Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3863

Search results for: multiple scales

3863 Reliability of Self-Reported Language Proficiency Measures in l1 Attrition Research: A Closer Look at the Can-Do-Scales.

Authors: Anastasia Sorokina


Self-reported language proficiency measures have been widely used by researchers and have been proven to be an accurate tool to assess actual language proficiency. L1 attrition researchers also rely on self-reported measures. More specifically, can-do-scales has gained popularity in the discipline of L1 attrition research. The can-do-scales usually contain statements about language (e.g., “I can write e-mails”); participants are asked to rate each statement on a scale from 1 (I cannot do it at all) to 5 (I can do it without any difficulties). Despite its popularity, no studies have examined can-do-scales’ reliability at measuring the actual level of L1 attrition. Do can-do-scales positively correlate with lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and fluency? The present study analyzed speech samples of 35 Russian-English attriters to examine whether their self-reported proficiency correlates with their actual L1 proficiency. The results of Pearson correlation demonstrated that can-do-scales correlated with lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and fluency. These findings provide a valuable contribution to the L1 attrition research by demonstrating that can-do-scales can be used as a reliable tool to measure L1 attrition.

Keywords: L1 attrition, can-do-scales, lexical diversity, syntactic complexity

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3862 The Evaluation of the Patients Related to Numeric Pain Scales: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Maide Yesilyurt, Saide Faydalı


Patients experience pain at different intensities in postoperative. The diagnosis of the pain, the assessment and the success of the treatment and care make the measurement of this finding compulsory. The aim of the study is to determine the evaluation differences numeric pain scales. The descriptive study was conducted with 360 patients with in postoperative. The data were obtained from questionnaires related to six numeric pain scales most preferred in clinical use, and a face-to-face interview technique was used by the researcher. Regarding to numeric pain scale, questions include forth positive and one negative statement. In evaluating the data; chi-square and Pearson correlation tests were used. For the study, the patients’ informed consents, the institution and the ethics committee received permission. In this study, patients' ages are between 18-80, 95.8% of the patients were not informed about pain assessment. Patients evaluated the 5-item numeric scale as the easy, can be answered quickly, accurate, and appropriate for clinical use and the 101 items numeric scale as complex than other scales. Regarding to numeric pain scales with positive statements between age, marital status, educational status, previous surgery, having chronic disease and getting information about pain assessment significant difference has been detected. All numeric pain scales are correlated to each other. As a result, it was determined that as the items in the numerical scales decreased, the patients were able to perceive the scales better, and the items in the scales increased, the patients were in trouble to understand.

Keywords: numeric pain scales, nurse, pain assessment, patient

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3861 Large Amplitude Vibration of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Youssef Abdelli, Rachid Nasri


The large amplitude free vibration analysis of three-layered symmetric sandwich beams is carried out using two different approaches. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in free natural vibration are derived using Hamilton's principle. The formulation leads to two nonlinear partial differential equations that are coupled both in axial and binding deformations. In the first approach, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the governing equation that is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In the second approach, we discretize the governing equation by using Galerkin's procedure and then apply the shooting method to the obtained ordinary differential equations. In order to check the validity of the solutions obtained by the two approaches, they are compared with the solutions obtained by two approaches; they are compared with the solutions obtained numerically by the finite difference method.

Keywords: finite difference method, large amplitude vibration, multiple scales, nonlinear vibration

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3860 Work Ability Index (WAI) and Its Health-Related Detriments among Iranian Farmers Working in the Small Farm Enterprises

Authors: Akbar Rostamabadi, Adel Mazloumi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani


This study aimed to determine the Work Ability Index (WAI) and examine the influence of health dimensions and demographic variables on the work ability of Iranian farmers working in small farm enterprises. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 294 male farmers. The WAI and SF-36 questionnaires were used to determine work ability and health status. The effect of demographics variables on the work ability index was investigated with the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Also, multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the association between the mean WAI score and the SF-36 scales. The mean WAI score was 35.1 (SD=10.6). One-way ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between the mean WAI and age. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that work ability was more influenced by physical scales of the health dimensions, such as physical function, role-physical, and general health, whereas a lower association was found for mental scales such as mental health. The average WAI was at a moderate work ability level for the sample population of farmers in this study. Based on the WAI guidelines, improvement of work ability and identification of factors affecting it should be considered a priority in interventional programs. Given the influence of health dimensions on WAI, any intervention program for preservation and promotion work ability among the studied farmers should be based on balancing and optimizing the physical and psychosocial work environments, with a special focus on reducing physical work load.

Keywords: farmers, SF-36, Work Ability Index (WAI), Iran

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3859 Object-Scene: Deep Convolutional Representation for Scene Classification

Authors: Yanjun Chen, Chuanping Hu, Jie Shao, Lin Mei, Chongyang Zhang


Traditional image classification is based on encoding scheme (e.g. Fisher Vector, Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptor) with low-level image features (e.g. SIFT, HoG). Compared to these low-level local features, deep convolutional features obtained at the mid-level layer of convolutional neural networks (CNN) have richer information but lack of geometric invariance. For scene classification, there are scattered objects with different size, category, layout, number and so on. It is crucial to find the distinctive objects in scene as well as their co-occurrence relationship. In this paper, we propose a method to take advantage of both deep convolutional features and the traditional encoding scheme while taking object-centric and scene-centric information into consideration. First, to exploit the object-centric and scene-centric information, two CNNs that trained on ImageNet and Places dataset separately are used as the pre-trained models to extract deep convolutional features at multiple scales. This produces dense local activations. By analyzing the performance of different CNNs at multiple scales, it is found that each CNN works better in different scale ranges. A scale-wise CNN adaption is reasonable since objects in scene are at its own specific scale. Second, a fisher kernel is applied to aggregate a global representation at each scale and then to merge into a single vector by using a post-processing method called scale-wise normalization. The essence of Fisher Vector lies on the accumulation of the first and second order differences. Hence, the scale-wise normalization followed by average pooling would balance the influence of each scale since different amount of features are extracted. Third, the Fisher vector representation based on the deep convolutional features is followed by a linear Supported Vector Machine, which is a simple yet efficient way to classify the scene categories. Experimental results show that the scale-specific feature extraction and normalization with CNNs trained on object-centric and scene-centric datasets can boost the results from 74.03% up to 79.43% on MIT Indoor67 when only two scales are used (compared to results at single scale). The result is comparable to state-of-art performance which proves that the representation can be applied to other visual recognition tasks.

Keywords: deep convolutional features, Fisher Vector, multiple scales, scale-specific normalization

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3858 Body Armours in Amazonian Fish

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Donna M. Ebenstein, Monica Merino


Most fish are covered by a protective external armour. The characteristics of these armours depend on the individual elements that form them, such as scales, scutes or dermal plates. In this work, we assess the properties of two different types of protective elements: scales from A. gigas and dermal plates from P. pardalis. A. Gigas and P. Pardalis are two Amazonian fish with a rather prehistoric aspect. They have large scales and dermal plates that form two different types of protective body armours. Although both scales and dermal plates are formed by collagen and hydroxyapatite, their structures display remarkable differences. The structure and composition of the samples were assessed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Morphology studies were carried out using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Nanoindentation tests were performed to measure the reduced moduli in A. gigas scales and P. pardalis plates. The similarities and differences between scales and dermal plates are discussed based on the experimental results. Both protective armours are designed to be lightweight, flexible and tough. A. Gigas scales are are light laminated composites, while P. pardalis dermal plates show a sandwich like structure with dense outer layers and a porous inner matrix. It seems that the armour of P. pardalis is more suited for a bottom-dwelling fish and allows for protection against predators. The scales from A. Gigas are more adapted to give protection to a swimming fish. The information obtained from these studies is also important for the development of bioinspired nanocomposites, with potential applications in the biomedical field.

Keywords: pterygoplichthys pardalis, dermal plates arapaima gigas, fish scales

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3857 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono


Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

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3856 Use of Simultaneous Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Techniques to Characterize High-Temperature Oxides Formed on Nickel-Based Superalloys Exposed to Super-Critical Water Environment

Authors: Mohsen Sanayei, Jerzy Szpunar, Sami Penttilä


Exposure of Nickel-based superalloys to high temperature and harsh environment such as Super-Critical Water (SCW) environment leads to the formation of oxide scales composed of multiple and complex phases that are difficult to differentiate with conventional analysis techniques. In this study, we used simultaneous Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the complex oxide scales formed on several Nickel-based Superalloys exposed to high temperature SCW. Multi-layered structures of Iron, Nickel, Chromium and Molybdenum oxides and spinels were clearly identified using the simultaneous EBSD-EDS analysis technique. Furthermore, the orientation relationship between the oxide scales and the substrate has been investigated.

Keywords: electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superalloy, super-critical water

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3855 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

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3854 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence


The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

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3853 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang


In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: ASEBA, construct validity, psychological and behavioral problems, reliability

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3852 Fault Tolerant Control System Using a Multiple Time Scale SMC Technique and a Geometric Approach

Authors: Ghodbane Azeddine, Saad Maarouf, Boland Jean-Francois, Thibeault Claude


This paper proposes a new design of an active fault-tolerant flight control system against abrupt actuator faults. This overall system combines a multiple time scale sliding mode controller for fault compensation and a geometric approach for fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed control system is able to accommodate several kinds of partial and total actuator failures, by using available healthy redundancy actuators. The overall system first estimates the correct fault information using the geometric approach. Then, and based on that, a new reconfigurable control law is designed based on the multiple time scale sliding mode technique for on-line compensating the effect of such faults. This approach takes advantages of the fact that there are significant difference between the time scales of aircraft states that have a slow dynamics and those that have a fast dynamics. The closed-loop stability of the overall system is proved using Lyapunov technique. A case study of the non-linear model of the F16 fighter, subject to the rudder total loss of control confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: actuator faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, multiple time scale approximation, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, lyapunov stability

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3851 Fish Scales as a Nonlethal Screening Tools for Assessing the Effects of Surface Water Contaminants in Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Shahid Mahboob, Hafiz Muhammad Ashraf, Salma Sultana, Tayyaba Sultana, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Fahid Al-Misned, Zubair Ahmedd


There is an increasing need for an effective tool to estimate the risks derived from the large number of pollutants released to the environment by human activities. Typical screening procedures are highly invasive or lethal to the fish. Recent studies show that fish scales biochemically respond to a range of contaminants, including toxic metals, organic compounds, and endocrine disruptors. The present study evaluated the effects of the surface water contaminants on Cyprinus carpio in the Ravi River by comparing DNA extracted non-lethally from their scales to DNA extracted from the scales of fish collected from a controlled fish farm. A single, random sampling was conducted. Fish were broadly categorised into three weight categories (W1, W2 and W3). The experimental samples in the W1, W2 and W3 categories had an average DNA concentration (µg/µl) that was lower than the control samples. All control samples had a single DNA band; whereas the experimental samples in W1 fish had 1 to 2 bands, the experimental samples in W2 fish had two bands and the experimental samples in W3 fish had fragmentation in the form of three bands. These bands exhibit the effects of pollution on fish in the Ravi River. On the basis findings of this study, we propose that fish scales can be successfully employed as a new non-lethal tool for the evaluation of the effect of surface water contaminants.

Keywords: fish scales, Cyprinus carpio, heavy metals, non-invasive, DNA fragmentation

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3850 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method

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3849 Experimental Study Analyzing the Similarity Theory Formulations for the Effect of Aerodynamic Roughness Length on Turbulence Length Scales in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

Authors: Matthew J. Emes, Azadeh Jafari, Maziar Arjomandi


Velocity fluctuations of shear-generated turbulence are largest in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) of nominal 100 m depth, which can lead to dynamic effects such as galloping and flutter on small physical structures on the ground when the turbulence length scales and characteristic length of the physical structure are the same order of magnitude. Turbulence length scales are a measure of the average sizes of the energy-containing eddies that are widely estimated using two-point cross-correlation analysis to convert the temporal lag to a separation distance using Taylor’s hypothesis that the convection velocity is equal to the mean velocity at the corresponding height. Profiles of turbulence length scales in the neutrally-stratified ASL, as predicted by Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) 85020 for single-point data and ESDU 86010 for two-point correlations, are largely dependent on the aerodynamic roughness length. Field measurements have shown that longitudinal turbulence length scales show significant regional variation, whereas length scales of the vertical component show consistent Obukhov scaling from site to site because of the absence of low-frequency components. Hence, the objective of this experimental study is to compare the similarity theory relationships between the turbulence length scales and aerodynamic roughness length with those calculated using the autocorrelations and cross-correlations of field measurement velocity data at two sites: the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility in a desert ASL in Dugway, Utah, USA and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) wind tower in a rural ASL in Jemalong, NSW, Australia. The results indicate that the longitudinal turbulence length scales increase with increasing aerodynamic roughness length, as opposed to the relationships derived by similarity theory correlations in ESDU models. However, the ratio of the turbulence length scales in the lateral and vertical directions to the longitudinal length scales is relatively independent of surface roughness, showing consistent inner-scaling between the two sites and the ESDU correlations. Further, the diurnal variation of wind velocity due to changes in atmospheric stability conditions has a significant effect on the turbulence structure of the energy-containing eddies in the lower ASL.

Keywords: aerodynamic roughness length, atmospheric surface layer, similarity theory, turbulence length scales

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3848 Angiogenesis and Blood Flow: The Role of Blood Flow in Proliferation and Migration of Endothelial Cells

Authors: Hossein Bazmara, Kaamran Raahemifar, Mostafa Sefidgar, Madjid Soltani


Angiogenesis is formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels. Due to flow of blood in vessels, during angiogenesis, blood flow plays an important role in regulating the angiogenesis process. Multiple mathematical models of angiogenesis have been proposed to simulate the formation of the complicated network of capillaries around a tumor. In this work, a multi-scale model of angiogenesis is developed to show the effect of blood flow on capillaries and network formation. This model spans multiple temporal and spatial scales, i.e. intracellular (molecular), cellular, and extracellular (tissue) scales. In intracellular or molecular scale, the signaling cascade of endothelial cells is obtained. Two main stages in development of a vessel are considered. In the first stage, single sprouts are extended toward the tumor. In this stage, the main regulator of endothelial cells behavior is the signals from extracellular matrix. After anastomosis and formation of closed loops, blood flow starts in the capillaries. In this stage, blood flow induced signals regulate endothelial cells behaviors. In cellular scale, growth and migration of endothelial cells is modeled with a discrete lattice Monte Carlo method called cellular Pott's model (CPM). In extracellular (tissue) scale, diffusion of tumor angiogenic factors in the extracellular matrix, formation of closed loops (anastomosis), and shear stress induced by blood flow is considered. The model is able to simulate the formation of a closed loop and its extension. The results are validated against experimental data. The results show that, without blood flow, the capillaries are not able to maintain their integrity.

Keywords: angiogenesis, endothelial cells, multi-scale model, cellular Pott's model, signaling cascade

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3847 State Rescaling of the Urban Development in Hong Kong after the Reunification: A Case Study of the Planning Process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link

Authors: Zhihua Xu


In the era of globalization, the urban question is increasingly being posed in the form of a scale question. Scale theory provides a new perspective for analyzing various dynamics and their influences on urban development. After the reunification, how the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) interacts with the actors at various scales and carries out state rescaling are the keys to exploring the issue of urban development and governance in Hong Kong. This paper examines the entire planning process of the Hong Kong Section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, from project conception, design, to consultation, and fund application, to identify the actors at different scales involved in the process, and analyze the modes and consequences of their interaction. This study shows that after the reunification, the Hong Kong SAR Government takes the initiative to scale up to expand its hinterland. Intergovernmental institutional cooperation is an important mode of state rescaling for the Hong Kong SAR government. Meanwhile, the gradually growing civil society plays an important role in the rescaling of urban development. Local actors use scalar politics to construct discourses and take actions at multiple scales to challenge the government’s proposal and trigger a discussion on the project throughout the Hong Kong society. The case study of Hong Kong can deepen the understanding of state rescaling of territorial organizations in the context of institutional transformation and enrich the theoretical connotation of state rescaling. It also helps the Mainland government to better understand the case of Hong Kong and formulate appropriate.

Keywords: Hong Kong, state rescaling, scalar politics, Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express rail link, urban governance

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3846 Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal


The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 600. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modelling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, multi-linear regression, earth sciences

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3845 Nonstationary Increments and Casuality in the Aluminum Market

Authors: Andrew Clark


McCauley, Bassler and Gunaratne show that integration I(d) processes as used in economics and finance do not necessarily produce stationary increments, which are required to determine causality in both the short term and the long term. This paper follows their lead and shows I(d) aluminum cash and futures log prices at daily and weekly intervals do not have stationary increments which means prior causality studies using I(d) processes need to be re-examined. Wavelets based on undifferenced cash and futures log prices do have stationary increments and are used along with transfer entropy (versus cointegration) to measure causality. Wavelets exhibit causality at most daily time scales out to 1 year and weekly time scales out to 1 year and more. To determine stationarity, localized stationary wavelets are used. LSWs have the benefit, versus other means of testing for stationarity, of using multiple hypothesis tests to determine stationarity. As informational flows exist between cash and futures at daily and weekly intervals, the aluminum market is efficient. Therefore, hedges used by producers and consumers of aluminum need not have a big concern in terms of the underestimation of hedge ratios. Questions about arbitrage given efficiency are addressed in the paper.

Keywords: transfer entropy, nonstationary increments, wavelets, localized stationary wavelets, localized stationary wavelets

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3844 Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing

Authors: Mohammed S. Assiri


In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.

Keywords: analytic scoring, rating scales, writing assessment, writing constructs, writing performance

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3843 Deproteinization of Moroccan Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Scales: A Pilot-Scale Study

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, N. Bourhim


In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of by-products including skins, bones, heads, guts, and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Sardina plichardus scales from resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. And the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The advancement from lab scale to pilot scale is a critical stage in the technological development. In this study, the optimal condition for the deproteinization which was validated at laboratory scale was employed in the pilot scale procedure. The deproteinization of fish scale was then demonstrated on a pilot scale (2Kg scales, 20l NaOH), resulting in protein content (0,2mg/ml) and hydroxyproline content (2,11mg/l). These results indicated that the pilot-scale showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one.

Keywords: deproteinization, pilot scale, scale, sardine pilchardus

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3842 Numerical Multi-Scale Modeling of Rubber Friction on Rough Pavements Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Ashkan Nazari, Saied Taheri


Knowledge of tire-pavement interaction plays a crucial role in designing safer and more reliable tires. Characterizing the tire-pavement frictional interaction leads to a better understanding of vehicle performance in braking and acceleration. In this work, we devise a multi-scale simulation approach to incorporate the effect of pavement surface asperities in different length-scales. We construct two- and three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the interaction between a rubber block and a rough pavement surface with asperities in different scales. To achieve this, the road profile is scanned via a laser profilometer and the obtained asperities are implemented in an FE software (ABAQUS) in micro and macro length-scales. The hysteresis friction, which is due to the dissipative nature of rubber, is the main component of the friction force and therefore is the subject of study in this work. Using different scales not only will assist in characterizing the pavement asperities with sufficient details but also, it is highly effective in preventing extreme local deformations and stress gradients which results in divergence in FE simulations. The simulation results will be validated with experimental results as well as the results reported in the literature.

Keywords: friction, finite element, multi-scale modeling, rubber

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3841 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed


Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC), complexity analysis

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3840 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Multiple Resources for Multi-Projects

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Sarah A. Fotouh


Optimization of resources is very important in all fields, as in construction management. Project managers have to face problems regarding management of cost, time and available resources of single projects and more problems arise when managing multiple projects. Most of the studies focused on optimization of resources for a single project, but, this paper will discuss the design and modeling of multiple resources optimization for multiple projects using Genetic Algorithm. Most of the companies in construction industry optimize the resources for single projects only, but with the presence of several mega projects in several developing countries running at the same time, there is a need for a model to enhance the efficiency of available resources and decreases the fluctuation as much as possible. The proposed model calculates the cost of each resource, tries to minimize the cost of extra resources as much as possible and generates the schedule of each project within a selected program.

Keywords: construction management, genetic algorithm, multiple projects, multiple resources, optimization

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3839 Optimization of Extraction Conditions and Characteristics of Scale collagen From Sardine: Sardina pilchardus

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, M. Loutfi, N.Bourhim


In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of byproducts including skins, bones, heads, guts and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Scales from Sardina plichardus resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic and bio medical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. Moreover, the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The basic principle of RSM is to determinate model equations that describe interrelations between the independent variables and the dependent variables.

Keywords: Sardina pilchardus, scales, valorization, collagen extraction, response surface methodology

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3838 Image Classification with Localization Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Bhuyain Mobarok Hossain


Image classification and localization research is currently an important strategy in the field of computer vision. The evolution and advancement of deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have greatly improved the capabilities of object detection and image-based classification. Target detection is important to research in the field of computer vision, especially in video surveillance systems. To solve this problem, we will be applying a convolutional neural network of multiple scales at multiple locations in the image in one sliding window. Most translation networks move away from the bounding box around the area of interest. In contrast to this architecture, we consider the problem to be a classification problem where each pixel of the image is a separate section. Image classification is the method of predicting an individual category or specifying by a shoal of data points. Image classification is a part of the classification problem, including any labels throughout the image. The image can be classified as a day or night shot. Or, likewise, images of cars and motorbikes will be automatically placed in their collection. The deep learning of image classification generally includes convolutional layers; the invention of it is referred to as a convolutional neural network (CNN).

Keywords: image classification, object detection, localization, particle filter

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3837 Improved FP-Growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam


Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FP-growth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy.

Keywords: association rules, FP-growth, multiple minimum supports, Weka tool

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3836 Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Hadia Rafi


To make any decision in any work/task/project it involves many factors that needed to be looked. The analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) is based on the judgments of experts to derive the required results this technique measures the intangibles and then by the help of judgment and software analysis the comparisons are made which shows how much a certain element/unit leads another. AHP includes how an inconsistent judgment should be made consistent and how the judgment should be improved when possible. The Priority scales are obtained by multiplying them with the priority of their parent node and after that they are added.

Keywords: AHP, priority scales, parent node, software analysis

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3835 Variable Selection in a Data Envelopment Analysis Model by Multiple Proportions Comparison

Authors: Jirawan Jitthavech, Vichit Lorchirachoonkul


A statistical procedure using multiple comparisons test for proportions is proposed for variable selection in a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The test statistic in the multiple comparisons is the proportion of efficient decision making units (DMUs) in a DEA model. Three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions: multiple Z tests with Bonferroni correction, multiple tests in 2Xc crosstabulation and the Marascuilo procedure, are used in the proposed statistical procedure of iteratively eliminating the variables in a backward manner. Two simulation populations of moderately and lowly correlated variables are used to compare the results of the statistical procedure using three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions with the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that the proposed statistical procedure using multiple Z tests for proportions with Bonferroni correction clearly outperforms the proposed statistical procedure using the remaining two methods of multiple comparisons and the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure.

Keywords: Bonferroni correction, efficient DMUs, Marascuilo procedure, Pastor et al. method, 2xc crosstabulation

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3834 Sum Capacity with Regularized Channel Inversion in Multi-Antenna Downlink Systems under Equal Power Constraint

Authors: Attaullah Khawaja, Amna Shabbir


Channel inversion is one of the simplest techniques for multiuser downlink systems with single-antenna users. In this paper regularized channel inversion under equal power constraint in the multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channels has been considered. Sum capacity with plain channel inversion also known as Zero Forcing Beam Forming (ZFBF) and optimum sum capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) has also been investigated. Analysis and simulations show that regularization enhances the system performance and empower linear growth in Sum Capacity and specially work well at low signal to noise ratio (SNRs) regime.

Keywords: broadcast channel, channel inversion, multiple antenna multiple-user wireless, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), regularization, dirty paper coding (DPC), sum capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 395