Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: riverine

24 Ancient Cities of Deltaic Bengal: Origin and Nature on the Riverine Bed of Ganges Valley

Authors: Sajid Bin Doza


A town or a city contributes a lot to human mankind. City evolves memory, ambition, frustration and achievement. The city is something that offers life, as the character of the city is. A city is having confined image to the human being. Time place and matter generate this vive, city celebrates with its inhabitant, belongs and to care for each other. Apart from all these; although city and settlements are the contentious and changing phenomenon; the origin of the city in the very delta land started with unique and strategic sequences. Religious belief, topography, availability of resource and connection with commercial hub make the potential of the settlement. Ancient cities of Bengal are not the exception from these phenomenologies. From time immemorial; Bengal is enriched with numerous cities and notorious settlements. These cities and settlements were connected with other inland ports and Bengal became an important trade route, trailed by the Riverine connections. The delta land formation is valued for its geographic situation, consequences of this position; a new story or a new conception could be found in origin of an ancient city. However, the objective of this research is to understand the origin and spirit of the ancient city of Bengal, the research would also try to unfold the authentic and rational meaning of soul of the city, this research addresses the interest to elaborate the soul of the ancient sites of Riverine Delta. As rivers used to have the common character in this very landform; river supported community generated as well. River gives people wealth, sometimes fall us in sorrow. The river provides us commerce and trading. River gives us faith and religion. All these potentials have evolved from the Riverine excel. So the research would approach thoroughly to justify the riverine value as the soul for the ancient cities of Bengal. Cartographic information and illustration would be the preferred language for this research. Preferably, the historic mapping would be the unique folio of this study.

Keywords: memory of the city, riverine network, ancient cities, cartographic mapping, settlement pattern

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23 Ecological Effects of Oil Spill on Water and Sediment from Two Riverine Communities in Warri

Authors: Doris Fovwe Ogeleka, L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo, F. E. Okieimen


The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri riverine areas of Ubeji and Jeddo, Delta State. In the two communities, water and sediment samples were analysed for organics (polyaromatic hydrocarbon; total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, iron and chromium). The American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods were employed for the laboratory test. The results indicated that after a long period of oil spill (above one year), there were still significant concentrations (p<0.05) of organics indicating hydrocarbon pollution. Mean concentrations recorded for TPH in Ubeji and Jeddo waters were 23.60 ± 1.18 mg/L and 29.96 ± 0.14 mg/L respectively while total PAHs was 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/L. Mean concentrations of TPH in the sediment was 48.83 ± 1.49 ppm and 1093 ± 74 ppm in the above order while total PAHs was 0.012 ± 0.002 ppm and 0.026 ± 0.004 ppm. Low concentrations were recorded for most of the heavy metals in the water and sediment. The observed concentrations of hydrocarbons in the study areas should provide the impetus for regulatory surveillance of oil discharged intentionally/unintentionally into the Warri riverine waters and sediment since hydrocarbon released into the environment sorb to the sediment particles where they cause harm to organisms in the sediment and overlying waters.

Keywords: crude oil, PAHs, TPH, oil spillage, water, sediment

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22 Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, Sh. Shahid, M. Mohammadi Ghaleni, M. H. Omid


The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: coefficients, dispersion, river, tracer, water quality

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21 Influence of Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities on the School-Age Children for the Attainment of Universal Basic Education Goals in the Rural Riverine Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Folasade R. Sulaiman


Pupils’ health and nutrition are basically important to their schooling. The preponderance of avoidable deaths among children in Africa (WHO, 2000) may not be unconnected with the nutritional and health education status of families and communities that have their children as school clients. This study adopted a descriptive survey design focusing on the assessment of the level of nutritional and health education of families and community members in the rural riverine areas of Ogun State. Two research questions were raised. The Nutritional and Health Education of Families and Communities Inventory (NHEFCI) was used to collect data from 250 rural child-bearing aged women, and 0.73 test-retest reliability coefficient was established to determine the strength of the instrument. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean in accordance with research questions raised in the study. The findings revealed amongst others: that 65% of the respondents had low level of nutritional and health education among the families and community members; while 72% had low level of awareness of the possible influence of nutritional and health education on the learning outcomes of the children. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should intensify efforts on sensitization, mass literacy campaign etc.; also improve upon the already existing School Feeding Programme in Nigerian primary schools to provide at least one balanced diet for children while in school; community health workers, social workers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) should collaborate with international Organizations like UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO etc. to organize sensitization programmes for members of the rural riverine communities on the importance of meeting the health and nutritional needs of their children in order to attain their educational potentials.

Keywords: nutritional and health education, learning capacities, school-age children, universal basic education, rural riverine areas

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20 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Based on Morphmetric Parameters of the Populations of Labeo rohita

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Shakeela Parveen


Labeo rohita populations from five geographical locations from the hatchery and riverine system of Punjab-Pakistan were studied for the clustering on the basis of similarities and differences based on morphometric parameters within the species. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) was done by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) as Agglomeration method by XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02. A dendrogram with the data on the morphometrics of the representative samples of each site divided the populations of Labeo rohita in to five major clusters or classes. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 19.24% for within class variation, while 80.76% for the between class differences. The representative central objects of the each class, the distances between the class centroids and also the distance between the central objects of the classes were generated by the analysis. A measurable distinction between the classes of the populations of the Labeo rohita was indicated in this study which determined the impacts of changing environment and other possible factors influencing the variation level among the populations of the same species.

Keywords: AHC, Labeo rohita, hatchery, riverine, morphometric

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19 Molecular Screening of Piroplasm from Ticks Collected from Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahvish Maqbool, Muhmmad Sohail Sajid


Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae); bloodsucking parasites of domestic animals, have significant importance in the transmission of diseases and causing huge economic losses. This study aimed to screen endophilic ticks for the Piroplasms using polymerase chain reaction in three districts Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat of Punjab, Pakistan. Ticks were dissected under a stereomicroscope, and internal organs (midguts& salivary glands) were procured to generate pools of optimum weights. DNA extraction was done through standard protocol followed by primer specific PCR for Piroplasma spp. A total of 22.95% tick pools were found positive for piroplasma spp. In districts, Sialkot and Gujranwala Piroplasma prevalence are higher in riverine animals while in Gujarat Prevalence is higher in non-riverine animals. Female animals were found more prone to piroplasma as compared to males. This study will provide useful data on the distribution of Piroplasma in the vector population of the study area and devise future recommendations for better management of ruminants to avoid subclinical and clinical infections and vector transmitted diseases.

Keywords: babesia, hyalomma, piroplasmposis, tick infectivity

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18 Population Dynamics of Cyprinid Fish Species (Mahseer: Tor Species) and Its Conservation in Yamuna River of Garhwal Region, India

Authors: Davendra Singh Malik


India is one of the mega-biodiversity countries in the world and contributing about 11.72% of global fish diversity. The Yamuna river is the longest tributary of Ganga river ecosystem, providing a natural habitat for existing fish diversity of Himalayan region of Indian subcontinent. The several hydropower dams and barrages have been constructed on different locations of major rivers in Garhwal region. These dams have caused a major ecological threat to change existing fresh water ecosystems altering water flows, interrupting ecological connectivity, fragmenting habitats and native riverine fish species. Mahseer fishes (Indian carp) of the genus Tor, are large cyprinids endemic to continental Asia popularly known as ‘Game or sport fishes’ have continued to be decimated by fragmented natural habitats due to damming the water flow in riverine system and categorized as threatened fishes of India. The fresh water fish diversity as 24 fish species were recorded from Yamuna river. The present fish catch data has revealed that mahseer fishes (Tor tor and Tor putitora) were contributed about 32.5 %, 25.6 % and 18.2 % in upper, middle and lower riverine stretches of Yaumna river. The length range of mahseer (360-450mm) recorded as dominant size of catch composition. The CPUE (catch per unit effort) of mahseer fishes also indicated about a sharp decline of fish biomass, changing growth pattern, sex ratio and maturity stages of fishes. Only 12.5 – 14.8 % mahseer female brooders have showed only maturity phases in breeding months. The fecundity of mature mahseer female fish brooders ranged from 2500-4500 no. of ova during breeding months. The present status of mahseer fishery has attributed to the over exploitative nature in Yamuna river. The mahseer population is shrinking continuously in down streams of Yamuna river due to cumulative effects of various ecological stress. Mahseer conservation programme have implemented as 'in situ fish conservation' for enhancement of viable population size of mahseer species and restore the genetic loss of mahseer fish germplasm in Yamuna river of Garhwal Himalayan region.

Keywords: conservation practice, population dynamics, tor fish species, Yamuna River

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17 A Preliminary Study on the Tagal Eco-Tourism and Empowerment for Local Community

Authors: Christiana Jonut


The study addresses tagal as an ecotourism product that is uniquely for Sabah. It is a community based tourism venture that is influenced by the Dusun ethic’s traditional law. The traditional principle of tagal is focused primarily on individual exploitation of riverine resources and it was transformed into a community participation in the riverine conservation to foster the growth or survival of ecotourism. It manages a river into a sustainable manner. A smart partnership system between the community and the authority particularly the Department of Fisheries Sabah, tagal has successfully become an instrument to protect, revive and manage the river fish resources. In 2015, Sabah Fisheries Department added 536 tagal sites. Most tagal sites were turned into a community based tourism venture. They generate income through jobs creation for the purpose of uplifting the local’s economic level. Tagal ecotourism sites also increase environmental awareness of the local people to love their culture, tradition and environment. This venture also promotes the sustainability of the eco-tourism. The objective of this study is to explore the issues and contexts of empowerment of the local people in managing a successful tagal ecotourism. This study further explains how community capacity building is the major influence of empowerment of the local community. The methodology approach used is qualitative where interview is chosen as the data collection method. This is a literature review of exploring empowerment of the local community through various community capacity building initiatives that would motivate the local people to be actively involved in the tagal.

Keywords: capacity building, Tagal, ecotourism, empowerment, Sabah

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16 Infectivity of Hyalomma Ticks for Theileria annulata Using 18s rRNA PCR

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, A. Iqbal, A. Kausar, M. Jawad-ul-Hassan, Z. Iqbal, Hafiz M. Rizwan, M. Saqib


Among the ixodid ticks, species of genus Hyalomma are of prime importance as they can survive in harsh conditions better than those of other species. Similarly, among various tick-borne pathogens, Theileria (T.) annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in large ruminants, is responsible for reduced productivity and ultimately substantial economic losses due to morbidity and mortality. The present study was planned to screening of vector ticks through molecular techniques for determination of tick-borne theileriosis in district Toba Tek Singh (T. T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, among the collected ticks (n = 2252) from livestock and their microclimate, Hyalomma spp. were subjected to dissection for procurement of salivary glands (SGs) and formation of pool (averaged 8 acini in each pool). Each pool of acini was used for DNA extraction, quantification and primer-specific amplification of 18S rRNA of Theileria (T.) annulata. The amplicons were electrophoresed using 1.8% agarose gel following by imaging to identify the band specific for T. annulata. For confirmation, the positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing, BLAST analysis and homology search using NCBI software. The number of Theileria-infected acini was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in female ticks vs male ticks, infesting ticks vs questing ticks and riverine-collected vs non-riverine collected. The data provides first attempt to quantify the vectoral capacity of ixodid ticks in Pakistan for T. annulata which can be helpful in estimation of risk analysis of theileriosis to the domestic livestock population of the country.

Keywords: Hyalomma anatolicum, ixodids, PCR, Theileria annulata

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15 Early Melt Season Variability of Fast Ice Degradation Due to Small Arctic Riverine Heat Fluxes

Authors: Grace E. Santella, Shawn G. Gallaher, Joseph P. Smith


In order to determine the importance of small-system riverine heat flux on regional landfast sea ice breakup, our study explores the annual spring freshet of the Sagavanirktok River from 2014-2019. Seasonal heat cycling ultimately serves as the driving mechanism behind the freshet; however, as an emerging area of study, the extent to which inland thermodynamics influence coastal tundra geomorphology and connected landfast sea ice has not been extensively investigated in relation to small-scale Arctic river systems. The Sagavanirktok River is a small-to-midsized river system that flows south-to-north on the Alaskan North Slope from the Brooks mountain range to the Beaufort Sea at Prudhoe Bay. Seasonal warming in the spring rapidly melts snow and ice in a northwards progression from the Brooks Range and transitional tundra highlands towards the coast and when coupled with seasonal precipitation, results in a pulsed freshet that propagates through the Sagavanirktok River. The concentrated presence of newly exposed vegetation in the transitional tundra region due to spring melting results in higher absorption of solar radiation due to a lower albedo relative to snow-covered tundra and/or landfast sea ice. This results in spring flood runoff that advances over impermeable early-season permafrost soils with elevated temperatures relative to landfast sea ice and sub-ice flow. We examine the extent to which interannual temporal variability influences the onset and magnitude of river discharge by analyzing field measurements from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) river and meteorological observation sites. Rapid influx of heat to the Arctic Ocean via riverine systems results in a noticeable decay of landfast sea ice independent of ice breakup seaward of the shear zone. Utilizing MODIS imagery from NASA’s Terra satellite, interannual variability of river discharge is visualized, allowing for optical validation that the discharge flow is interacting with landfast sea ice. Thermal erosion experienced by sediment fast ice at the arrival of warm overflow preconditions the ice regime for rapid thawing. We investigate the extent to which interannual heat flux from the Sagavanirktok River’s freshet significantly influences the onset of local landfast sea ice breakup. The early-season warming of atmospheric temperatures is evidenced by the presence of storms which introduce liquid, rather than frozen, precipitation into the system. The resultant decreased albedo of the transitional tundra supports the positive relationship between early-season precipitation events, inland thermodynamic cycling, and degradation of landfast sea ice. Early removal of landfast sea ice increases coastal erosion in these regions and has implications for coastline geomorphology which stress industrial, ecological, and humanitarian infrastructure.

Keywords: Albedo, freshet, landfast sea ice, riverine heat flux, seasonal heat cycling

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14 Assessment of Morphodynamic Changes at Kaluganga River Outlet, Sri Lanka Due to Poorly Planned Flood Controlling Measures

Authors: G. P. Gunasinghe, Lilani Ruhunage, N. P. Ratnayake, G. V. I. Samaradivakara, H. M. R. Premasiri, A. S. Ratnayake, Nimila Dushantha, W. A. P. Weerakoon, K. B. A. Silva


Sri Lanka is affected by different natural disasters such as tsunami, landslides, lightning, and riverine flood. Out of them, riverine floods act as a major disaster in the country. Different strategies are applied to control the impacts of flood hazards, and the expansion of river mouth is considered as one of the main activities for flood mitigation and disaster reduction. However, due to this expansion process, natural sand barriers including sand spits, barrier islands, and tidal planes are destroyed or subjected to change. This, in turn, can change the hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of the area leading to other damages to the natural coastal features. The removal of a considerable portion of naturally formed sand barrier at Kaluganga River outlet (Calido Beach), Sri Lanka to control flooding event at Kaluthara urban area on May 2017, has become a serious issue in the area causing complete collapse of river mouth barrier spit bar system leading to rapid coastal erosion Kaluganga river outlet area and saltwater intrusion into the Kaluganga River. The present investigation is focused on assessing effects due to the removal of a considerable portion of naturally formed sand barrier at Kaluganga river mouth. For this study, the beach profiles, the bathymetric surveys, and Google Earth historical satellite images, before and after the flood event were collected and analyzed. Furthermore, a beach boundary survey was also carried out in October 2018 to support the satellite image data. The results of Google Earth satellite images and beach boundary survey data analyzed show a chronological breakdown of the sand barrier at the river outlet. The comparisons of pre and post-disaster bathymetric maps and beach profiles analysis revealed a noticeable deepening of the sea bed at the nearshore zone as well. Such deepening in the nearshore zone can cause the sea waves to break very near to the coastline. This might also lead to generate new diffraction patterns resulting in differential coastal accretion and erosion scenarios. Unless immediate mitigatory measures were not taken, the impacts may cause severe problems to the sensitive Kaluganag river mouth system.

Keywords: bathymetry, beach profiles, coastal features, river outlet, sand barrier, Sri Lanka

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13 Eco-Index for Assessing Ecological Disturbances at Downstream of a Hydropower Project

Authors: Chandra Upadhyaya, Arup Kumar Sarma


In the North Eastern part of India several hydro power projects are being proposed and execution for some of them are already initiated. There are controversies surrounding these constructions. Impact of these dams in the downstream part of the rivers needs to be assessed so that eco-system and people living downstream are protected by redesigning the projects if it becomes necessary. This may result in reducing the stresses to the affected ecosystem and people living downstream. At present many index based ecological methods are present to assess impact on ecology. However, none of these methods are capable of assessing the affect resulting from dam induced diurnal variation of flow in the downstream. We need environmental flow methodology based on hydrological index which can address the affect resulting from dam induced diurnal variation of flow and play an important role in a riverine ecosystem management and be able to provide a qualitative idea about changes in the habitat for aquatic and riparian species.

Keywords: ecosystem, environmental flow assessment, entropy, IHA, TNC

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12 Diversity and Distribution of Butterflies (Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera) along with Altitudinal Gradient and Vegetation Types at Lahoul Valley, Trans-Himalaya Region, India

Authors: Saveena Bogtapa, Jagbir Singh Kirti


Himalaya is one of the most fascinating ranges in the world. In India, it comprises 18 percent of the land area. Lahoul valley which is a part of Trans-Himalaya region is well known for its unique, diverse flora and fauna. It lies in the North-Eastern corner of the state Himachal Pradesh where its altitude ranges between 2500m to 5000m. Vegetation of this region is dry-temperate to alpine type. The diversity of the area is very less, rare, unique and highly endemic. But today, as a lot of environmental degradation has taken place in this hot spot of biodiversity because of frequent developmental and commercial activities which lead to the diversity of this area comes under a real threat. Therefore, as part of the research, butterflies which are known for their attractiveness as well as usefulness to the ecosystem, are used for the study. The diversity of butterflies of a particular area not only provides a healthy environment but also serves as the first step of conservation to the biodiversity. Their distribution in different habitats and altitude type helps us to understand the species richness and abundance in an area. Moreover, different environmental parameters which affect the butterfly community has also recorded. Hence, the present study documents the butterfly diversity in an unexplored habitat and altitude types at Lahoul valley. The valley has been surveyed along with altitudinal gradients (from 2500m to 4500m) and in various habitats like agriculture land, grassland, scrubland, riverine and in different types of forests. Very rare species of butterflies have been explored, and these will be discussed along with different parameters during the presentation.

Keywords: butterflies, diversity, Lahoul valley, altitude, vegetation

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11 Spacio-Temporal Variation of the Zooplanktonic Community of Esa-Odo Reservoir, Esa-Odo, Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Helen Yetunde Omoboye, Adebukola Adenike Adedeji, Israel Funso Adeniyi


This study of the biodiversity, community structure, and production capacity of the zooplankton community is an aspect of bio-monitoring of the aquatic ecosystem. Samples were selected horizontally and vertically from Esa-Odo Reservoir using improvised Meyer’s water sampler. Planktonic samples were collected at two months intervals for two years. Net and total plankton were sampled by filtration and sedimentation methods. Planktonic samples were preserved as 5% formalin and 1% Lugol’s solution. Measurement, enumeration, and scaled pictures of the recorded zooplankton were taken using a photomicrograph. The taxonomic composition of zooplankton biota was determined using identification keys. Eighty three (83) species of zooplankton recorded in this study belong to 4 groups: Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda, and Insecta. Rotifera was the most represented group (61.21%). Horizontally, 24 species with the highest mean abundance characterized the lacustrine; while 12 species and 10 species were unique to the transition and riverine zones, respectively. Vertically, most species had their mean abundance decreased from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir. A total of nine (9), two (2), and one (1) species were peculiar to the surface, bottom and mid-depth, respectively. Zooplankton was most abundant during the dry season. In conclusion, Esa-Odo Reservoir comprised highly diversified zooplankton fauna with great potential to support a rich aquatic community and fishery production. The reservoir can be classified as fairly clean based on the abundance of the rotifer group. However, the lake should be subjected to regular proper monitoring because of the presence of some pollution tolerant copepod species identified among the zooplankton fauna.

Keywords: zooplankton, spatial, temporal, abundance, biodiversity, reservoir

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10 Levels of Microcystin in the Coastal Waters of Nigeria

Authors: Medina Kadiri


Blue-green otherwise called cyanobacteria, produce an array of biotoxins grouped into five categories notably hapatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins. Microcystins which are examples of hepatotoxins produced by blue-green algae Microcystins comprise the most common group of the cyanobacterial toxins. Blue-green algae flourish in aquatic environments, whether marine, brackish or freshwater, producing blooms in different forms such as microscopic, mats, or unsightly odoriferous scums. Microcystins biotoxins cause a plethora of animal and human hazards such as liver damage/cirrhosis and cancer, kidney damage, dermatitis, tinnitus, gastroenteritis, sore throat, nausea, myalgia, neurological problems, respiratory irritation and death. Water samples were collected from coastal regions of Nigeria in March 2014, June 2014, October 2014 and January 2015 and analyzed with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Microcystin biotoxin was recorded in all sites both during dry and wet seasons. The range of microcystins found was 0.000041-There was a seasonal trend of increasing microcystin concentrations from March till Octobers and a decrease thereafter. Generally in the oceanic waters, microcystin levels were highest at Cross Rivers in March and January, Barbeach in June and Lekki in October. In the adjoining riverine ecosystems, on the other hand, the highest concentrations of microcystin were observed at Akwa Ibom in March, June and October and in Bayelsa in January. Continuous monitoring and screening of coastal water bodies is suggested to minimize the health risks of cyanobacterial biotoxins to coastal communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: biotoxins, harmful algae, marine, microcystin, Nigeria

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9 Assessment of Agricultural Damage under Different Simulated Flood Conditions

Authors: M. N. Kadir, M. M. H. Oliver, T. Naher


The study assesses the areal extent of riverine flood in the flood-prone area of Faridpur District of Bangladesh using hydrological model and Geographic Information System (GIS). In the context of preparing the inundation map, flood frequency analysis was carried out to assess flooding for different flood magnitudes. Flood inundation maps were prepared based on DEM, and discharge at the river using Delft-3D model. LANDSAT satellite images have been used to develop a land cover map in the study area. The land cover map was used for mapping of cropland area. By incorporating the inundation maps on the land cover map, agricultural damage was assessed. Present monetary values of crop damage were collected through field survey from actual flood of the study area. Two different inundation maps were produced from the model for the year 2000 and 2016. In the year 2000, the floods began in the month of July, whereas in the case of the year 2016 is started in August. Under both cases, most of the areas were found to have been flooded in the month of September followed by flood recession. In order to prepare the land cover maps, four categories of LCs were considered viz., cropland, water body, trees, and rivers. Among the 755791 acres area of Faridpur District, the croplands were categorized to be 334,589 acres, followed by water bodies (279900 acres), trees (101930 acres) and rivers 39372 (acres). Damage assessment data revealed that 40% of the total cropland area had been affected by the flood in the year 2000, whereas only 19% area was affected by the 2016 flood. The study concluded that September is the critical month for cropland protection since the highest flood is expected at this time of the year in Faridpur. The northwestern and the southwestern part of the district was categorized as most vulnerable to flooding.

Keywords: agricultural damage, Delft-3d, flood management, land cover map

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8 Application of Hydrological Engineering Centre – River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) to Estuarine Hydraulics

Authors: Julia Zimmerman, Gaurav Savant


This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers’ River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) application to modeling the hydraulics of estuaries. HEC-RAS has been broadly used for a variety of riverine applications. However, it has not been widely applied to the study of circulation in estuaries. This report details the model development and validation of a combined 1D/2D unsteady flow hydraulic model using HEC-RAS for estuaries and they are associated with tidally influenced rivers. Two estuaries, Galveston Bay and Delaware Bay, were used as case studies. Galveston Bay, a bar-built, vertically mixed estuary, was modeled for the 2005 calendar year. Delaware Bay, a drowned river valley estuary, was modeled from October 22, 2019, to November 5, 2019. Water surface elevation was used to validate both models by comparing simulation results to NOAA’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) gauge data. Simulations were run using the Diffusion Wave Equations (DW), the Shallow Water Equations, Eulerian-Lagrangian Method (SWE-ELM), and the Shallow Water Equations Eulerian Method (SWE-EM) and compared for both accuracy and computational resources required. In general, the Diffusion Wave Equations results were found to be comparable to the two Shallow Water equations sets while requiring less computational power. The 1D/2D combined approach was valid for study areas within the 2D flow area, with the 1D flow serving mainly as an inflow boundary condition. Within the Delaware Bay estuary, the HEC-RAS DW model ran in 22 minutes and had an average R² value of 0.94 within the 2-D mesh. The Galveston Bay HEC-RAS DW ran in 6 hours and 47 minutes and had an average R² value of 0.83 within the 2-D mesh. The longer run time and lower R² for Galveston Bay can be attributed to the increased length of the time frame modeled and the greater complexity of the estuarine system. The models did not accurately capture tidal effects within the 1D flow area.

Keywords: Delaware bay, estuarine hydraulics, Galveston bay, HEC-RAS, one-dimensional modeling, two-dimensional modeling

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7 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.


Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: climate change, flooding, resilient city, sponge city, sponge urbanism, urbanization

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6 The Effects of Human Activities on Plant Diversity in Tropical Wetlands of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)

Authors: Abrehet Kahsay Mehari


Aquatic plants provide the physical structure of wetlands and increase their habitat complexity and heterogeneity, and as such, have a profound influence on other biotas. In this study, we investigated how human disturbance activities influenced the species richness and community composition of aquatic plants in the wetlands of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Twelve wetlands were selected: four lacustrine, four river mouths, and four riverine papyrus swamps. Data on aquatic plants, environmental variables, and human activities were collected during the dry and wet seasons of 2018. A linear mixed effect model and a distance-based Redundancy Analysis (db-RDA) were used to relate aquatic plant species richness and community composition, respectively, to human activities and environmental variables. A total of 113 aquatic plant species, belonging to 38 families, were identified across all wetlands during the dry and wet seasons. Emergent species had the maximum area covered at 73.45 % and attained the highest relative abundance, followed by amphibious and other forms. The mean taxonomic richness of aquatic plants was significantly lower in wetlands with high overall human disturbance scores compared to wetlands with low overall human disturbance scores. Moreover, taxonomic richness showed a negative correlation with livestock grazing, tree plantation, and sand mining. The community composition also varied across wetlands with varying levels of human disturbance and was primarily driven by turnover (i.e., replacement of species) rather than nestedness resultant(i.e., loss of species). Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that livestock grazing, tree plantation, sand mining, waste dumping, and crop cultivation were significant predictors of variation in aquatic plant communities’ composition in the wetlands. Linear mixed effect models and distance-based redundancy analysis also revealed that water depth, turbidity, conductivity, pH, sediment depth, and temperature were important drivers of variations in aquatic plant species richness and community composition. Papyrus swamps had the highest species richness and supported different plant communities. Conservation efforts should therefore focus on these habitats and measures should be taken to restore the highly disturbed and species poor wetlands near the river mouths.

Keywords: species richness, community composition, aquatic plants, wetlands, Lake Tana, human disturbance activities

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5 Riverine Urban Heritage: A Basis for Green Infrastructure

Authors: Ioanna H. Lioliou, Despoina D. Zavraka


The radical reformation that Greek urban space, has undergone over the last century, due to the socio-historical developments, technological development and political–geographic factors, has left its imprint on the urban landscape. While the big cities struggle to regain urban landscape balance, small towns are considered to offer high quality lifescapes, ensuring sustainable development potential. However, their unplanned urbanization process led to the loss of significant areas of nature, lack of essential infrastructure, chaotic built environment, incompatible land uses and urban cohesiveness. Natural environment reference points, such as springs, streams, rivers, forests, suburban greenbelts, and etc.; seems to be detached from urban space, while the public, open and green spaces, unequally distributed in the built environment, they are no longer able to offer a complete experience of nature in the city. This study focuses on Greek mainland, a small town Elassona, and aims to restore spatial coherence between the city’s homonymous river and its urban space surroundings. The existence of a linear aquatic ecosystem, is considered a precious greenway, also referred as blueway, able to initiate natural penetrations and ecosystems empowering. The integration of disconnected natural ecosystems forms the basis of a strategic intervention scheme, where the river becomes the urban integration tool / feature, constituting the main urban corridor and an indispensible part of a wider green network that connects open and green spaces, ensuring the function of all the established networks (transportation, commercial, social) of the town. The proposed intervention, introduces a green network highlighting the old stone bridge at the ‘entrance’ of the river in the town and expanding throughout the town with strategic uses and activities, providing accessibility for all the users. The methodology used, is based on the collection of design tools used in related urban river-design interventions around the world. The reinstallation/reactivation of the balance between natural and urban landscape, besides the environmental benefits, contributes decisively to the illustration/projection of urban green identity and re-enhancement of the quality of lifescape qualities and social interaction.

Keywords: green network, rehabilitation scheme, urban landscape, urban streams

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4 Estimating Affected Croplands and Potential Crop Yield Loss of an Individual Farmer Due to Floods

Authors: Shima Nabinejad, Holger Schüttrumpf


Farmers who are living in flood-prone areas such as coasts are exposed to storm surges increased due to climate change. Crop cultivation is the most important economic activity of farmers, and in the time of flooding, agricultural lands are subject to inundation. Additionally, overflow saline water causes more severe damage outcomes than riverine flooding. Agricultural crops are more vulnerable to salinity than other land uses for which the economic damages may continue for a number of years even after flooding and affect farmers’ decision-making for the following year. Therefore, it is essential to assess what extent the agricultural areas are flooded and how much the associated flood damage to each individual farmer is. To address these questions, we integrated farmers’ decision-making at farm-scale with flood risk management. The integrated model includes identification of hazard scenarios, failure analysis of structural measures, derivation of hydraulic parameters for the inundated areas and analysis of the economic damages experienced by each farmer. The present study has two aims; firstly, it attempts to investigate the flooded cropland and potential crop damages for the whole area. Secondly, it compares them among farmers’ field for three flood scenarios, which differ in breach locations of the flood protection structure. To achieve its goal, the spatial distribution of fields and cultivated crops of farmers were fed into the flood risk model, and a 100-year storm surge hydrograph was selected as the flood event. The study area was Pellworm Island that is located in the German Wadden Sea National Park and surrounded by North Sea. Due to high salt content in seawater of North Sea, crops cultivated in the agricultural areas of Pellworm Island are 100% destroyed by storm surges which were taken into account in developing of depth-damage curve for analysis of consequences. As a result, inundated croplands and economic damages to crops were estimated in the whole Island which was further compared for six selected farmers under three flood scenarios. The results demonstrate the significance and the flexibility of the proposed model in flood risk assessment of flood-prone areas by integrating flood risk management and decision-making.

Keywords: crop damages, flood risk analysis, individual farmer, inundated cropland, Pellworm Island, storm surges

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3 Transformations of River Zones in Hanoi, Vietnam: Problems of Urban Drainage and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Phong Le Ha


In many cities the entire world, the relationship between cities and rivers is always considered as a fundament of urban history research because of their profound interactions. This kind of relationship makes the river zones become extremely sensitive in many aspects. One of the most important aspect is their roles in the drainage of cities. In this paper we will examine an extraordinary case of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam and Red river zones. This river has contradictory impacts to this city: It is considered as a source of life of the inhabitants who live along its two banks, however, the risk of inundation caused by the complicated hydrology system of this river is always a real threat to the cities that it flows through. Morphologically, Red river was connected to the inner rivers system that made Hanoi a complete form of a river city. This structure combined with the topography of Hanoi helps this city to assure a stable drainage system in which the river zones in the north of Hanoi play some extreme important roles. Nevertheless, in the late 20 years, Hanoi's strong urbanization and the instability of Red river's complicated hydrology make the very remarkable transformations in the relationship river-city and in the river zones: The connection between the river and the city declines; the system of inner lakes are progressively replaced by habitat land; in the river zones, the infrastructure system can't adapt to the transformations of the new quarters which have the origin of the agricultural villages. These changes bring out many chances for the urban development, but also many risks and problems, particularly in the environment and technical sides. Among these, pluvial and used water evacuation is one of the most severe problems. The disappear of inner-city lakes, the high dike and the topographical changes of Hanoi blow up the risk of inundation of this city. In consequences, the riverine zones, particularly in the north of Hanoi, where the two most important water evacuation rivers of Hanoi meet each other, are burdened with the drainage pressure. The unique water treatment plant in this zone seems to be overcharged in receiving each day about 40000m3 of used water (not include pluvial water). This kind of problem leads also to another risk related to the environmental pollution (water pollution and air pollution). So, in order to better understand the situation and to propose the solutions to resolve the problems, an interdisciplinary research covering many different fields such urban planning, architecture, geography, and especially drainage and environment has been carried out. In general, this paper will analyze an important part of the research : the process of urban transformation of Hanoi (changes in urban morphology, infrastructure system, evolution of the dike system, ...) and the hydrological changes of Red river which cause the drainage and environmental problems. The conclusions of these analyses will be the solid base of the following researches focusing on the solutions of a sustainable development.

Keywords: drainage, environment, Hanoi, infrastructure, red rivers, urbanization

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2 Distribution, Source Apportionment and Assessment of Pollution Level of Trace Metals in Water and Sediment of a Riverine Wetland of the Brahmaputra Valley

Authors: Kali Prasad Sarma, Sanghita Dutta


Deepor Beel (DB), the lone Ramsar site and an important wetland of the Brahmaputra valley in the state of Assam. The local people from fourteen peripheral villages traditionally utilize the wetland for harvesting vegetables, flowers, aquatic seeds, medicinal plants, fish, molluscs, fodder for domestic cattle etc. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the concentration and distribution of trace metals in water-sediment system of the beel in order to protect its ecological environment. DB lies between26°05′26′′N to 26°09′26′′N latitudes and 90°36′39′′E to 91°41′25′′E longitudes. Water samples from the surface layer of water up to 40cm deep and sediment samples from the top 5cm layer of surface sediments were collected. The trace metals in waters and sediments were analysed using ICP-OES. The organic Carbon was analysed using the TOC analyser. The different mineral present in the sediments were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). SEM images were recorded for the samples using SEM, attached with energy dispersive X-ray unit, with an accelerating voltage of 20 kv. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS20.0 for windows. In the present research, distribution, source apportionment, temporal and spatial variability, extent of pollution and the ecological risk of eight toxic trace metals in sediments and water of DB were investigated. The average concentrations of chromium(Cr) (both the seasons), copper(Cu) and lead(Pb) (pre-monsoon) and zinc(Zn) and cadmium(Cd) (post-monsoon) in sediments were higher than the consensus based threshold concentration(TEC). The persistent exposure of toxic trace metals in sediments pose a potential threat, especially to sediment dwelling organisms. The degree of pollution in DB sediments for Pb, Cobalt (Co) Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and arsenic (As) was assessed using Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI). The results indicated that contamination of surface sediments in DB is dominated by Pb and Cd and to a lesser extent by Co, Fe, Cu, Cr, As and Zn. A significant positive correlation among the pairs of element Co/Fe, Zn/As in water, and Cr/Zn, Fe/As in sediments indicates similar source of origin of these metals. The effects of interaction among trace metals between water and sediments shows significant variations (F =94.02, P < 0.001), suggesting maximum mobility of trace metals in DB sediments and water. The source apportionment of the heavy metals was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). SEM-EDS detects the presence of Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, As and Fe in the sediment sample. The average concentration of Cd, Zn, Pb and As in the bed sediments of DB are found to be higher than the crustal abundance. The EF values indicate that Cd and Pb are significantly enriched. From source apportionment studies of the eight metals using PCA revealed that Cd was anthropogenic in origin; Pb, As, Cr, and Zn had mixed sources; whereas Co, Cu and Fe were natural in origin.

Keywords: Deepor Beel, enrichment factor, principal component analysis, trace metals

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1 Flood Risk Management in the Semi-Arid Regions of Lebanon - Case Study “Semi Arid Catchments, Ras Baalbeck and Fekha”

Authors: Essam Gooda, Chadi Abdallah, Hamdi Seif, Safaa Baydoun, Rouya Hdeib, Hilal Obeid


Floods are common natural disaster occurring in semi-arid regions in Lebanon. This results in damage to human life and deterioration of environment. Despite their destructive nature and their immense impact on the socio-economy of the region, flash floods have not received adequate attention from policy and decision makers. This is mainly because of poor understanding of the processes involved and measures needed to manage the problem. The current understanding of flash floods remains at the level of general concepts; most policy makers have yet to recognize that flash floods are distinctly different from normal riverine floods in term of causes, propagation, intensity, impacts, predictability, and management. Flash floods are generally not investigated as a separate class of event but are rather reported as part of the overall seasonal flood situation. As a result, Lebanon generally lacks policies, strategies, and plans relating specifically to flash floods. Main objective of this research is to improve flash flood prediction by providing new knowledge and better understanding of the hydrological processes governing flash floods in the East Catchments of El Assi River. This includes developing rainstorm time distribution curves that are unique for this type of study region; analyzing, investigating, and developing a relationship between arid watershed characteristics (including urbanization) and nearby villages flow flood frequency in Ras Baalbeck and Fekha. This paper discusses different levels of integration approach¬es between GIS and hydrological models (HEC-HMS & HEC-RAS) and presents a case study, in which all the tasks of creating model input, editing data, running the model, and displaying output results. The study area corresponds to the East Basin (Ras Baalbeck & Fakeha), comprising nearly 350 km2 and situated in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. The case study presented in this paper has a database which is derived from Lebanese Army topographic maps for this region. Using ArcMap to digitizing the contour lines, streams & other features from the topographic maps. The digital elevation model grid (DEM) is derived for the study area. The next steps in this research are to incorporate rainfall time series data from Arseal, Fekha and Deir El Ahmar stations to build a hydrologic data model within a GIS environment and to combine ArcGIS/ArcMap, HEC-HMS & HEC-RAS models, in order to produce a spatial-temporal model for floodplain analysis at a regional scale. In this study, HEC-HMS and SCS methods were chosen to build the hydrologic model of the watershed. The model then calibrated using flood event that occurred between 7th & 9th of May 2014 which considered exceptionally extreme because of the length of time the flows lasted (15 hours) and the fact that it covered both the watershed of Aarsal and Ras Baalbeck. The strongest reported flood in recent times lasted for only 7 hours covering only one watershed. The calibrated hydrologic model is then used to build the hydraulic model & assessing of flood hazards maps for the region. HEC-RAS Model is used in this issue & field trips were done for the catchments in order to calibrated both Hydrologic and Hydraulic models. The presented models are a kind of flexible procedures for an ungaged watershed. For some storm events it delivers good results, while for others, no parameter vectors can be found. In order to have a general methodology based on these ideas, further calibration and compromising of results on the dependence of many flood events parameters and catchment properties is required.

Keywords: flood risk management, flash flood, semi arid region, El Assi River, hazard maps

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