Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1622

Search results for: axially moving beam

1622 Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, S. Bab, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.

Keywords: super harmonic resonances, non-linear vibration, axially moving beam, Galerkin method

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1621 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method

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1620 Dynamic Response of Euler- Bernoulli Beam on Variable Pre-stressed under a Partially Distributed Moving Load

Authors: Idowu Ibikunle Albert


In this 21st century, all areas of transport have experienced large advances characterized by increasing in higher speeds and weight of vehicles. As a result, the structures and weight of vehicles move have been subjected to different vibrations and dynamics. In this paper dynamics response of the Euler-Bernoulli beam on variable pre-stressed under a partially distributed moving load was investigated. The governed equation of the fourth-order partially differential equation (PDE), which was reduced to the second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE), using an analytical method in term of series solution which was solved numerically using mathematics software (MAPLE 16). The Results show the response amplitude of both moving masses and moving force for variable pre-stressed increase as the mass of the load increases, and the deflection of the beam decrease as the values of pre-stressed (N) increases for both moving mass and moving force. The comparison of moving mass and moving force shows that moving mass is larger than that of moving force.

Keywords: dynamic response, Euler-Bernoulli beam, moving load, partially distributed, variable pre-stressed foundation

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1619 Dynamic Stability of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plates under Nonuniform in-Plane Edge Excitations

Authors: T. H. Young, S. J. Huang, Y. S. Chiu


This paper investigates the parametric stability of an axially moving web subjected to nonuniform in-plane edge excitations on two opposite, simply-supported edges. The web is modeled as a viscoelastic plate whose constitutive relation obeys the Kelvin-Voigt model, and the in-plane edge excitations are expressed as the sum of a static tension and a periodical perturbation. Due to the in-plane edge excitations, the moving plate may bring about parametric instability under certain situations. First, the in-plane stresses of the plate due to the nonuniform edge excitations are determined by solving the in-plane forced vibration problem. Then, the dependence on the spatial coordinates in the equation of transverse motion is eliminated by the generalized Galerkin method, which results in a set of discretized system equations in time. Finally, the method of multiple scales is utilized to solve the set of system equations analytically if the periodical perturbation of the in-plane edge excitations is much smaller as compared with the static tension of the plate, from which the stability boundaries of the moving plate are obtained. Numerical results reveal that only combination resonances of the summed-type appear under the in-plane edge excitations considered in this work.

Keywords: axially moving viscoelastic plate, in-plane periodic excitation, nonuniformly distributed edge tension, dynamic stability

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1618 Design and Manufacture of Non-Contact Moving Load for Experimental Analysis of Beams

Authors: Firooz Bakhtiari-Nejad, Hamidreza Rostami, Meysam Mirzaee, Mona Zandbaf


Dynamic tests are an important step of the design of engineering structures, because the accuracy of predictions of theoretical–numerical procedures can be assessed. In experimental test of moving loads that is one of the major research topics, the load is modeled as a simple moving mass or a small vehicle. This paper deals with the applicability of Non-Contact Moving Load (NML) for vibration analysis. For this purpose, an experimental set-up is designed to generate the different types of NML including constant and harmonic. The proposed method relies on pressurized air which is useful, especially when dealing with fragile or sensitive structures. To demonstrate the performance of this system, the set-up is employed for a modal analysis of a beam and detecting crack of the beam. The obtained results indicate that the experimental set-up for NML can be an attractive alternative to the moving load problems.

Keywords: experimental analysis, moving load, non-contact excitation, materials engineering

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1617 Free Vibration of Axially Functionally Graded Simply Supported Beams Using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: A. Selmi


Free vibration analysis of homogenous and axially functionally graded simply supported beams within the context of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented in this paper. The material properties of the beams are assumed to obey the linear law distribution. The effective elastic modulus of the composite was predicted by using the rule of mixture. Here, the complexities which appear in solving differential equation of transverse vibration of composite beams which limit the analytical solution to some special cases are overcome using a relatively new approach called the Differential Transformation Method. This technique is applied for solving differential equation of transverse vibration of axially functionally graded beams. Natural frequencies and corresponding normalized mode shapes are calculated for different Young’s modulus ratios. MATLAB code is designed to solve the transformed differential equation of the beam. Comparison of the present results with the exact solutions proves the effectiveness, the accuracy, the simplicity, and computational stability of the differential transformation method. The effect of the Young’s modulus ratio on the normalized natural frequencies and mode shapes is found to be very important.

Keywords: differential transformation method, functionally graded material, mode shape, natural frequency

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1616 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan


This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup

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1615 The Continuously Supported Infinity Rail Subjected to a Moving Complex Bogie System

Authors: Vladimir Stojanović, Marko D. Petković


The vibration of a complex bogie system that moves on along the high order shear deformable beam on a viscoelastic foundation is studied. The complex bogie system has been modeled by elastically connected rigid bars on an identical supports. Elastic coupling between bars is introduced to simulate rigidly or flexibly (transversal or/and rotational) connection. Identical supports are modeled as a system of attached spring and dashpot to the bar on one side and interact with the beam through the concentrated mass on the other side. It is assumed that the masses and the beam are always in contact. New analytically determined critical velocity of the system is presented. It is analyzed the case when the complex bogie system exceeds the minimum phase velocity of waves in the beam when the vibration of the system may become unstable. Effect of an elastic coupling between bars on the stability of the system has been analyzed. The instability regions are found for the complex bogie system by applying the principle of the argument and D-decomposition method.

Keywords: Reddy-Bickford beam, D-decomposition method, principle of argument, critical velocity

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1614 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati


In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

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1613 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter


Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1612 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz


A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

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1611 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil


An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

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1610 Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Framework under the Action of Two-Dimensional Moving Loads

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu


The objective of this research is to develop a general technique so that one may predict the dynamic behaviour of a three-dimensional scale crane model subjected to time-dependent moving point forces by means of conventional finite element computer packages. To this end, the whole scale crane model is divided into two parts: the stationary framework and the moving substructure. In such a case, the dynamic responses of a scale crane model can be predicted from the forced vibration responses of the stationary framework due to actions of the four time-dependent moving point forces induced by the moving substructure. Since the magnitudes and positions of the moving point forces are dependent on the relative positions between the trolley, moving substructure and the stationary framework, it can be found from the numerical results that the time histories for the moving speeds of the moving substructure and the trolley are the key factors affecting the dynamic responses of the scale crane model.

Keywords: moving load, moving substructure, dynamic responses, forced vibration responses

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1609 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

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1608 Vibration Behavior of Nanoparticle Delivery in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang


In the paper, the coupled equation of motion for the dynamic displacement of a fullerene moving in a (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is derived using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, including the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The effects of confined stiffness between the fullerene and nanotube, foundation stiffness, and nonlocal parameter on the dynamic behavior are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta Method. The numerical solution is in agreement with the analytical result for the special case. The numerical results show that increasing the confined stiffness and foundation stiffness decrease the dynamic displacement of SWCNT. However, the dynamic displacement increases with increasing the nonlocal parameter. In addition, result using the Euler beam theory and the Timoshenko beam theory are compared. It can be found that ignoring the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation leads to an underestimation of the displacement.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube, nanoparticle delivery, Nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, Runge-Kutta Method, Van der Waals force

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1607 Flexural Behavior for Prefabricated Angle Truss Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete

Authors: Jo Kwang-Won, Lee Ho-Jun, Choi In-Rak, Park Hong-Gun


Prefabricated angle truss composited beam is a kind of concrete encased composite beam. It is prefabricated at factory as Pratt truss with steel members. Double angle is used for top, bottom chords and vertical web member. Moreover, diagonal web member is steel plate. Its sectional shape looks like I-shape. This beam system has two stages. The first is construction stage in which the beam is directly connected to the column for resist construction load. This stage beam consists of Pratt truss and precast concrete. The stability of the beam is verified. The second is service stage. After the connection, cast-in-place concrete is used for composite action. Ultimate flexural capacity is verified and show advantage than RC and steel. In this paper, the beam flexural capacity is verified in both stages. And examined the flexural behavior of the beam.

Keywords: composite beam, prefabrication, angle, precast concrete, pratt truss

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1606 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir


We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

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1605 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta


The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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1604 Nonlinear Response of Infinite Beams on a Multilayer Tensionless Extensible Geosynthetic – Reinforced Earth Bed under Moving Load

Authors: K. Karuppasamy


In this paper analysis of an infinite beam resting on multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforced granular fill - poor soil system overlying soft soil strata under moving the load with constant velocity is presented. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load moving with constant velocity. The upper reinforced granular bed is modeled by a rough membrane embedded in Pasternak shear layer overlying a series of compressible nonlinear Winkler springs representing the underlying the very poor soil. The multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic layer has been assumed to deform such that at the interface the geosynthetic and the soil have some deformation. Nonlinear behavior of granular fill and the very poor soil has been considered in the analysis by means of hyperbolic constitutive relationships. Governing differential equations of the soil foundation system have been obtained and solved with the help of appropriate boundary conditions. The solution has been obtained by employing finite difference method by means of Gauss-Siedel iterative scheme. Detailed parametric study has been conducted to study the influence of various parameters on the response of soil – foundation system under consideration by means of deflection and bending moment in the beam and tension mobilized in the geosynthetic layer. These parameters include the magnitude of applied load, the velocity of the load, damping, the ultimate resistance of the poor soil and granular fill layer. The range of values of parameters has been considered as per Indian Railways conditions. This study clearly observed that the comparisons of multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforcement with poor foundation soil and magnitude of applied load, relative compressibility of granular fill and ultimate resistance of poor soil has significant influence on the response of soil – foundation system. However, for the considered range of velocity, the response has been found to be insensitive towards velocity. The ultimate resistance of granular fill layer has also been found to have no significant influence on the response of the system.

Keywords: infinite beams, multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic, granular layer, moving load and nonlinear behavior of poor soil

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1603 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen


T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: experiment, strengthening, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1602 Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna

Authors: P. Chaipanya, R. Keawchai, W. Sombatsanongkhun, S. Jantaramporn


To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.

Keywords: switched beam, shorted circuit, single element, signal to interference ratio

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1601 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh


This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

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1600 Simulation of Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media Using Paraxial Group Transformation

Authors: A. Keshavarz, Z. Roosta


In this paper, propagation of cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media has been stimulated by using paraxial group transformation. At first, cos-Gaussian beam, nonlocal nonlinear media, critical power, transfer matrix, and paraxial group transformation are introduced. Then, the propagation of the cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media is simulated. Results show that beam propagation has periodic structure during self-focusing effect in this case. However, this simple method can be used for investigation of propagation of kinds of beams in ABCD optical media.

Keywords: paraxial group transformation, nonlocal nonlinear media, cos-Gaussian beam, ABCD law

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1599 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

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1598 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam-Piles Bending Moments Interaction

Authors: Khaled R. Khater


this paper is an extension to previously published two papers; all share the first part of their titles. The papers theme is soil-structure interaction in the ground of soil retaining structures. The secant pile wall is the concern, while the focus is its capping beam. The earlier papers suggested a technique to structurally analyze capping beam. It has been proved that; pile rigidity shares the capping beam rigidity to resist the wall deformations. The current paper explains how the beam-pile integration re-distributes the pile’s bending moment for the benefits of wall deformations. It is concluded that re-distribution of pile bending moment is completely different than the calculated by plain strain analysis, values, and distributions. The pile diameter, beam rigidity, pile spacing, and the 3D-analysis-effect individually or all together affect the pile bending moment. The Plaxis-2D and STAAD-Pro 3D are the used software’s. Throughout this study, three sand densities, various pile and beam rigidities, and three excavation depths, i.e., 3.0-m, 4.0-m and 5.0-m have been considered.

Keywords: bending moment, capping beam, numerical analysis, secant pile, sandy soil

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1597 THz Phase Extraction Algorithms for a THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar

Authors: Shaolin Allen Liao, Hual-Te Chien


Various THz phase extraction algorithms have been developed for a novel THz Modulating Interferometric Doppler Radar (THz-MIDR) developed recently by the author. The THz-MIDR differs from the well-known FTIR technique in that it introduces a continuously modulating reference branch, compared to the time-consuming discrete FTIR stepping reference branch. Such change allows real-time tracking of a moving object and capturing of its Doppler signature. The working principle of the THz-MIDR is similar to the FTIR technique: the incoming THz emission from the scene is split by a beam splitter/combiner; one of the beams is continuously modulated by a vibrating mirror or phase modulator and the other split beam is reflected by a reflection mirror; finally both the modulated reference beam and reflected beam are combined by the same beam splitter/combiner and detected by a THz intensity detector (for example, a pyroelectric detector). In order to extract THz phase from the single intensity measurement signal, we have derived rigorous mathematical formulas for 3 Frequency Banded (FB) signals: 1) DC Low-Frequency Banded (LFB) signal; 2) Fundamental Frequency Banded (FFB) signal; and 3) Harmonic Frequency Banded (HFB) signal. The THz phase extraction algorithms are then developed based combinations of 2 or all of these 3 FB signals with efficient algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm. Numerical simulation has also been performed in Matlab with simulated THz-MIDR interferometric signal of various Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to verify the algorithms.

Keywords: algorithm, modulation, THz phase, THz interferometry doppler radar

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1596 Using the Nonlocal Theory of Free Vibrations Nanobeam

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi


The dimensions of nanostructures are in the range of inter-atomic spacing of the structures which makes them impossible to be modeled as a continuum. Nanoscale size-effects on vibration analysis of nanobeams embedded in an elastic medium is investigated using different types of beam theory. To this end, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity is incorporated to various beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). The surrounding elastic medium is simulated with both Winkler and Pasternak foundation models and the difference between them is studies. Explicit formulas are presented to obtain the natural frequencies of nanobeam corresponding to each nonlocal beam theory. Selected numerical results are given for different values of the non-local parameter, Winkler modulus parameter, Pasternak modulus parameter and aspect ratio of the beam that imply the effects of them, separately. It is observed that the values of natural frequency are strongly dependent on the stiffness of elastic medium and the value of the non-local parameter and these dependencies varies with the value of aspect ratio and mode number.

Keywords: nanobeams, free vibration, nonlocal elasticity, winkler foundation model, Pasternak foundation model, beam theories

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1595 Commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA)

Authors: Safiqul Islam, Anamul Haque, Mohammad Amran Hossain


Aim: To compare the dosimetric parameters of the flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beam and to validate the beam data using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Materials and Methods: All the dosimetric data’s (i.e. depth dose profiles, profile curves, output factors, penumbra etc.) required for the beam modeling of AAA were acquired using the Blue Phantom RFA for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10MV & 10FFF. Progressive resolution Optimizer and Dose Volume Optimizer algorithm for VMAT and IMRT were are also configured in the beam model. Beam modeling of the AAA were compared with the measured data sets. Results: Due to the higher and lover energy component in 6FFF and 10 FFF the surface doses are 10 to 15% higher compared to flattened 6 MV and 10 MV beams. FFF beam has a lower mean energy compared to the flattened beam and the beam quality index were 6 MV 0.667, 6FFF 0.629, 10 MV 0.74 and 10 FFF 0.695 respectively. Gamma evaluation with 2% dose and 2 mm distance criteria for the Open Beam, IMRT and VMAT plans were also performed and found a good agreement between the modeled and measured data. Conclusion: We have successfully modeled the AAA algorithm for the flattened and FFF beams and achieved a good agreement with the calculated and measured value.

Keywords: commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) , using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), flattened beam, parameters

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1594 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

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1593 A Simple Device for Characterizing High Power Electron Beams for Welding

Authors: Aman Kaur, Colin Ribton, Wamadeva Balachandaran


Electron beam welding due to its inherent advantages is being extensively used for material processing where high precision is required. Especially in aerospace or nuclear industries, there are high quality requirements and the cost of materials and processes is very high which makes it very important to ensure the beam quality is maintained and checked prior to carrying out the welds. Although the processes in these industries are highly controlled, however, even the minor changes in the operating parameters of the electron gun can make large enough variations in the beam quality that can result in poor welding. To measure the beam quality a simple device has been designed that can be used at high powers. The device consists of two slits in x and y axis which collects a small portion of the beam current when the beam is deflected over the slits. The signals received from the device are processed in data acquisition hardware and the dedicated software developed for the device. The device has been used in controlled laboratory environments to analyse the signals and the weld quality relationships by varying the focus current. The results showed matching trends in the weld dimensions and the beam characteristics. Further experimental work is being carried out to determine the ability of the device and signal processing software to detect subtle changes in the beam quality and to relate these to the physical weld quality indicators.

Keywords: electron beam welding, beam quality, high power, weld quality indicators

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