Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Shakeela Parveen

28 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Based on Morphmetric Parameters of the Populations of Labeo rohita

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Shakeela Parveen

Abstract:

Labeo rohita populations from five geographical locations from the hatchery and riverine system of Punjab-Pakistan were studied for the clustering on the basis of similarities and differences based on morphometric parameters within the species. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) was done by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) as Agglomeration method by XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02. A dendrogram with the data on the morphometrics of the representative samples of each site divided the populations of Labeo rohita in to five major clusters or classes. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 19.24% for within class variation, while 80.76% for the between class differences. The representative central objects of the each class, the distances between the class centroids and also the distance between the central objects of the classes were generated by the analysis. A measurable distinction between the classes of the populations of the Labeo rohita was indicated in this study which determined the impacts of changing environment and other possible factors influencing the variation level among the populations of the same species.

Keywords: AHC, Labeo rohita, hatchery, riverine, morphometric

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27 Genetic Variation among the Wild and Hatchery Raised Populations of Labeo rohita Revealed by RAPD Markers

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Shakeela Parveen

Abstract:

The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita by using molecular markers were carried out to investigate the genetic structure by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The samples were collected from different five locations as representatives of wild and hatchery raised populations. RAPAD data for Jaccard’s coefficient by following the un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated divided the randomly selected individuals of the five populations into three classes/clusters. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 52.11% for within class variation, while 47.89% for the between class differences. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primers indicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The Kaiser Criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 58.177% of cumulative variability.

Keywords: variation, clustering, PCA, wild, hatchery, RAPAD, Labeo rohita

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26 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

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25 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

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24 Processing Big Data: An Approach Using Feature Selection

Authors: Nikat Parveen, M. Ananthi

Abstract:

Big data is one of the emerging technology, which collects the data from various sensors and those data will be used in many fields. Data retrieval is one of the major issue where there is a need to extract the exact data as per the need. In this paper, large amount of data set is processed by using the feature selection. Feature selection helps to choose the data which are actually needed to process and execute the task. The key value is the one which helps to point out exact data available in the storage space. Here the available data is streamed and R-Center is proposed to achieve this task.

Keywords: big data, key value, feature selection, retrieval, performance

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23 Instructional Information Resources

Authors: Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

This article discusses institute information resources. Information, in its most restricted technical sense, is a sequence of symbols that can be interpreted as message information can be recorded as signs, or transmitted as signals. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. Conceptually, information is the message being conveyed. This concept has numerous other meanings in different contexts. Moreover, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, representation, and especially entropy.

Keywords: institutions, information institutions, information services for mission-oriented institute, pattern

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22 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: Pranav Mohan Parki, C. Mallika Parveen, Tahseen Ahmad Khan, Mihika Shivkumar

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, prototype, laser sintering

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21 Bridging the Digital Divide in India: Issus and Challenges

Authors: Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

The cope the rapid change of technology and to control the ephemeral rate of information generation, librarians along with their professional colleagues need to equip themselves as per the requirement of the electronic information society. E-learning is purely based on computer and communication technologies. The terminologies like computer based learning. It is the delivery of content via all electronic media through internet, internet, Extranets television broadcast, CD-Rom documents, etc. E-learning poses lot of issues in the transformation of literature or knowledge from the conventional medium to ICT based format and web based services.

Keywords: e-learning, digital libraries, online learning, electronic information society

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20 Design of Bidirectional Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network in Optisystem Environment

Authors: Ashiq Hussain, Mahwash Hussain, Zeenat Parveen

Abstract:

Now a days the demand for broadband service has increased. Due to which the researchers are trying to find a solution to provide a large amount of service. There is a shortage of bandwidth because of the use of downloading video, voice and data. One of the solutions to overcome this shortage of bandwidth is to provide the communication system with passive optical components. We have increased the data rate in this system. From experimental results we have concluded that the quality factor has increased by adding passive optical networks.

Keywords: WDM-PON, optical fiber, BER, Q-factor, eye diagram

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19 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young's modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, circular hole, FGM plate, bending

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18 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina

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A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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17 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: stress concentration factor, countersunk hole, finite element, ANSYS

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16 Femtocell Stationed Flawless Handover in High Agility Trains

Authors: S. Dhivya, M. Abirami, M. Farjana Parveen, M. Keerthiga

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The development of high-speed railway makes people’s lives more and more convenient; meanwhile, handover is the major problem on high-speed railway communication services. In order to overcome that drawback the architecture of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) femtocell networks is used to improve network performance, and the deployment of a femtocell is a key for bandwidth limitation and coverage issues in conventional mobile network system. To increase the handover performance this paper proposed a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) assisted handoff (MAHO) algorithm. It is a technique used in mobile telecom to transfer a mobile phone to a new radio channel with stronger signal strength and improved channel quality.

Keywords: flawless handover, high-speed train, home evolved Node B, LTE, mobile femtocell, RSS

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15 Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.

Keywords: availability modeling, Markov process, milling system, rice milling plant

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14 Role of Phenylalanine and Glycine in Plant Signaling to Improve Drought Tolerance Potential in Wheat

Authors: Abida Kausar, Shagufta Parveen

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The priming of seeds was carried out by two amino acids (phenylalanine and glycine) to improve the drought tolerance potential of two wheat varieties. As wheat is a staple food of more than half of the population of the world, including Pakistan. However, its productivity is mainly adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The current research plan was to investigate the effect of hydropriming and priming by amino acids on wheat varieties under drought stress (50% field capacity). Therefore morphological, biochemical, physiological, and yield attributes were recorded. It was revealed that drought stress significantly decreased the biochemical, morpho-physiological, and growth attributes of the wheat crop. However, the priming treatments have shown a positive correlation with all the studied attributes. It was concluded that priming might involve plant signaling to produce the drought tolerance metabolites under stress conditions which, as a consequence, enhanced the drought tolerance potential of crops.

Keywords: plant biomass, biochemical parameters, chlorophyll contents, yield

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13 Asparagus racemosus Willd for Enhanced Medicinal Properties

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Parveen Parveen

Abstract:

India is bestowed with an extremely high population of plant species with medicinal value and even has two biodiversity hotspots. Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have historically been serving humankind across the world since time immemorial. About 1500 plant species have well been documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus as official medicinal plants. Additionally, several hundred species of plants are being routinely used as medicines by local people especially tribes living in and around forests. The natural resources for medicinal plants have unscientifically been over-exploited forcing rapid depletion in their genetic diversity. Moreover, renewed global interest in herbal medicines may even lead to additional depletion of medicinal plant wealth of the country, as about 95% collection of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparation is being carried out from natural forests. On the other hand, huge export market of medicinal and aromatic plants needs to be seriously tapped for enhancing inflow of foreign currency. Asparagus racemosus Willd., a member of family Liliaceae, is one of thirty-two plant species that have been identified as priority species for cultivation and conservation by the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB), Government of India. Though attention is being focused on standardization of agro-techniques and extraction methods, little has been designed on genetic improvement and selection of desired types with higher root production and saponin content, a basic ingredient of medicinal value. The saponin not only improves defense mechanisms and controls diabetes but the roots of this species promote secretion of breast milk, improved lost body weight and considered as an aphrodisiac. There is ample scope for genetic improvement of this species for enhancing productivity substantially, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is emphasized to select desired genotypes with sufficient genetic diversity for important economic traits. Hybridization between two genetically divergent genotypes could result in the synthesis of new F1 hybrids consisting of useful traits of both the parents. The evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus assembled different geographical locations of India revelled high degree of variability for traits of economic importance. The maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed for shoot height among shoot related traits and for root length among root related traits. The shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance, the phenotypic coefficient of variance was recorded to be 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80, 23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among shoot-related traits and root length among root-related traits. Index values were developed for all seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh) were found to be promising seed sources.

Keywords: asparagus, genetic, genotypes, variance

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12 Performance Analysis of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using Onion Routing to Enhance the Privacy and Anonymity in Grid Computing

Authors: H. Parveen Begam, M. A. Maluk Mohamed

Abstract:

Grid computing is an environment that allows sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in dynamic, heterogeneous and distributed environment using Virtual Organization (VO). Security is a critical issue due to the open nature of the wireless channels in the grid computing which requires three fundamental services: authentication, authorization, and encryption. The privacy and anonymity are considered as an important factor while communicating over publicly spanned network like web. To ensure a high level of security we explored an extension of onion routing, which has been used with dynamic token exchange along with protection of privacy and anonymity of individual identity. To improve the performance of encrypting the layers, the elliptic curve cryptography is used. Compared to traditional cryptosystems like RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adelman), ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem) offers equivalent security with smaller key sizes which result in faster computations, lower power consumption, as well as memory and bandwidth savings. This paper presents the estimation of the performance improvements of onion routing using ECC as well as the comparison graph between performance level of RSA and ECC.

Keywords: grid computing, privacy, anonymity, onion routing, ECC, RSA

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11 A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students

Authors: Farzana Parveen, Shahina Maqbool

Abstract:

Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.

Keywords: spirituality, psychological well-being, male and female, students

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10 Molecular Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Some Cultured Penaeid Shrimps of Coastal Regions in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Baki Billah, Suraiya Parveen, Shuvra Kanti Dey

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Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting shrimp, but this industry is facing a tremendous problem due to the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). This study was undermined to develop rapid detection method of WSSV. A total of shrimp samples 240 collected from the 12 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, and Bagerhat) were analyzed by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers. In satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna 39, 41 and 29 samples were found WSSV positive respectively. Real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 240 samples were Satkhira 38%, Khulna 47% and Bagerhat 50%. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. Physico-chemical parameters were within the range of fish culture.

Keywords: coastal regions of Bangladesh, PCR, shrimp, white spot syndrome virus

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9 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain

Abstract:

This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurements

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8 Effect of Ausubel's Advance Organizer Model to Enhancing Meta-Cognition of Students at Secondary Level

Authors: Qaisara Parveen, M. Imran Yousuf

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of the use of advance organizer model for enhancing meta-cognition of students in the subject of science. It was hypothesized that the students of experimental group taught through advance organizer model would show the better cognition than the students of control group taught through traditional teaching. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students studying in government high school located in Rawalpindi. The sample of the study consisted of 50 students of 9th class of humanities group. The sample was selected on the basis of their pretest scores through matching, and the groups were randomly assigned for the treatment. The experimental group was taught through advance organizer model while the control group was taught through traditional teaching. The self-developed achievement test was used for the purpose of pretest and posttest. After collecting the pre-test score and post-test score, the data was analyzed and interpreted by use of descriptive statistics as mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics t-test. The findings indicate that students taught using advance organizers had a higher level of meta-cognition as compared to control group. Further, meta cognition level of boys was found higher than that of girls students. This study also revealed the fact that though the students at different meta-cognition level approached learning situations in a different manner, Advance organizer model is far superior to Traditional method of teaching.

Keywords: descriptive, experimental, humanities, meta-cognition, statistics, science

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7 Modeling of Strong Motion Generation Areas of the 2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake Using Modified Semi-Empirical Technique Incorporating Frequency Dependent Radiation Pattern Model

Authors: Sandeep, A. Joshi, Kamal, Piu Dhibar, Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

In the present work strong ground motion has been simulated using a modified semi-empirical technique (MSET), with frequency dependent radiation pattern model. Joshi et al. (2014) have modified the semi-empirical technique to incorporate the modeling of strong motion generation areas (SMGAs). A frequency dependent radiation pattern model is applied to simulate high frequency ground motion more precisely. Identified SMGAs (Kurahashi and Irikura 2012) of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) were modeled using this modified technique. Records are simulated for both frequency dependent and constant radiation pattern function. Simulated records for both cases are compared with observed records in terms of peak ground acceleration and pseudo acceleration response spectra at different stations. Comparison of simulated and observed records in terms of root mean square error suggests that the method is capable of simulating record which matches in a wide frequency range for this earthquake and bears realistic appearance in terms of shape and strong motion parameters. The results confirm the efficacy and suitability of rupture model defined by five SMGAs for the developed modified technique.

Keywords: strong ground motion, semi-empirical, strong motion generation area, frequency dependent radiation pattern, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

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6 Adaptive Certificate-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol for Mobile Grid Infrastructure

Authors: H. Parveen Begam, M. A. Maluk Mohamed

Abstract:

Mobile Grid Computing is an environment that allows sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in dynamic, heterogeneous and distributed environment using different types of electronic portable devices. In a grid environment the security issues are like authentication, authorization, message protection and delegation handled by GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure). Proving better security between mobile devices and grid infrastructure is a major issue, because of the open nature of wireless networks, heterogeneous and distributed environments. In a mobile grid environment, the individual computing devices may be resource-limited in isolation, as an aggregated sum, they have the potential to play a vital role within the mobile grid environment. Some adaptive methodology or solution is needed to solve the issues like authentication of a base station, security of information flowing between a mobile user and a base station, prevention of attacks within a base station, hand-over of authentication information, communication cost of establishing a session key between mobile user and base station, computing complexity of achieving authenticity and security. The sharing of resources of the devices can be achieved only through the trusted relationships between the mobile hosts (MHs). Before accessing the grid service, the mobile devices should be proven authentic. This paper proposes the dynamic certificate based mutual authentication protocol between two mobile hosts in a mobile grid environment. The certificate generation process is done by CA (Certificate Authority) for all the authenticated MHs. Security (because of validity period of the certificate) and dynamicity (transmission time) can be achieved through the secure service certificates. Authentication protocol is built on communication services to provide cryptographically secured mechanisms for verifying the identity of users and resources.

Keywords: mobile grid computing, certificate authority (CA), SSL/TLS protocol, secured service certificates

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5 Screening of Factors Affecting the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Aqueous Ionic Liquid and Locally Produced Cellulase System

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Amal A. Elgharbawy, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi, Parveen Jamal

Abstract:

The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the obstacles in the process of sugar production, due to the presence of lignin that protects the cellulose molecules against cellulases. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose in ionic liquid (IL) system has been receiving a lot of interest; however, it requires IL removal with an anti-solvent in order to proceed with the enzymatic hydrolysis. At this point, introducing a compatible cellulase enzyme seems more efficient in this process. A cellulase enzyme that was produced by Trichoderma reesei on palm kernel cake (PKC) exhibited a promising stability in several ILs. The enzyme called PKC-Cel was tested for its optimum pH and temperature as well as its molecular weight. One among evaluated ILs, 1,3-diethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate [DEMIM] DMP was applied in this study. Evaluation of six factors was executed in Stat-Ease Design Expert V.9, definitive screening design, which are IL/ buffer ratio, temperature, hydrolysis retention time, biomass loading, cellulase loading and empty fruit bunches (EFB) particle size. According to the obtained data, IL-enzyme system shows the highest sugar concentration at 70 °C, 27 hours, 10% IL-buffer, 35% biomass loading, 60 Units/g cellulase and 200 μm particle size. As concluded from the obtained data, not only the PKC-Cel was stable in the presence of the IL, also it was actually stable at a higher temperature than its optimum one. The reducing sugar obtained was 53.468±4.58 g/L which was equivalent to 0.3055 g reducing sugar/g EFB. This approach opens an insight for more studies in order to understand the actual effect of ILs on cellulases and their interactions in the aqueous system. It could also benefit in an efficient production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: cellulase, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, pretreatment

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4 Development of Cobalt Doped Alumina Hybrids for Adsorption of Textile Effluents

Authors: Uzaira Rafique, Kousar Parveen

Abstract:

The discharge volume and composition of Textile effluents gains scientific concern due to its hazards and biotoxcity of azo dyes. Azo dyes are non-biodegradable due to its complex molecular structure and recalcitrant nature. Serious attempts have been made to synthesize and develop new materials to combat the environmental problems. The present study is designed for removal of a range of azo dyes (Methyl orange, Congo red and Basic fuchsine) from synthetic aqueous solutions and real textile effluents. For this purpose, Metal (cobalt) doped alumina hybrids are synthesized and applied as adsorbents in the batch experiment. Two different aluminium precursor (aluminium nitrate and spent aluminium foil) and glucose are mixed following sol gel method to get hybrids. The synthesized materials are characterized for surface and bulk properties using FTIR, SEM-EDX and XRD techniques. The characterization of materials under FTIR revealed that –OH (3487-3504 cm-1), C-H (2935-2985 cm-1), Al-O (~ 800 cm-1), Al-O-C (~1380 cm-1), Al-O-Al (659-669 cm-1) groups participates in the binding of dyes onto the surface of hybrids. Amorphous shaped particles and elemental composition of carbon (23%-44%), aluminium (29%-395%), and oxygen (11%-20%) is demonstrated in SEM-EDX micrograph. Time-dependent batch-experiments under identical experimental parameters showed 74% congo red, 68% methyl orange and 85% maximum removal of basic fuchsine onto the surface of cobalt doped alumina hybrids probably through the ion-exchange mechanism. The experimental data when treated with adsorption models is found to have good agreement with pseudo second order kinetic and freundlich isotherm for adsorption process. The present study concludes the successful synthesis of novel and efficient cobalt doped alumina hybrids providing environmental friendly and economical alternative to the commercial adsorbents for the treatment of industrial effluents.

Keywords: alumina hybrid, adsorption, dopant, isotherm, kinetic

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3 Key Findings on Rapid Syntax Screening Test for Children

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi, Thilini Lokubalasuriya, Shakeela Saleem, Dinusha Nonis, Isuru Dharmaratne, Lakshika Udugama

Abstract:

Introduction: Late identification of language difficulties in children could result in long-term negative consequences for communication, literacy and self-esteem. This highlights the need for early identification and intervention for speech, language and communication difficulties. Speech and language therapy is a relatively new profession in Sri Lanka and at present, there are no formal standardized screening tools to assess language skills in Sinhala-speaking children. The development and validation of a short, accurate screening tool to enable the identification of children with syntactic difficulties in Sinhala is a current need. Aims: 1) To develop test items for a Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) test on children aged between 3;0 to 5;0 years 2) To validate the test of Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) on children aged between 3; 0 to 5; 0 years Methods: The Sinhala Syntactic Structures (S3 Short Form) was devised based on the Renfrew Action Picture Test. As Sinhala contains post-positions in contrast to English, the principles of the Renfrew Action Picture Test were followed to gain an information score and a grammar score but the test devised reflected the linguistic-specificity and complexity of Sinhala and the pictures were in keeping with the culture of the country. This included the dative case marker ‘to give something to her’ (/ejɑ:ʈə/ meaning ‘to her’), the instrumental case marker ‘to get something from’ (/ejɑ:gən/ meaning ‘from him’ or /gɑhən/ meaning ‘from the tree’), possessive noun (/ɑmmɑge:/ meaning ‘mother’s’ or /gɑhe:/ meaning ‘of the tree’ or /male:/ meaning ‘of the flower’) and plural markers (/bɑllɑ:/ bɑllo:/ meaning ‘dog/dogs’, /mɑlə/mɑl/ meaning ‘flower/flowers’, /gɑsə/gɑs/ meaning ‘tree/trees’ and /wɑlɑ:kulə/wɑlɑ:kulu/ meaning ‘cloud/clouds’). The picture targets included socio-culturally appropriate scenes of the Sri Lankan New Year celebration, elephant procession and the Buddhist ‘Wesak’ ceremony. The test was piloted with a group of 60 participants and necessary changes made. In phase 1, the test was administered to 100 Sinhala-speaking children aged between 3; 0 and 5; 0 years in one district. In this presentation on phase 2, the test was administered to another 100 Sinhala-speaking children aged between 3; 0 to 5; 0 in three districts. In phase 2, the selection of the test items was assessed via measures of content validity, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. The age of acquisition of each syntactic structure was determined using content and grammar scores which were statistically analysed using t-tests and one-way ANOVAs. Results: High percentage agreement was found on test-retest reliability on content validity and Pearson correlation measures and on inter-rater reliability. As predicted, there was a statistically significant influence of age on the production of syntactic structures at p<0.05. Conclusions: As the target test items included generated the information and the syntactic structures expected, the test could be used as a quick syntactic screening tool with preschool children.

Keywords: Sinhala, screening, syntax, language

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2 Economic of Chickpea Cultivars as Influenced by Sowing Time and Seed Rate

Authors: Indu Bala Sethi, Meena Sewhag, Rakesh Kumar, Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Pulse Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi 2012-13 to study the economics of chickpea cultivars as influenced by sowing time and seed rate on sandy loam soils under irrigated conditions. The factorial experiment consisting of 24 treatment combinations with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The crop was sown with common row spacing of 30 cm as per the dates of sowing. The fertilizer was applied in the form of di- ammonium phosphate. The soil of the experimental site was deep sandy loam having pH of 7.9, EC of 0.13 dS/m and low in organic carbon (0.34%), low in available N status (193.36 kg ha-1), medium in available P2O5 (32.18 kg ha-1) and high in available K2O (249.67 kg ha-1). The crop was irrigated as and when required so as to maintain adequate soil moisture in the root zone The crop was sprayed with monocrotophos (1.25 l/ha) at initiation of flowering and at pod filling stage to protect the crop from pod borer attack. The yield was measured at the time of harvest. The cost of field preparation, sowing of seeds, thinning, weeding, plant protection, harvesting and cleaning contributed to fixed cost. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 were kept in subplots and replicated thrice. Results revealed that 1st fortnight of November sowing recorded significantly higher gross (Rs.1, 01,254 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 68,504 ha-1) and BC (3.09) ratio as compared to delayed crop of chickpea. Highest gross (Rs.91826 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 59076ha-1) and BC ratio (2.81) was recorded with H08-18. Higher value of cost of cultivation of chickpea was observed in higher seed rate than the lower ones. However no significant variation in net and gross returns was observed due to seed rates. Highest BC (2.72) ratio was recorded with 50 kg ha-1 which differs significantly from 60 kg ha-1 but was at par with 40 kg ha-1. This is because of higher grain yield obtained with 50 kg ha-1 seed rate. Net profit for farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 was higher than the farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 40 and 60 kg ha.

Keywords: chickpea, cultivars, seed rate, sowing time

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1 Aerobic Biodegradation of a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon by Bacillus Cereus 2479

Authors: Srijata Mitra, Mobina Parveen, Pranab Roy, Narayan Chandra Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Chlorinated hydrocarbon can be a major pollution problem in groundwater as well as soil. Many people interact with these chemicals on daily accidentally or by professionally in the laboratory. One of the most common sources for Chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater are industrial effluents. The wide use and discharge of Trichloroethylene (TCE), a volatile chlorohydrocarbon from chemical industry, led to major water pollution in rural areas. TCE is an mainly used as an industrial metal degreaser in industries. Biotransformation of TCE to the potent carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC) by consortia of anaerobic bacteria might have role for the above purpose. For these reasons, the aim of current study was to isolate and characterized the genes involved in TCE metabolism and also to investigate the in silico study of those genes. To our knowledge, only one aromatic dioxygenase system, the toluene dioxygenase in Pseudomonas putida F1 has been shown to be involved in TCE degradation. This is first instance where Bacillus cereus group being used in biodegradation of trichloroethylene. A novel bacterial strain 2479 was isolated from oil depot site at Rajbandh, Durgapur (West Bengal, India) by enrichment culture technique. It was identified based on polyphasic approach and ribotyping. The bacterium was gram positive, rod shaped, endospore forming and capable of degrading trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source. On the basis of phylogenetic data and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Analysis, strain 2479 should be placed within the genus Bacillus and species cereus. However, the present isolate (strain 2479) is unique and sharply different from the usual Bacillus strains in its biodegrading nature. Fujiwara test was done to estimate that the strain 2479 could degrade TCE efficiently. The gene for TCE biodegradation was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus cereus 2479 by using todC1 gene specific primers. The 600bp amplicon was cloned into expression vector pUC I8 in the E. coli host XL1-Blue and expressed under the control of lac promoter and nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene sequence was deposited at NCBI under the Accession no. GU183105. In Silico approach involved predicting the physico-chemical properties of deduced Tce1 protein by using ProtParam tool. The tce1 gene contained 342 bp long ORF encoding 114 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight 12.6 kDa and the theoretical pI value of the polypeptide was 5.17, molecular formula: C559H886N152O165S8, total number of atoms: 1770, aliphatic index: 101.93, instability index: 28.60, Grand Average of Hydropathicity (GRAVY): 0.152. Three differentially expressed proteins (97.1, 40 and 30 kDa) were directly involved in TCE biodegradation, found to react immunologically to the antibodies raised against TCE inducible proteins in Western blot analysis. The present study suggested that cloned gene product (TCE1) was capable of degrading TCE as verified chemically.

Keywords: cloning, Bacillus cereus, in silico analysis, TCE

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