2D semiconductors, Ga₂O₃, GaS, plasma-induced functionalization

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5 Electrochemical Performance Enhancement in Hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Fayssal Ynineb, Toufik Hadjersi, Fatsah Moulai, Wafa Achour

Abstract:

Currently, tremendous attention has been paid to the rational design and synthesis of core/shell heterostructures for high-performance supercapacitors. In this study, the hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Core-Shell Nanorods Arrays on ITO substrate were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal and electrodeposition methods. The effect of the thin carbon layer between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ in this multi-scale hierarchical structure was investigated in detail. The choice of this last was based on: (a) a high specific area of pseudo-capacitive NiO to maximize specific capacitance; (b) an effective NiO-electrolyte interface to facilitate fast charging/discharging; and (c) conducting carbon layer between ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO to enhance the electric conductivity which reduces energy loss, and also protect the corrosion of ZnCo₂O₄ in alkaline solution. Electrochemical results indicate that hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ possessed a high specific capacitance of 61.8 mF.cm⁻² at a current density of 0.1 mA.cm⁻², which is higher than that of pristine ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO (3.5 and 5.5 mF.cm⁻² respectively). In the hierarchical NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ where the carbon layer improves the electrical conductivity between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ also increases the specific capacitance to high as 94.8 mF.cm⁻² at a current density of 0.1 mA.cm⁻². Moreover, this multi-scale hierarchical structure exhibits superior cycling stability with ~100% capacitance retention at the scan rate of 100 mV.s⁻¹ after 10000 cycles. These results indicate that the NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ nanocomposite material is an outstanding electrode material for supercapacitors.

Keywords: NiO/ZnCo₂O₄, specific capacitance, hydrothermal, supercapacitors

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4 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali

Abstract:

We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: thin film, CdS, new method, optical properties

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3 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali, M. Elkemary

Abstract:

The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: chemical deposition, CdS, optical properties, surface, thin film

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2 Engineering the Topological Insulator Structures for Terahertz Detectors

Authors: M. Marchewka

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the possible optical transitions in double quantum wells system based on HgTe/HgCd(Mn)Te heterostructures. Such structures can find applications as detectors and sources of radiation in the terahertz range. The Double Quantum Wells (DQW) systems consist of two QWs separated by the transparent for electrons barrier. Such systems look promising from the point of view of the additional degrees of freedom. In the case of the topological insulator in about 6.4nm wide HgTe QW or strained 3D HgTe films at the interfaces, the topologically protected surface states appear at the interfaces/surfaces. Electrons in those edge states move along the interfaces/surfaces without backscattering due to time-reversal symmetry. Combination of the topological properties, which was already verified by the experimental way, together with the very well know properties of the DQWs, can be very interesting from the applications point of view, especially in the THz area. It is important that at the present stage, the technology makes it possible to create high-quality structures of this type, and intensive experimental and theoretical studies of their properties are already underway. The idea presented in this paper is based on the eight-band KP model, including the additional terms related to the structural inversion asymmetry, interfaces inversion asymmetry, the influence of the magnetically content, and the uniaxial strain describe the full pictures of the possible real structure. All of this term, together with the external electric field, can be sources of breaking symmetry in investigated materials. Using the 8 band KP model, we investigated the electronic shape structure with and without magnetic field from the application point of view as a THz detector in a small magnetic field (below 2T). We believe that such structures are the way to get the tunable topological insulators and the multilayer topological insulator. Using the one-dimensional electrons at the topologically protected interface states as fast and collision-free signal carriers as charge and signal carriers, the detection of the optical signal should be fast, which is very important in the high-resolution detection of signals in the THz range. The proposed engineering of the investigated structures is now one of the important steps on the way to get the proper structures with predicted properties.

Keywords: topological insulator, THz spectroscopy, KP model, II-VI compounds

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1 Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of a New Noble Metal Modified [email protected] and SrTiO3 Photocatalysts

Authors: Ewelina Grabowska, Martyna Marchelek

Abstract:

Among the various semiconductors, nanosized TiO2 has been widely studied due to its high photosensitivity, low cost, low toxicity, and good chemical and thermal stability. However, there are two main drawbacks to the practical application of pure TiO2 films. One is that TiO2 can be induced only by ultraviolet (UV) light due to its intrinsic wide bandgap (3.2 eV for anatase and 3.0 eV for rutile), which limits its practical efficiency for solar energy utilization since UV light makes up only 4-5% of the solar spectrum. The other is that a high electron-hole recombination rate will reduce the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. In order to overcome the above drawbacks and modify the electronic structure of TiO2, some semiconductors (eg. CdS, ZnO, PbS, Cu2O, Bi2S3, and CdSe) have been used to prepare coupled TiO2 composites, for improving their charge separation efficiency and extending the photoresponse into the visible region. It has been proved that the fabrication of p-n heterostructures by combining n-type TiO2 with p-type semiconductors is an effective way to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. SrTiO3 is a good candidate for coupling TiO2 and improving the photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst because its conduction band edge is more negative than TiO2. Due to the potential differences between the band edges of these two semiconductors, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Conversely, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Then the photogenerated charge carriers can be efficiently separated by these processes, resulting in the enhancement of the photocatalytic property in the photocatalyst. Additionally, one of the methods for improving photocatalyst performance is addition of nanoparticles containing one or two noble metals (Pt, Au, Ag and Pd) deposited on semiconductor surface. The mechanisms were proposed as (1) the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal particles is excited by visible light, facilitating the excitation of the surface electron and interfacial electron transfer (2) some energy levels can be produced in the band gap of TiO2 by the dispersion of noble metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix; (3) noble metal nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps, enhancing the electron–hole separation. In view of this, we recently obtained series of [email protected] and SrTiO3 photocatalysts loaded with noble metal NPs. using photodeposition method. The M- [email protected] and M-SrTiO3 photocatalysts (M= Rh, Rt, Pt) were studied for photodegradation of phenol in aqueous phase under UV-Vis and visible irradiation. Moreover, in the second part of our research hydroxyl radical formations were investigated. Fluorescence of irradiated coumarin solution was used as a method of ˙OH radical detection. Coumarin readily reacts with generated hydroxyl radicals forming hydroxycoumarins. Although the major hydroxylation product is 5-hydroxycoumarin, only 7-hydroxyproduct of coumarin hydroxylation emits fluorescent light. Thus, this method was used only for hydroxyl radical detection, but not for determining concentration of hydroxyl radicals.

Keywords: composites TiO2, SrTiO3, photocatalysis, phenol degradation

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