Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Parisa Jahani

33 Synthesis of [email protected] Cu Core−Shell Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement of Cu by Pd²⁺ Ions as a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Determination of Dihydroxybenzene Isomers Speciation

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Parisa Jahani, Amir Shafiee, Mehrdad Mofidi

Abstract:

The dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) have been widely recognized as important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and low degradability in the ecological environment. Speciation of HQ, CC and RS is very important for environmental analysis because they co-exist of these isomers in environmental samples and are too difficult to degrade as an environmental contaminant with high toxicity. There are many analytical methods have been reported for detecting these isomers, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical methods. These methods have attractive advantages such as simple and fast response, low maintenance costs, wide linear analysis range, high efficiency, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. A novel modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with [email protected] Cu/CNTs core−shell nanowires for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RS) is described. A detailed investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry was performed in order to elucidate the preparation process and properties of the GCE/ Pd/CuNWs-CNTs. The electrochemical response characteristic of the modified GPE/LFOR toward HQ, CC and RS were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and Chronoamperometry. Under optimum conditions, the calibrations curves were linear up to 228 µM for each with detection limits of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 µM for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for the oxidation of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode was calculated as 6.5×10⁻⁵, 1.6 ×10⁻⁵ and 8.5 ×10⁻⁵ cm² s⁻¹, respectively. DPV was used for the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC and RS at the modified electrode and the relative standard deviations were 2.1%, 1.9% and 1.7% for HQ, CC and RS, respectively. Moreover, GCE/Pd/CuNWs-CNTs was successfully used for determination of HQ, CC and RS in real samples.

Keywords: dihydroxybenzene isomers, galvanized copper nanowires, electrochemical sensor, Palladium, speciation

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32 Ultrasonic Irradiation Synthesis of High-Performance [email protected] Nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Electrocatalyst by Galvanic Replacement toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Amir Shafiee Kisomi, Parisa Jahani

Abstract:

The direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are contemplated as a promising energy source because, In addition to being used in portable electronic devices, it is also used for electric vehicles. The synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures due to their novel optical, catalytic and electronic characteristic which is precisely in contrast to their monometallic counterparts is attracting extensive attention. Galvanic replacement (sometimes is named to as cementation or immersion plating) is an uncomplicated and effective technique for making nanostructures (such as core-shell) of different metals, semiconductors, and their application in DEFCs. The replacement of galvanic does not need any external power supply compared to electrodeposition. In addition, it is different from electroless deposition because there is no need for a reducing agent to replace galvanizing. In this paper, a fast method for the palladium (Pd) wire nanostructures synthesis with the great surface area through galvanic replacement reaction utilizing copper nanowires (CuNWS) as a template by the assistance of ultrasound under room temperature condition is proposed. To evaluate the morphology and composition of [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan, emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were applied. In order to measure the phase structure of the electrocatalysts were performed via room temperature X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) applying an X-ray diffractometer. Various electrochemical techniques including chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized for the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation and durability in basic solution. [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst demonstrated substantially enhanced performance and long-term stability for ethanol electrooxidation in the basic solution in comparison to commercial Pd/C that demonstrated the potential in utilizing [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan as efficient catalysts towards ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan presented excellent catalytic activities with a peak current density of 320.73 mAcm² which was 9.5 times more than in comparison to Pd/C (34.2133 mAcm²). Additionally, activation energy thermodynamic and kinetic evaluations revealed that the [email protected] Copper nanowires/MultiWalled Carbon nanotubes-Chitosan catalyst has lower compared to Pd/C which leads to a lower energy barrier and an excellent charge transfer rate towards ethanol oxidation.

Keywords: core-shell structure, electrocatalyst, ethanol oxidation, galvanic replacement reaction

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31 Design and Development of Graphene Oxide Modified by Chitosan Nanosheets Showing Phsensitive Surface as a Smart Drug Delivery System for Control Release of Doxorubicin

Authors: Parisa Shirzadeh

Abstract:

Graphene oxide (GO) has modified by chitosan (CS) covalently, developed for control release of doxorubicin (DOX). In this study GO produced by hummer method and after chlorinated the product reacted with chitosan. GO, GO-CS and GO-CS-DOX characterized by FT-IR, RAMAN, TGA and SEM. The ability of loading and releasing determined by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The loading result showed high capacity of DOX absorption (99%) and pH dependence identified as result of DOX release from GO-CS nanosheet at pH 5.3 and 7.4 which show fast release rate in acidic conditions.

Keywords: graphene oxide, chitosan, nanoshee, controlled drug release, doxorubicin

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30 Fractional Residue Number System

Authors: Parisa Khoshvaght, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

During the past few years, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been receiving considerable interest due to its parallel and fault-tolerant properties. This system is a useful tool for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) since it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. One of the drawbacks of Residue Number System is the fractional numbers, that is, the corresponding circuit is very hard to realize in conventional CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a method in which the numbers of transistors are significantly reduced. The related delay is extremely diminished, in the first glance we use this method to solve concerning problem of one decimal functional number some how this proposition can be extended to generalize the idea. Another advantage of this method is the independency on the kind of moduli.

Keywords: computer arithmetic, residue number system, number system, one-Hot, VLSI

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29 Interaction of Water Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Green Bean under Different P Levels

Authors: Shahram Baghban Cirus, Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie

Abstract:

In a greenhouse experiment, green bean were inoculated with three levels of phosphorus (P1, P2, P3, respectively 0, 50, 100 kgP/h) and four levels of water stress(Fc1, Fc2, Fc3 ,Fc4, respectively 0.8Fc, 0.7Fc, 0.6Fc, 0.5Fc) and one species of VA mycorrhiza (Glomus versiform) or left uninocolated as control plants in the steril soil. AM colonization significantly stimulated plant growth, leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight but water stress significantly decreased colonization, pod and shoot dry weight, and shoot P. The use P levels significantly increased leaf area, shoot, and pod dry weight, pods length, and colonization.

Keywords: green bean, plant growth, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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28 Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran

Authors: S. Jahani, V. Choopankareh

Abstract:

Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.

Keywords: air pollution, developing countries, effects, green facades

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27 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
26 Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools in Performance Prediction and Fault Detection of Mechanical Equipment of Mining Process Line

Authors: K. Jahani, J. Razavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, to decrease the number of downtimes in the industries such as metal mining, petroleum and chemical industries, predictive maintenance is crucial. In order to have efficient predictive maintenance, knowing the performance of critical equipment of production line such as pumps and hydro-cyclones under variable operating parameters, selecting best indicators of this equipment health situations, best locations for instrumentation, and also measuring of these indicators are very important. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) tools are implemented to study some important elements of copper process line, namely slurry pumps and cyclone to predict the performance of these components under different working conditions. These modeling and simulations can be used in predicting, for example, the damage tolerance of the main shaft of the slurry pump or wear rate and location of cyclone wall or pump case and impeller. Also, the simulations can suggest best-measuring parameters, measuring intervals, and their locations.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, predictive maintenance, fault detection, mining process line, slurry pump, hydrocyclone

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25 Enhanced Thermal Properties of Rigid PVC Foams Using Fly Ash

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Parisa Khoshnoud, Murtatha Jamel, Subhashini Gunashekar

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PVC foam-fly ash composites (PVC-FA) are characterized for their structural, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the composites increased modestly with higher fly ash loading, while there was a significant increase in the elastic modulus for the same composites. On the other hand, a decrease in elongation at UTS was observed upon increasing fly ash content due to increased rigidity of the composites. Similarly, the flexural modulus increased as the fly ash loading increased, where the composites containing 25 phr fly ash showed the highest flexural strength. Thermal properties of PVC-fly ash composites were determined by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The micro structural properties were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM results confirm that fly ash particles were mechanically interlocked in PVC matrix with good inter facial interaction with the matrix. Particle agglomeration and debonding was observed in samples containing higher amounts of fly ash.

Keywords: PVC foam, polyvinyl chloride, rigid PVC, fly ash composites, polymer composites

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24 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati

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One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: nanofabrication, cement replacement materials, activation, concrete

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23 Real-Time Classification of Hemodynamic Response by Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using an Adaptive Estimation of General Linear Model Coefficients

Authors: Sahar Jahani, Meryem Ayse Yucel, David Boas, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan

Abstract:

Near-infrared spectroscopy allows monitoring of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes associated with hemodynamic response function (HRF). HRF is usually affected by natural physiological hemodynamic (systemic interferences) which occur in all body tissues including brain tissue. This makes HRF extraction a very challenging task. In this study, we used Kalman filter based on a general linear model (GLM) of brain activity to define the proportion of systemic interference in the brain hemodynamic. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in terms of the peak to peak error (Ep), mean square error (MSE), and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R2) criteria between the estimated and the simulated hemodynamic responses. This technique also has the ability of real time estimation of single trial functional activations as it was applied to classify finger tapping versus resting state. The average real-time classification accuracy of 74% over 11 subjects demonstrates the feasibility of developing an effective functional near infrared spectroscopy for brain computer interface purposes (fNIRS-BCI).

Keywords: hemodynamic response function, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive filter, Kalman filter

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22 Case Report: Clinical Improvement of Forbrain Neurologic Signs in 3-Months Old Persian Mastiff Dog with Calvarial Hyperostosis Syndrome after Corticosteroid, Antiepileptic and Antibiotic Therapy

Authors: Hamidreza Jahani, Zahra Salehzadeh, Ehsan Amini, Mohsen Tohidifar

Abstract:

Calvarial Hyperostosis Syndrome( CHS) is a benign bone disease of the skull. It is a non-neoplastic and proliferative bone disease, and the main feature of the disease is progressive and asymmetrical bone involvement. CHS is mostly reported in young male and female bullmastiff dogs and less frequently in other breeds. The etiology of CHS is unknown. This is the first case report of CHS in Iran. A 3-month-old male Persian Mastiff was presented with chief complaints of multiple episodes of seizure, pacing, bizarre behavior, delayed growth, head pressing, and difficulty in opening the mouth. Central blindness and open fontanelles were observed in clinical examination. No abnormality was found in complete blood count and routine blood biochemical tests. CT scan findings include cortical thickening of frontal and parietal bones and enlargement of left retropharyngeal lymph node. For treatment, oral clindamycine for two weeks, prednisolone and phenobarbital for one month respectively, were administrated, and the case showed improvement after a week and was recovered after one month.

Keywords: calvarial hyperostosis, persian mastiff, frontal bone, seizure

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21 Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Murtatha M. Jamel, Parisa Khoshnoud, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, PVC foam, PVC composites, polymer composites, glass fiber composites, reinforced polymers

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20 An Investigation on Engineering Students’ Perceptions Towards E-Learning in the UK

Authors: Parisa Razzaghifard, Farid Arya, , Sonia Chien-I Chen, Behzad Abdi, Vida Razzaghifard, A. H. Arya, A. Nazary, H. Hosseinpour, K. Ghabelnezam

Abstract:

E-learning, also known as online learning, has indicated an increased growth in recent years. One of the critical factors in successful application of e-learning in higher education is students’ perceptions towards it. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of engineering students about e-learning in UK. For the purpose of the present study, 145 second year Engineering students were randomly selected from the total population of 1280 participants. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 16 items. The data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of participants have negative perceptions on e-learning. Most of the students had trouble interacting effectively during online classes. Furthermore, the majority of participants had negative experiences with learning platform they were used during e-learning. Suggestions were made on what could be done to improve the students’ perceptions towards e-learning.

Keywords: e-learning, higher, education, engineering education, online learning

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19 A Survey on Frequency of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis in Horses in Ahvaz South-West of Iran

Authors: Ali R. Ghadrdan-Mashhadi, Hosein Hamidi-Nejat, Parisa Alizadehnia

Abstract:

Cryptosporidia and Giardia are protozoan parasites that have worldwide distribution and infect a variety of animals. Although, the infection to these parasites rarely caused to illness in horses, but some veterinarian recorded the clinical signs (such as diarrhea and malabsorbtion) especially in foals. In present study, the frequency of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis in horses in Ahvaz investigated. The feces samples were taken from 100 horses that keep in seven horse breeding clubs, during spring and summer. The ages of horses were from 1 month to 27 years old. Fecal samples were stained by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Tri-chrome methods. Results were analyzed with Chi-square Test and Fisher’s exact test. The results showed that the rate of infection to Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 18% and 40%, respectively. There weren't significant differences between infection to Cryptosporidium and Giardia with sex, age and fecal constancy. Although, the rate of infection to Cryptosporidium in studied horses is very similar to other studies but it seems, the rate of infection to Giardia is high in compare to other studies were done in the other countries.

Keywords: Ahvaz, cryptosporidium, giardia, horse

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18 Comparison of Numerical and Laboratory Results of Pull-Out Test on Soil–Geogrid Interactions

Authors: Parisa Ahmadi Oliaei, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

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The knowledge of soil–reinforcement interaction parameters is particularly important in the design of reinforced soil structures. The pull-out test is one of the most widely used tests in this regard. The results of tensile tests may be very sensitive to boundary conditions, and more research is needed for a better understanding of the Pull-out response of reinforcement, so numerical analysis using the finite element method can be a useful tool for the understanding of the Pull-out response of soil-geogrid interaction. The main objective of the present study is to compare the numerical and experimental results of Pull- out a test on geogrid-reinforced sandy soils interactions. Plaxis 2D finite element software is used for simulation. In the present study, the pull-out test modeling has been done on sandy soil. The effect of geogrid hardness was also investigated by considering two different types of geogrids. The numerical results curve had a good agreement with the pull-out laboratory results.

Keywords: plaxis, pull-out test, sand, soil- geogrid interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
17 Removal of Acetaminophen with Chitosan-Nano Activated Carbon Beads from Aqueous Sources

Authors: Parisa Amouzgar, Chan Eng Seng, Babak Salamatinia

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly detected in the environment. However, conventional treatment systems do not provide an adequate treatment for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated standard for their limitation in water. Since decades before, pharmaceuticals have been in the water but only recently, their levels in the environment have been recognized and quantified as potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In this study chitosan with a bio-based NAC (Ct-NAC) were made as beads with extrusion dripping method and investigated for acetaminophen removal from water. The effects of beading parameters such as flow rate in dripping, the distance from dipping tip to the solution surface, concentration of chitosan and percentage of NAC were analyzed to find the optimum condition. Based on the results, the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency increased during the time till the equilibrium rate which was 80% removal of acetaminophen. The maximum adsorption belonged to the beads with 1.75% chitosan, 60% NAC, flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min while the distance of dripping was 22.5 cm.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, water treatment, chitosan nano activated carbon beads, Acetaminophen

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16 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

Abstract:

With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
15 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati

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Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, auditor’s rotation, reputation, capability, assurance, experience, responsiveness, independence, expertise

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
14 Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Parisa Bagheri Tookanlou

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.

Keywords: product line design, demand uncertainty, customization level, distribution channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
13 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

Abstract:

Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: business, governance, CSR, sustainability

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12 Reducing Energy Consumption in Architectural Spaces by Optimizing Natural Light Transmission

Authors: Parisa Javid

Abstract:

In architecture, daylight contributes to humans' mental and physical well-being and reduces the consumption of fossil fuels. Accordingly, Iran's rich architecture has valuable achievements and experiences that should be recognized and introduced to the Iranian and international architecture communities. There are many ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings, but electricity accounts for a large part of that consumption. Lighting up spaces with natural light is a significant factor in reducing energy consumption and preventing electricity dissipation. Aside from being expensive, electric lighting systems cause excessive heat and physical injury (eyes). This study is based on library records and documents. Modern lighting systems are used to reduce energy consumption in the interior of a building to allow for optimal transmission of natural light. It discusses how to use natural light in architecture and the benefits of natural light in buildings. Solar energy can be used more efficiently, and electrical power can be saved in residential, administrative, commercial, and educational buildings by using new methods such as light tubes and mirror directors. Modern lighting systems, natural light, and reduced energy consumption are keywords for these systems, which quickly return their investment.

Keywords: modern lighting systems, natural light, reduced energy consumption

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11 Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Dry Weight, Flower Diameter, and Number of Flower in Plant Variabilities under Effect of Compost and Nitrogen Different Levels in Four Harvest

Authors: Amin Rezazadeh, Parisa Farahpour, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Morteza Sam Deliri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and compost different levels on qualitative and quantitative performance of Calendula officinalis L. herb, an experiment was carried out in the research field of Chalous Azad University in 2011-2012. The experiment was done in factorial form as a randomized complete block design, in three replicates. Treatments consisted of nitrogen and compost. Considered nitrogen levels consisted of N0=0, N1=50, N2=100 kg/ha and compost levels were including C0=0, C1=6, C2=12 ton/ha. Investigated characteristics consisted of flower dry weight, number of flowers in plant, flower diameter. The results showed, nitrogen and compost treatments had statistically significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on studied characteristics. Flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant characteristics has been studied in four harvest; as, the performance of these characteristics had increasing procedure from the first harvest up to the forth harvest; and, in the fourth harvest, it has reached to its` maximum level. As, up to the forth harvest, the maximum flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant obtained by C1× N2 (C1=6 ton/ha compost and N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen) treatment.

Keywords: calendula, compost, nitrogen, flavonoid

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10 Effects of Duct Geometry, Thickness and Types of Liners on Transmission Loss for Absorptive Silencers

Authors: M. Kashfi, K. Jahani

Abstract:

Sound attenuation in absorptive silencers has been analyzed in this paper. The structure of such devices is as follows. When the rigid duct of an expansion chamber has been lined by a packed absorptive material under a perforated membrane, incident sound waves will be dissipated by the absorptive liners. This kind of silencer, usually are applicable for medium to high frequency ranges. Several conditions for different absorptive materials, variety in their thicknesses, and different shapes of the expansion chambers have been studied in this paper. Also, graphs of sound attenuation have been compared between empty expansion chamber and duct of silencer with applying liner. Plane waves have been assumed in inlet and outlet regions of the silencer. Presented results that have been achieved by applying finite element method (FEM), have shown the dependence of the sound attenuation spectrum to flow resistivity and the thicknesses of the absorptive materials, and geometries of the cross section (configuration of the silencer). As flow resistivity and thickness of absorptive materials increase, sound attenuation improves. In this paper, diagrams of the transmission loss (TL) for absorptive silencers in five different cross sections (rectangle, circle, ellipse, square, and rounded rectangle as the main geometry) have been presented. Also, TL graphs for silencers using different absorptive material (glass wool, wood fiber, and kind of spongy materials) as liner with three different thicknesses of 5 mm, 15 mm, and 30 mm for glass wool liner have been exhibited. At first, the effect of substances of the absorptive materials with the specific flow resistivity and densities on the TL spectrum, then the effect of the thicknesses of the glass wool, and at last the efficacy of the shape of the cross section of the silencer have been investigated.

Keywords: transmission loss, absorptive material, flow resistivity, thickness, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
9 Application of Deep Neural Networks to Assess Corporate Credit Rating

Authors: Parisa Golbayani, Dan Wang, Ionut¸ Florescu

Abstract:

In this work we implement machine learning techniques to financial statement reports in order to asses company’s credit rating. Specifically, the work analyzes the performance of four neural network architectures (MLP, CNN, CNN2D, LSTM) in predicting corporate credit rating as issued by Standard and Poor’s. The paper focuses on companies from the energy, financial, and healthcare sectors in the US. The goal of this analysis is to improve application of machine learning algorithms to credit assessment. To accomplish this, the study investigates three questions. First, we investigate if the algorithms perform better when using a selected subset of important features or whether better performance is obtained by allowing the algorithms to select features themselves. Second, we address the temporal aspect inherent in financial data and study whether it is important for the results obtained by a machine learning algorithm. Third, we aim to answer if one of the four particular neural network architectures considered consistently outperforms the others, and if so under which conditions. This work frames the problem as several case studies to answer these questions and analyze the results using ANOVA and multiple comparison testing procedures.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, long short term memory, multilayer perceptron, credit rating

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8 Preparation of Zno/Ag Nanocomposite and Coating on Polymers for Anti-Infection Biomaterial Application

Authors: Babak Sadeghi, Parisa Ghayomipour

Abstract:

ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900 ºC. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications.

Keywords: nanocomposites, antibacterial activity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD)

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7 Determinants of House Dust, Endotoxin, and β- (1→ 3)-D-Glucan in Homes of Turkish Children

Authors: Afsoun Nikravan, Parisa Babaei, Gulen Gullu

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We aimed to study the association between house dust endotoxin, β-(1→3)-D-glucan, and asthma in a sample representative of the Turkish population. We analyzed data from 240 participants. The house dust was collected from the homes of 110 asthmatics and 130 control (without asthma) school-aged children (6-11 years old). House dust from the living room and from bedroom floors were analyzed for endotoxin and beta-glucan contents. House dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found geometric means 187.5 mg/m² for dust. According to statistical values, the endotoxin geometric mean was 13.86×103 EU/g for the control group and 6.16×103 EU/g for the asthma group. As a result, the amount of bacterial endotoxin was measured at a higher level in the homes of children without asthma. The geometric mean for beta-glucan was 46.52 µg/g and 44.39 µg/g for asthma and control groups, respectively. No associations between asthma and microbial agents were observed in Turkish children. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin loads, while endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations were not correlated. The type of flooring (hard-surface or textile) was the strongest determinant for loads of floor dust and concentrations of endotoxin. Water damage and dampness at home were determinants of β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations. Endotoxin and β-(1→3)-D-glucan concentrations in Turkish house dust might lower than concentrations seen in other European countries.

Keywords: indoor air quality, asthma, microbial pollutants, case-control

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6 Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Parisa Kahani, Fatollah Rahimi Bafrani, Ali Dehghan, Nava Seyedi, Vafa Feyzi, Zohreh Forozanfar

Abstract:

Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.

Keywords: functional movement, screening test, anthropometry, ergonomics

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5 Discussing the Values of Collective Memory and Cultural / Rural Landscape Based on the Concept of Eco-Village; Case of Turkey, Gölpazarı, Kurşunlu Village

Authors: Parisa Göker, Hilal Kahveci, Özlem Candan Hergül

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Humans are generating culture while being in touch with nature. Along with skills, local knowledge based on experience, and many other subjects developed within this process, 'culture' offers humans a chance to survive. For this reason, culture forms the equipment for humans, which facilitates their survival in all ecosystems. Together with technology, quick consumption of natural sources and overuse culture of humans have brought up the eco-village concept. Ecovillages are ecologically, economically, socio-culturally, and spiritually sustainable settlement models. It is known that the eco-village approach is applying a proper methodology on behalf of integrative and versatile solution generation. Today, the eco-village approach, introducing a radical criticism to the understanding of civilization and consumption culture and deeming urban solutions inadequate as a spatial reflection to civilization and consumption culture, while making a difference about integrative solution offering with multidimensional features, along with the goal of creating self-sufficient communities, is creating solutions on the subject of both reducing the ecological footprint of humans and to provide social order and also to solve the injustice seen in terms of income and life standards. In this study, environmental issues, sustainable development, and environmental sustainability topics are examined within the context of eco-tourism and eco-village. Alongside this, the natural and cultural landscape values of Kurşunlu village which are located in Bilecik province’s Gölpazarı county, and a contextual frame is created for the facilitation of sustainability in the event of dynamizing the Kurşunlu village in terms of tourism-oriented activities.

Keywords: eco village, sustainability, rural landscape, cultural landscape

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4 Biotechnology Sector in the Context of National Innovation System: The Case of Norway

Authors: Parisa Afshin, Terje Grønning

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Norway, similar to many other countries, has set the focus of its policies in creating new strong and highly innovative sectors in recent years, as the oil and gas sector profitability is declining. Biotechnology sector in Norway has a great potential, especially in marine-biotech and cancer medicine. However, Norway being a periphery faces especial challenges in the path of creating internationally well-known biotech sector and an international knowledge hub. The aim of this article is to analyze the progress of the Norwegian biotechnology industry, its pathway to build up an innovation network and conduct collaborative innovation based on its initial conditions and its own advantage and disadvantages. The findings have important implications not only for politicians and academic in understanding the infrastructure of biotechnology sector in the country, but it has important lessons for other periphery countries or regions aiming in creating strong biotechnology sector and catching up with the strong internationally-recognized regions. Data and methodology: To achieve the main goal of this study, information has been collected via secondary resources such as web pages and annual reports published by the officials and mass media along with interviews were used. The data were collected with the goal to shed light on a brief history and current status of Norway biotechnology sector, as well as geographic distribution of biotech industry, followed by the role of academic and industry collaboration and public policies in Norway biotech. As knowledge is the key input in innovation, knowledge perspective of the system such as knowledge flow in the sector regarding the national and regional innovation system has been studied. Primary results: The internationalization has been an important element in development of periphery regions' innovativeness enabling them to overcome their weakness while putting more weight on the importance of regional policies. Following such findings, suggestions on policy decision and international collaboration, regarding national and regional system of innovation, has been offered as means of promoting strong innovative sector.

Keywords: biotechnology sector, knowledge-based industry, national innovation system, regional innovation system

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