Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: wavelets

42 Nonstationary Increments and Casualty in the Aluminum Market

Authors: Andrew Clark


McCauley, Bassler, and Gunaratne show that integration I(d) processes as used in economics and finance do not necessarily produce stationary increments, which are required to determine causality in both the short term and the long term. This paper follows their lead and shows I(d) aluminum cash and futures log prices at daily and weekly intervals do not have stationary increments, which means prior causality studies using I(d) processes need to be re-examined. Wavelets based on undifferenced cash and futures log prices do have stationary increments and are used along with transfer entropy (versus cointegration) to measure causality. Wavelets exhibit causality at most daily time scales out to 1 year, and weekly time scales out to 1 year and more. To determine stationarity, localized stationary wavelets are used. LSWs have the benefit, versus other means of testing for stationarity, of using multiple hypothesis tests to determine stationarity. As informational flows exist between cash and futures at daily and weekly intervals, the aluminum market is efficient. Therefore, hedges used by producers and consumers of aluminum need not have a big concern in terms of the underestimation of hedge ratios. Questions about arbitrage given efficiency are addressed in the paper.

Keywords: transfer entropy, nonstationary increments, wavelets, localized stationary wavelets, localized stationary wavelets

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41 Theory and Practice of Wavelets in Signal Processing

Authors: Jalal Karam


The methods of Fourier, Laplace, and Wavelet Transforms provide transfer functions and relationships between the input and the output signals in linear time invariant systems. This paper shows the equivalence among these three methods and in each case presenting an application of the appropriate (Fourier, Laplace or Wavelet) to the convolution theorem. In addition, it is shown that the same holds for a direct integration method. The Biorthogonal wavelets Bior3.5 and Bior3.9 are examined and the zeros distribution of their polynomials associated filters are located. This paper also presents the significance of utilizing wavelets as effective tools in processing speech signals for common multimedia applications in general, and for recognition and compression in particular. Theoretically and practically, wavelets have proved to be effective and competitive. The practical use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in processing and analysis of speech is then presented along with explanations of how the human ear can be thought of as a natural wavelet transformer of speech. This generates a variety of approaches for applying the (CWT) to many paradigms analysing speech, sound and music. For perception, the flexibility of implementation of this transform allows the construction of numerous scales and we include two of them. Results for speech recognition and speech compression are then included.

Keywords: continuous wavelet transform, biorthogonal wavelets, speech perception, recognition and compression

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40 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira


Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

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39 Pod and Wavelets Application for Aerodynamic Design Optimization

Authors: Bonchan Koo, Junhee Han, Dohyung Lee


The research attempts to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of a design optimization procedure which combines wavelets-based solution algorithm and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) database management technique. Aerodynamic design procedure calls for high fidelity computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and the consideration of large number of flow conditions and design constraints. Even with significant computing power advancement, current level of integrated design process requires substantial computing time and resources. POD reduces the degree of freedom of full system through conducting singular value decomposition for various field simulations. For additional efficiency improvement of the procedure, adaptive wavelet technique is also being employed during POD training period. The proposed design procedure was applied to the optimization of wing aerodynamic performance. Throughout the research, it was confirmed that the POD/wavelets design procedure could significantly reduce the total design turnaround time and is also able to capture all detailed complex flow features as in full order analysis.

Keywords: POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition), wavelets, CFD, design optimization, ROM (Reduced Order Model)

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38 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi


This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3d object, optimization, parametrization, polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks

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37 A Numerical Solution Based on Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem

Authors: Rajeev, N. K. Raigar


In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.

Keywords: operational matrix of differentiation, similarity transformation, shifted second kind chebyshev wavelets, stefan problem

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36 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani


In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems.

Keywords: semi-orthogonal, wavelet arrangement, integral equations, wavelet development

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35 Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Marco Aniceto, Pedro N. Santos, José C. Freitas


A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Keywords: automatic detection, defects, fracture lines, wavelets

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34 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

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33 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh


We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Legendre Wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

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32 Application of Wavelet Based Approximation for the Solution of Partial Integro-Differential Equation Arising from Viscoelasticity

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh


This work contributes a numerical method based on Legendre wavelet approximation for the treatment of partial integro-differential equation (PIDE). Operational matrices of Legendre wavelets reduce the solution of PIDE into the system of algebraic equations. Some useful results concerning the computational order of convergence and error estimates associated to the suggested scheme are presented. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness and accuracy of proposed numerical method.

Keywords: legendre wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

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31 The Relationship between Spanish Economic Variables: Evidence from the Wavelet Techniques

Authors: Concepcion Gonzalez-Concepcion, Maria Candelaria Gil-Fariña, Celina Pestano-Gabino


We analyze six relevant economic and financial variables for the period 2000M1-2015M3 in the context of the Spanish economy: a financial index (IBEX35), a commodity (Crude Oil Price in euros), a foreign exchange index (EUR/USD), a bond (Spanish 10-Year Bond), the Spanish National Debt and the Consumer Price Index. The goal of this paper is to analyze the main relations between them by computing the Wavelet Power Spectrum and the Cross Wavelet Coherency associated with Morlet wavelets. By using a special toolbox in MATLAB, we focus our interest on the period variable. We decompose the time-frequency effects and improve the interpretation of the results by non-expert users in the theory of wavelets. The empirical evidence shows certain instability periods and reveals various changes and breaks in the causality relationships for sample data. These variables were individually analyzed with Daubechies Wavelets to visualize high-frequency variance, seasonality, and trend. The results are included in Proceeding 20th International Academic Conference, 2015, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences (IISES), Madrid.

Keywords: economic and financial variables, Spain, time-frequency domain, wavelet coherency

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30 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral


In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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29 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Yaser Rostami


In this paper, semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions.

Keywords: ıntegro-differential equations, quartic B-spline wavelet, operational matrices, dual functions

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28 Hybrid Thresholding Lifting Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform with Wiener Filter for Quality Assurance of Medical Image

Authors: Hilal Naimi, Amelbahahouda Adamou-Mitiche, Lahcene Mitiche


The main problem in the area of medical imaging has been image denoising. The most defying for image denoising is to secure data carrying structures like surfaces and edges in order to achieve good visual quality. Different algorithms with different denoising performances have been proposed in previous decades. More recently, models focused on deep learning have shown a great promise to outperform all traditional approaches. However, these techniques are limited to the necessity of large sample size training and high computational costs. This research proposes a denoising approach basing on LDTCWT (Lifting Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform) using Hybrid Thresholding with Wiener filter to enhance the quality image. This research describes the LDTCWT as a type of lifting wavelets remodeling that produce complex coefficients by employing a dual tree of lifting wavelets filters to get its real part and imaginary part. Permits the remodel to produce approximate shift invariance, directionally selective filters and reduces the computation time (properties lacking within the classical wavelets transform). To develop this approach, a hybrid thresholding function is modeled by integrating the Wiener filter into the thresholding function.

Keywords: lifting wavelet transform, image denoising, dual tree complex wavelet transform, wavelet shrinkage, wiener filter

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27 Human Action Recognition Using Wavelets of Derived Beta Distributions

Authors: Neziha Jaouedi, Noureddine Boujnah, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel


In the framework of human machine interaction systems enhancement, we focus throw this paper on human behavior analysis and action recognition. Human behavior is characterized by actions and reactions duality (movements, psychological modification, verbal and emotional expression). It’s worth noting that many information is hidden behind gesture, sudden motion points trajectories and speeds, many research works reconstructed an information retrieval issues. In our work we will focus on motion extraction, tracking and action recognition using wavelet network approaches. Our contribution uses an analysis of human subtraction by Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and body movement through trajectory models of motion constructed from kalman filter. These models allow to remove the noise using the extraction of the main motion features and constitute a stable base to identify the evolutions of human activity. Each modality is used to recognize a human action using wavelets of derived beta distributions approach. The proposed approach has been validated successfully on a subset of KTH and UCF sports database.

Keywords: feautures extraction, human action classifier, wavelet neural network, beta wavelet

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26 Sampling Two-Channel Nonseparable Wavelets and Its Applications in Multispectral Image Fusion

Authors: Bin Liu, Weijie Liu, Bin Sun, Yihui Luo


In order to solve the problem of lower spatial resolution and block effect in the fusion method based on separable wavelet transform in the resulting fusion image, a new sampling mode based on multi-resolution analysis of two-channel non separable wavelet transform, whose dilation matrix is [1,1;1,-1], is presented and a multispectral image fusion method based on this kind of sampling mode is proposed. Filter banks related to this kind of wavelet are constructed, and multiresolution decomposition of the intensity of the MS and panchromatic image are performed in the sampled mode using the constructed filter bank. The low- and high-frequency coefficients are fused by different fusion rules. The experiment results show that this method has good visual effect. The fusion performance has been noted to outperform the IHS fusion method, as well as, the fusion methods based on DWT, IHS-DWT, IHS-Contourlet transform, and IHS-Curvelet transform in preserving both spectral quality and high spatial resolution information. Furthermore, when compared with the fusion method based on nonsubsampled two-channel non separable wavelet, the proposed method has been observed to have higher spatial resolution and good global spectral information.

Keywords: image fusion, two-channel sampled nonseparable wavelets, multispectral image, panchromatic image

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25 A Survey on Types of Noises and De-Noising Techniques

Authors: Amandeep Kaur


Digital Image processing is a fundamental tool to perform various operations on the digital images for pattern recognition, noise removal and feature extraction. In this paper noise removal technique has been described for various types of noises. This paper comprises discussion about various noises available in the image due to different environmental, accidental factors. In this paper, various de-noising approaches have been discussed that utilize different wavelets and filters for de-noising. By analyzing various papers on image de-noising we extract that wavelet based de-noise approaches are much effective as compared to others.

Keywords: de-noising techniques, edges, image, image processing

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24 Wavelets Contribution on Textual Data Analysis

Authors: Habiba Ben Abdessalem


The emergence of giant set of textual data was the push that has encouraged researchers to invest in this field. The purpose of textual data analysis methods is to facilitate access to such type of data by providing various graphic visualizations. Applying these methods requires a corpus pretreatment step, whose standards are set according to the objective of the problem studied. This step determines the forms list contained in contingency table by keeping only those information carriers. This step may, however, lead to noisy contingency tables, so the use of wavelet denoising function. The validity of the proposed approach is tested on a text database that offers economic and political events in Tunisia for a well definite period.

Keywords: textual data, wavelet, denoising, contingency table

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23 Wavelet Based Residual Method of Detecting GSM Signal Strength Fading

Authors: Danladi Ali, Onah Festus Iloabuchi


In this paper, GSM signal strength was measured in order to detect the type of the signal fading phenomenon using one-dimensional multilevel wavelet residual method and neural network clustering to determine the average GSM signal strength received in the study area. The wavelet residual method predicted that the GSM signal experienced slow fading and attenuated with MSE of 3.875dB. The neural network clustering revealed that mostly -75dB, -85dB and -95dB were received. This means that the signal strength received in the study is a weak signal.

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
22 Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based on Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Asyieh Ebrahimzadeh


In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet accompany with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.

Keywords: collocation method, Legendre wavelet, optimal control, Volterra integro-differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
21 Multiscale Edge Detection Based on Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

Authors: Enqing Chen, Jianbo Wang


It is well known that the wavelet transform provides a very effective framework for multiscale edges analysis. However, wavelets are not very effective in representing images containing distributed discontinuities such as edges. In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale edge detection method in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, which is based on the dominant multiscale, multidirection edge expression and outstanding edge location of NSCT. Through real images experiments, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other edge detection methods based on Canny operator, wavelet and contourlet. Additionally, the proposed method also works well for noisy images.

Keywords: edge detection, NSCT, shift invariant, modulus maxima

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20 Neural Network Based Path Loss Prediction for Global System for Mobile Communication in an Urban Environment

Authors: Danladi Ali


In this paper, we measured GSM signal strength in the Dnepropetrovsk city in order to predict path loss in study area using nonlinear autoregressive neural network prediction and we also, used neural network clustering to determine average GSM signal strength receive at the study area. The nonlinear auto-regressive neural network predicted that the GSM signal is attenuated with the mean square error (MSE) of 2.6748dB, this attenuation value is used to modify the COST 231 Hata and the Okumura-Hata models. The neural network clustering revealed that -75dB to -95dB is received more frequently. This means that the signal strength received at the study is mostly weak signal

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment and model

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19 Multi-Scaled Non-Local Means Filter for Medical Images Denoising: Empirical Mode Decomposition vs. Wavelet Transform

Authors: Hana Rabbouch


In recent years, there has been considerable growth of denoising techniques mainly devoted to medical imaging. This important evolution is not only due to the progress of computing techniques, but also to the emergence of multi-resolution analysis (MRA) on both mathematical and algorithmic bases. In this paper, a comparative study is conducted between the two best-known MRA-based decomposition techniques: the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The comparison is carried out in a framework of multi-scale denoising, where a Non-Local Means (NLM) filter is performed scale-by-scale to a sample of benchmark medical images. The results prove the effectiveness of the multiscaled denoising, especially when the NLM filtering is coupled with the EMD.

Keywords: medical imaging, non local means, denoising, multiscaled analysis, empirical mode decomposition, wavelets

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18 The Use of Haar Wavelet Mother Signal Tool for Performance Analysis Response of Distillation Column (Application to Moroccan Case Study)

Authors: Mahacine Amrani


This paper aims at reviewing some Moroccan industrial applications of wavelet especially in the dynamic identification of a process model using Haar wavelet mother response. Two recent Moroccan study cases are described using dynamic data originated by a distillation column and an industrial polyethylene process plant. The purpose of the wavelet scheme is to build on-line dynamic models. In both case studies, a comparison is carried out between the Haar wavelet mother response model and a linear difference equation model. Finally it concludes, on the base of the comparison of the process performances and the best responses, which may be useful to create an estimated on-line internal model control and its application towards model-predictive controllers (MPC). All calculations were implemented using AutoSignal Software.

Keywords: process performance, model, wavelets, Haar, Moroccan

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17 Using Inverted 4-D Seismic and Well Data to Characterise Reservoirs from Central Swamp Oil Field, Niger Delta

Authors: Emmanuel O. Ezim, Idowu A. Olayinka, Michael Oladunjoye, Izuchukwu I. Obiadi


Monitoring of reservoir properties prior to well placements and production is a requirement for optimisation and efficient oil and gas production. This is usually done using well log analyses and 3-D seismic, which are often prone to errors. However, 4-D (Time-lapse) seismic, incorporating numerous 3-D seismic surveys of the same field with the same acquisition parameters, which portrays the transient changes in the reservoir due to production effects over time, could be utilised because it generates better resolution. There is, however dearth of information on the applicability of this approach in the Niger Delta. This study was therefore designed to apply 4-D seismic, well-log and geologic data in monitoring of reservoirs in the EK field of the Niger Delta. It aimed at locating bypassed accumulations and ensuring effective reservoir management. The Field (EK) covers an area of about 1200km2 belonging to the early (18ma) Miocene. Data covering two 4-D vintages acquired over a fifteen-year interval were obtained from oil companies operating in the field. The data were analysed to determine the seismic structures, horizons, Well-to-Seismic Tie (WST), and wavelets. Well, logs and production history data from fifteen selected wells were also collected from the Oil companies. Formation evaluation, petrophysical analysis and inversion alongside geological data were undertaken using Petrel, Shell-nDi, Techlog and Jason Software. Well-to-seismic tie, formation evaluation and saturation monitoring using petrophysical and geological data and software were used to find bypassed hydrocarbon prospects. The seismic vintages were interpreted, and the amounts of change in the reservoir were defined by the differences in Acoustic Impedance (AI) inversions of the base and the monitor seismic. AI rock properties were estimated from all the seismic amplitudes using controlled sparse-spike inversion. The estimated rock properties were used to produce AI maps. The structural analysis showed the dominance of NW-SE trending rollover collapsed-crest anticlines in EK with hydrocarbons trapped northwards. There were good ties in wells EK 27, 39. Analysed wavelets revealed consistent amplitude and phase for the WST; hence, a good match between the inverted impedance and the good data. Evidence of large pay thickness, ranging from 2875ms (11420 TVDSS-ft) to about 2965ms, were found around EK 39 well with good yield properties. The comparison between the base of the AI and the current monitor and the generated AI maps revealed zones of untapped hydrocarbons as well as assisted in determining fluids movement. The inverted sections through EK 27, 39 (within 3101 m - 3695 m), indicated depletion in the reservoirs. The extent of the present non-uniform gas-oil contact and oil-water contact movements were from 3554 to 3575 m. The 4-D seismic approach led to better reservoir characterization, well development and the location of deeper and bypassed hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: reservoir monitoring, 4-D seismic, well placements, petrophysical analysis, Niger delta basin

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16 Study of Formation and Evolution of Disturbance Waves in Annular Flow Using Brightness-Based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (BBLIF) Technique

Authors: Andrey Cherdantsev, Mikhail Cherdantsev, Sergey Isaenkov, Dmitriy Markovich


In annular gas-liquid flow, liquid flows as a film along pipe walls sheared by high-velocity gas stream. Film surface is covered by large-scale disturbance waves which affect pressure drop and heat transfer in the system and are necessary for entrainment of liquid droplets from film surface into the core of gas stream. Disturbance waves are a highly complex and their properties are affected by numerous parameters. One of such aspects is flow development, i.e., change of flow properties with the distance from the inlet. In the present work, this question is studied using brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence (BBLIF) technique. This method enables one to perform simultaneous measurements of local film thickness in large number of points with high sampling frequency. In the present experiments first 50 cm of upward and downward annular flow in a vertical pipe of 11.7 mm i.d. is studied with temporal resolution of 10 kHz and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Thus, spatiotemporal evolution of film surface can be investigated, including scenarios of formation, acceleration and coalescence of disturbance waves. The behaviour of disturbance waves' velocity depending on phases flow rates and downstream distance was investigated. Besides measuring the waves properties, the goal of the work was to investigate the interrelation between disturbance waves properties and integral characteristics of the flow such as interfacial shear stress and flow rate of dispersed phase. In particular, it was shown that the initial acceleration of disturbance waves, defined by the value of shear stress, linearly decays with downstream distance. This lack of acceleration which may even lead to deceleration is related to liquid entrainment. Flow rate of disperse phase linearly grows with downstream distance. During entrainment events, liquid is extracted directly from disturbance waves, reducing their mass, area of interaction to the gas shear and, hence, velocity. Passing frequency of disturbance waves at each downstream position was measured automatically with a new algorithm of identification of characteristic lines of individual disturbance waves. Scenarios of coalescence of individual disturbance waves were identified. Transition from initial high-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz waves appearing at the inlet to highly nonlinear disturbance waves with lower frequency was studied near the inlet using 3D realisation of BBLIF method in the same cylindrical channel and in a rectangular duct with cross-section of 5 mm by 50 mm. It was shown that the initial waves are generally two-dimensional but are promptly broken into localised three-dimensional wavelets. Coalescence of these wavelets leads to formation of quasi two-dimensional disturbance waves. Using cross-correlation analysis, loss and restoration of two-dimensionality of film surface with downstream distance were studied quantitatively. It was shown that all the processes occur closer to the inlet at higher gas velocities.

Keywords: annular flow, disturbance waves, entrainment, flow development

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15 Implementation and Comparative Analysis of PET and CT Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: S. Guruprasad, M. Z. Kurian, H. N. Suma


Medical imaging modalities are becoming life saving components. These modalities are very much essential to doctors for proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up. Some modalities provide anatomical information such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), X-rays and some provides only functional information such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Therefore, single modality image does not give complete information. This paper presents the fusion of structural information in CT and functional information present in PET image. This fused image is very much essential in detecting the stages and location of abnormalities and in particular very much needed in oncology for improved diagnosis and treatment. We have implemented and compared image fusion techniques like pyramid, wavelet, and principal components fusion methods along with hybrid method of DWT and PCA. The performances of the algorithms are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The system is implemented and tested by using MATLAB software. Based on the MSE, PSNR and ENTROPY analysis, PCA and DWT-PCA methods showed best results over all experiments.

Keywords: image fusion, pyramid, wavelets, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
14 Image Compression Based on Regression SVM and Biorthogonal Wavelets

Authors: Zikiou Nadia, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


In this paper, we propose an effective method for image compression based on SVM Regression (SVR), with three different kernels, and biorthogonal 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform. SVM regression could learn dependency from training data and compressed using fewer training points (support vectors) to represent the original data and eliminate the redundancy. Biorthogonal wavelet has been used to transform the image and the coefficients acquired are then trained with different kernels SVM (Gaussian, Polynomial, and Linear). Run-length and Arithmetic coders are used to encode the support vectors and its corresponding weights, obtained from the SVM regression. The peak signal noise ratio (PSNR) and their compression ratios of several test images, compressed with our algorithm, with different kernels are presented. Compared with other kernels, Gaussian kernel achieves better image quality. Experimental results show that the compression performance of our method gains much improvement.

Keywords: image compression, 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT-2D), support vector regression (SVR), SVM Kernels, run-length, arithmetic coding

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13 Early Detection of Major Earthquakes Using Broadband Accelerometers

Authors: Umberto Cerasani, Luca Cerasani


Methods for earthquakes forecasting have been intensively investigated in the last decades, but there is still no universal solution agreed by seismologists. Rock failure is most often preceded by a tiny elastic movement in the failure area and by the appearance of micro-cracks. These micro-cracks could be detected at the soil surface and represent useful earth-quakes precursors. The aim of this study was to verify whether tiny raw acceleration signals (in the 10⁻¹ to 10⁻⁴ cm/s² range) prior to the arrival of main primary-waves could be exploitable and related to earthquakes magnitude. Mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), moving average and wavelets have been applied on raw acceleration data available on the ITACA web site, and the study focused on one of the most unpredictable earth-quakes, i.e., the August 24th, 2016 at 01H36 one that occurred in the central Italy area. It appeared that these tiny acceleration signals preceding main P-waves have different patterns both on frequency and time domains for high magnitude earthquakes compared to lower ones.

Keywords: earthquake, accelerometer, earthquake forecasting, seism

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