Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 538

Search results for: Christian Kokborok song

538 Effective Parameter Selection for Audio-Based Music Mood Classification for Christian Kokborok Song: A Regression-Based Approach

Authors: Sanchali Das, Swapan Debbarma

Abstract:

Music mood classification is developing in both the areas of music information retrieval (MIR) and natural language processing (NLP). Some of the Indian languages like Hindi English etc. have considerable exposure in MIR. But research in mood classification in regional language is very less. In this paper, powerful audio based feature for Kokborok Christian song is identified and mood classification task has been performed. Kokborok is an Indo-Burman language especially spoken in the northeastern part of India and also some other countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar etc. For performing audio-based classification task, useful audio features are taken out by jMIR software. There are some standard audio parameters are there for the audio-based task but as known to all that every language has its unique characteristics. So here, the most significant features which are the best fit for the database of Kokborok song is analysed. The regression-based model is used to find out the independent parameters that act as a predictor and predicts the dependencies of parameters and shows how it will impact on overall classification result. For classification WEKA 3.5 is used, and selected parameters create a classification model. And another model is developed by using all the standard audio features that are used by most of the researcher. In this experiment, the essential parameters that are responsible for effective audio based mood classification and parameters that do not significantly change for each of the Christian Kokborok songs are analysed, and a comparison is also shown between the two above model.

Keywords: Christian Kokborok song, mood classification, music information retrieval, regression

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537 Religious Tattoos Symbols amongst Underground Communities in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia: Their Functions and Significances

Authors: Constantius Tri Handoko

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Tattoos on the body of Christian youths seemed interesting as the majority of Christian look at tattoo and tattooing activity are prohibited. This research besides to understand the motivation behind why Christian youth in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia being tattooed also focus on the regard to what functions and meanings of the tattoos are. By using visual discourse analysis, the tattoos had relation to the informants’ social lives dimension, such as the Christian symbol tattoos expressed their spiritual life journey, a faith symbol to God, as personal symbols (identity), art expression, as well as fashion. On the other hands, tattoos also became a hatred symbol to Jesus and the Christian faith, since the tattoo wearers who were a former Christians felt disappointed to God as they thought God never help them to survive in their lives.

Keywords: tattoo, representation, identity, belief, Christian

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536 Bringing Thai Folk Song "Laos Duang Duen" to Teaching in Western Music

Authors: Wongwarit Nipitwittaya

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The objectives of this research is bringing folk song with the teaching of Western music were to examine to investigate, to compare, develop the skill, technique, knowledge of Thai folk song and to preserve folk song of Thailand to be known more widely also learn Thai culture from Thai folk song. Study by bringing Thailand folk song is widely known for learning with Western music in course brass performance. Bringing the melody of Thai folk music and changing patterns to western music notes for appropriate on brass performance. A sample was selected from brass students, using research by assessment of knowledge from test after used Thai folk song lesson. The lesson focus for scales and key signature in western music by divided into two groups, the one study by used research tools and another one used simple lesson and a collection of research until testing. The results of the study were as follows: 1. There are good development skill form research method 2. Sound recognition can be even better. The study was a qualitative research and data collection by observation.

Keywords: Thai folk song, brass instrument, key signature, western music

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535 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

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Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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534 A Corpus Based Study of Eileen Chang’s Self-Translating Style: A Case Study on The Rice Sprout Song

Authors: Yi-Wei Huang

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Eileen Chang is a well-known writer of modern Chinese literature. She is also a translator that publishes her self-translation The Rice Sprout Song. The purpose of the study is to identify the style of Eileen Chang’s self-translations by corpora, especially in the case of The Rice Sprout Song. The Rice Sprout Song is first written in English and then translated into Chinese by the author herself. The procedure of translation is complicated due to the bilingual transition by the same person. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify Eileen Chang’s style on her self-translation by comparing her works The Old Man and the Sea, The Rice Sprout Song, and The Rouge of The North. The study uses computer-aided software like AntConc, Notepad++, StanfordCoreNLP, and Python to analyze the style of the works, especially focuses on reduplications and the composition of the sentences. Reduplications are commonly seen in Eileen Chang’s works, and they often appear with colors or onomatopoeia. With these criteria, the style of self-translating can be detected and analyzed.

Keywords: corpora, Eileen Chang, reduplications, self-translation

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533 The Impact of Judeo-Christian Myth and Celtic Myth in Selected Plays of William Shakespeare

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

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This article intends to show strong facts of ‘Judeo-Christian myth’ and ‘Celtic myth’ in selected plays of William Shakespeare. Giving the vast proliferation of Shakespeare studies we examine the strong impact of Bible in his plays. Inevitably, for instance, the study of Shakespeare and the Bible overlaps the study of Shakespeare and religion, which justify the use of Judeo-Christian myth in his works. There is some evidence that Shakespeare had read and used the ‘Geneva Bible’ in his works. The glimpse of parables and references of Biblical myth can be seen very clearly in Macbeth, King Lear and Measure for Measure. Defining a religion based on myths is difficult because it is built upon a belief of large number of people in the society. The Judeo-Christian myth which is based on the Bible, Celtic religious myth will also be discussed in this paper which had a strong impact on the audience of sixteenth century and it is still continuing at the present time.

Keywords: Celtic myth, Geneva Bible, Judeo-Christian myth, Shakespearean plays

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532 Using a Character’s Inner Monologue for Song Analysis

Authors: Robert Roznowski

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The thought process of the character is never more evident than when singing alone onstage. The composer scores the emotional state and the lyricist voices the inner conflict as the character shares with an audience her or his deepest feelings. It is at these moments that a character may be thought of as voicing her or his inner monologue. Using examples from several musical theatre songs, this presentation will look at a codified approach to analyze a song from a more psychological perspective. Using the clues from the score, traditional character analysis and a psychological-based scoring method an actor may explore more fully inhabit and express the sung and unsung thoughts of the character. The approach yields a richer and more complex approach to acting the song.

Keywords: acting, analysis, musical theatre, psychology

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531 Character Bioacoustics White-Rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus as a Cage-Bird

Authors: Novia Liza Rahmawaty, Wilson Novarino, Muhammad Nazri Janra

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Indonesian people love to keep songbird in cage to be competed, such as White-rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus). Each individual White-rumped Shama will be pitted their song and try to imitate the rhythm of the enemy with its songs. This study was conducted to see the natural song characters of White-rumped Shama and song character from birds that had been trained and comparison in three different places in West Sumatra. Individuals were recorded totaling 30 individuals in three areas in West Sumatra namely Padang, Solok and Pariaman and sound recordings of White-rumped Shama in nature were taken in HBW and Xenocanto website. Research has done conducted from June to October 2016 at place group practice of birdsongs and recorded at 16:00 to 18:00 pm. These voices were analyzed by Avisoft SAS-Lab Lite inform of oscillogram and sonogram. Measured parameters included: the length of voice, repertoire size, number of syllable type, syllable repertoire, and song repertoire. The results showed that repertoire composition of White-rumped Shama in nature less than the sound which was trained and has repeat songs composed by the same type of repertoire composition. Comparison of song character White-rumped Shama in three different places in West Sumatra, those birds in Solok had the best quality of voice or song than Padang and Pariaman. It showed by higher repertoire composition in Solok.

Keywords: repertoire composition, song characters, songbird, white-rumped shama

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530 The Analysis of Kru Luen Sun Tharawatin’s Tableau Vivant Singing Style

Authors: Pansak Vandee

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The research aims to study the background and format of Tableau Vivant suite song and the singing style of Kru Luen SunTharawatin. The data is gained by content analysis and the in-depth interview from experts on Tableau Vivant suite song, as well as an analysis on singing style of Kru Luen SunTharawatin. The research results are as follows: (1) The Tableau Vivant suite song first appeared in the reign of King Rama V, composing by Prince Naris, for paralleling with the still picture presentation offered to Crown Prince Maha Vajirunahit, which was adapted from the French performance Tableau Vivant. The performance is assigned to perform by the Crown Prince’s younger brother and other young royal siblings. The 8 suite songs were played by archeological Thai orchestra (Piphat duek dam ban) and were restored once again in the reign of King Rama VII for the pleasure of the king, being sung by the Royal Entertainment Department Officers. (2) The format of Tableau Vivant suite song is a short series song, composing a double strand of 4 to 6 songs with 6 suite songs in 8 suites, in the form of a combination of suite lyric – Unnarut (the play narrated by King Rama I) and Phra Pen Chao (the homage to Brahman gods in Na Phat song); and suite song – Khom Dam Din with Khmer tone; the Three Kingdoms with Chinese tone; Rajadhirat with Burmese and Mon tone; Nitra Chakrit (the Arabian Night) with Arabian tone; Cinderella with Western tone; Phra Lor in Laotian tone. (3) The Tableau Vivant suite singing style of Kru Luen SunTharawatin is based on Phra-ya Sanor Duriyang (Cham SunTharawatin) style, which was newly created for Kru Luen, his daughter. The five suite songs Khom Dam Din, the Three Kingdoms, Rajadhirat, Nitra Chakrit (the Arabian Night), Cinderella, Phra Lor have their distinguish tones according to their language accents. The songs were recorded in the album of the Royal Institute of Thailand in 1931; but, unfortunately, the entire album was completely destroyed during the World War II in Germany.

Keywords: Krue Luen Sun Tharawatin, tableau vivant, singing style, suite song

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529 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

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Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

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528 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud

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This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

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527 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless, Peter Reuter

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The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

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526 Spiritual Warriors: Christian Testimony and Psychotherapy in Ritual Abuse Memoir

Authors: Jocelyn Cohen

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This paper identifies a powerful synchronicity of two traditions of life-story writing in the autobiographies of ritual abuse (RA) survivors, the Christian conversion narrative and the memoir of healing from childhood sexual trauma. Using methodologies from literary studies, history, and psychology, a close reading of three RA memoirs sheds light on a taboo and deeply suspect form of violence. Treatment of RA survivors and the unique role of psychotherapists, in particular, deserve far greater attention from multi-disciplinary scholars. Each story reflects salient characteristics of the Christian conversion narrative, a genre which originated in the US in the early 19th century with the serendipitous confluence of the simultaneous emergence of print culture and the basic structures of evangelicalism during the Second Great Awakening. The impulse of writing is thus to give testimony against the sin they witnessed and endured as young children during ritual violence perpetrated within the church. Importantly, RA is seen as an inherent if obscure aspect of Christian discourse itself, not in opposition to it, and not as an aberration. In RA's memoir, healing comes in part from the Christian narrative praxis of personal redemption, framed as prevailing in a war between good and evil. In other words, storytelling itself affects the healing, much as it does by means of each writer’s 'talking cure,' in the relationship with a psychotherapist who guides her through a repair of the life-story through the excavation of traumatic memories and their integration into the writer’s psyche. Integrating literary techniques into the psychotherapeutic relationship, therapists leverage the deep linguistic structures that clients possess as a resource to aid in their healing.

Keywords: memoir, psychotherapy, religion, trauma

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525 The Consistency of Gerhard Kittel’s “Christian” Antisemitism in His "Die Judenfrage" and "Meine Verteidigung"

Authors: Catherine Harrison

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Faced with arrest, imprisonment and the denazification process in 1945, Tübingen University’s Professor of Theology, Gerhard Kittel, refused to abandon the “Christian” antisemitism which he had first expounded in his Die Judenfrage [The Jewish Question] (1933 and 1934). At the heart of this paper is a critical engagement with Die Judenfrage, the first in English. Putting Die Judenfrage into dialogue with Kittel’s 1946, Meine Verteidigung [My Defence] (1945-6) exposes the remarkable consistency of Kittel’s idiosyncratic but closely argued Christian theology of antisemitism. Girdling his career as a foremost theologian, antisemite and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the NSDAP, the consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung attests Kittel’s consistent and authentic, intellectual position. In both texts, he claims to be advancing Christian, as opposed to “vulgar” or racial, antisemitism. Yet, in the thirteen years which divide them, Kittel had mediated contact with Nazi illuminati Rudolph Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Winnifred Wagner, Josef Goebbels and Baldur von Schirach, through his publications in various antisemitic journals. The paper argues: Die Judenfrage, as both a text and as a theme, is axiomatic to Kittel’s defence statement; and that Die Judenfrage constitutes the template of Kittel’s arcane, personal “Christian” antisemitism of which Meine Verteidigung is a faithful impression. Both are constructed on the same theologically chimeric and abstruse hypotheses regarding Volk, Spätjudentum [late Judaism] and Heilgeschichte [salvation history]. Problematising these and other definitional vagaries that make up Kittel’s “Christian” antisemitism highlight the remarkable theoretical consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung. It is concluded that a deadly synergy of Nazi racial antisemitism and the New Testament antisemitism shaped Kittel’s judgement to the degree that, despite the slipstream of concentration camp footage which was shaking the foundations of post-war German academia, Meine Verteidigung is a simple restatement of the antisemitsm conveyed in Die Judenfrage.

Keywords: Gerhard Kittel, Third Reich theology, the Jewish Question, Nazi antisemitism

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524 Prediction of Music Track Popularity: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Syed Atif Hassan, Luv Mehta, Syed Asif Hassan

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Hit song science is a field of investigation wherein machine learning techniques are applied to music tracks in order to extract such features from audio signals which can capture information that could explain the popularity of respective tracks. Record companies invest huge amounts of money into recruiting fresh talents and churning out new music each year. Gaining insight into the basis of why a song becomes popular will result in tremendous benefits for the music industry. This paper aims to extract basic musical and more advanced, acoustic features from songs while also taking into account external factors that play a role in making a particular song popular. We use a dataset derived from popular Spotify playlists divided by genre. We use ten genres (blues, classical, country, disco, hip-hop, jazz, metal, pop, reggae, rock), chosen on the basis of clear to ambiguous delineation in the typical sound of their genres. We feed these features into three different classifiers, namely, SVM with RBF kernel, a deep neural network, and a recurring neural network, to build separate predictive models and choosing the best performing model at the end. Predicting song popularity is particularly important for the music industry as it would allow record companies to produce better content for the masses resulting in a more competitive market.

Keywords: classifier, machine learning, music tracks, popularity, prediction

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523 A Pragma-Rhetorical Study of Christian Religious Pentecostal Sermons in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu

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Effectiveness in communication requires the deployment of pragmatic and rhetorical strategies in religious sermons. In spite of high volume of works in religious discourse, scholars have not adequately accounted for the persuasive and argumentation strategies employed in Christian religious Pentecostal sermons. This study examines communicative intentions and the pragma-rhetorical strategies deployed to maintain balance and effectiveness in selected sermons of Pastor E. A. Adeboye, Bishop D. Oyedepo and Pastor W. F. Kumuyi. Fifteen sermons, delivered orally and transcribed into the written mode, were selected and analysed using Jacob Mey’s theory of pragmeme, Aristotle’s rhetoric and the theory of argumentation by van Eemeren and Grootendorst. Speakers pract stating, encouraging, assuring, warning, condemning, directing, praising, thanking, etc. through rhetorical question, repetition, direct address, direct command and structural parallelism. They assume divine role by speaking authoritatively and they tactically and logically select words to legitimise their ideology. They also categorise and portray individuals and/or issues either as good or bad, sinner/sin or righteous/righteousness, etc. The study provides clearer insight into the pragmatic import and the communicative effectiveness of Christian Pentecostal sermons. Further research can juxtapose the pragma-rhetorical and argumentation strategies of preachers of two clearly differentiated movements within the Christian religion.

Keywords: argumentation, communicative intentions, pentecostal sermons, pragmeme, rhetoric

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522 Urban Refugees and Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Sheraz Akhtar

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In recent years, a massive influx of refugees into developing countries has placed significant constraints on the host government’s capacities to provide social services, including education, to all. As a result, the refugee communities often find themselves deprived of their rights to education in these host countries, particularly for those who to live outside camps in urban locations. While previous research has examined the educational experiences of refugees who have resettled in developed nations, there remains a dearth of research on the educational experiences of urban refugees in developing nations. This study examines this issue through a case study of Pakistani Christian refugees living in urban settings in Thailand. Using a combination of observations within community learning centres set up by international non-government organisations (INGOs) working with these communities, and interviews with young Pakistani Christian refugees and their families, the research aims to give greater voice to the Pakistani Christian refugee community living in Thailand, and better understand their educational aspirations.

Keywords: Education, Developing Countries , INGOs, Urban Refugees

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521 Liturgical Elements and Symbolism of Light in Christian Sacred Space

Authors: Zorana Sokol Gojnik, Igor Gojnik, Marina Simunic Bursic

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The light is one of the major themes of theology of sacred space. Christian theology, but also architecture in its complexity, is permeated by the symbolism of light from its beginning. The aim of this paper is to deeply analyse the symbolism of light in every single element of contemporary Christian sacred space such as altar, ambo, baptistery, tabernacle, confessionals, stations of the cross, etc. The research will be carried out using the methodology of research of literature and comparatively observation of contemporary examples of sacred architecture. The research will use the insights of analyzed literature and examples of sacred architecture in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. The paper will highlight the importance of symbolic and theological points of view in contemporary church design using the light as a building part of every single part of sacred architecture as there is an insight that, in contemporary sacred architecture, there is a lack of understanding of symbolic and theological aspect of light while designing new sacred spaces.

Keywords: architecture, liturgy, sacred architecture, theology of space

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520 Well-Being in the Workplace: Do Christian Leaders Behave Differently?

Authors: Mariateresa Torchia, Helene Cristini, Hannele Kauppinen

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Leadership plays a vital role in organizations. Leaders provide directions and facilitate the processes that enable organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. However, while productivity and financial objectives are often given the greatest emphasis, leaders also have the responsibility for instituting standards of ethical conduct and moral values that guide the behavior of employees. Leaders’ behaviors such as support, empowerment and a high-quality relationship with their employees might not only prevent stress, but also improve employees’ stress coping meanwhile contributing to their affective well-being. Stemming from Girard’s Mimetic Theory, this study aims at understanding how leaders can foster well-being in organizations. To do so, we explore which is the role leaders play in conflict management, resentment management and negative emotions dissipation. Furthermore, we examine whether and to what extent religiosity impacts the way in which leaders operate in relation to employees’ well-being. Indeed, given that organizational values are crucial to ethical behavior and firms’ values may be steeled by a deep sense of spirituality and religious identification, there is a need to take a closer look at the role religion and spirituality play in influencing the way leaders impact employees’ well-being. Thus, religion might work as an overarching logic that provides a set of principles guiding leaders’ everyday practices and relations with employees. We answer our research questions using a qualitative approach. We interviewed 27 Christian leaders (members of the Christian Entrepreneurs and Leaders Association – EDC, a non-profit organization created in 1926 including 3,000 French Christian Leaders & Entrepreneurs). Our results show that well-being can have a different meaning in relation to the type of companies, size, culture, country of analysis. Moreover the values and believes of leaders influence the way they see and foster well-being among employees. Furthermore, leaders can have both a positive or negative impact on well-being. Indeed on the one side, they could increase well-being in the company while on the other hand, they could be the source of resentment and conflicts among employees. Finally, we observed that Christian leaders possess characteristics that are sometimes missing in leaders (humility, inability to compare with others, attempt to be coherent with their values and beliefs, interest in the common good instead of the personal interest, having tougher dilemmas, collectively undertaking the firm). Moreover the Christian leader believes that the common good should come before personal interest. In other words, to them, not only short –termed profit shouldn’t guide strategical decisions but also leaders should feel responsible for their employees’ well-being. Last but not least, the study is not an apologia of Christian, yet it discusses the implications of these values through the light of Girard’s mimetic theory for both theory and practice.

Keywords: Christian leaders, employees well-being, leadership, mimetic theory

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519 Techno-Apocalypse in Christian End-Time Literature

Authors: Sean O'Callaghan

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Around 2011/2012, a whole new genre of Christian religious writing began to emerge, focused on the role of advanced technologies, particularly the GRIN technologies (Genetics, Robotics, Information Technology and Nanotechnology), in bringing about a techno-apocalypse, leading to catastrophic events which would usher in the end of the world. This genre, at first niche, has now begun to grow in significance in many quarters of the more fundamentalist and biblically literalist branches of evangelicalism. It approaches science and technology with more than extreme skepticism. It accuses transhumanists of being in league with satanic powers and a satanic agenda and contextualizes transhumanist scientific progress in terms of its service to what it believes to be a soon to come Antichrist figure. The genre has moved beyond literature and videos about its message can be found on YouTube and other forums, where many of the presentations there get well over a quarter of a million views. This paper will examine the genre and its genesis, referring to the key figures involved in spreading the anti-intellectualist and anti-scientific message. It will demonstrate how this genre of writing is similar in many respects to other forms of apocalyptic writing which have emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, all in response to both scientific and political events which are interpreted in the light of biblical prophecy. It will also set the genre in the context of a contemporary pre-occupation with conspiracy theory. The conclusions of the research conducted in this field by the author are that it does a grave disservice to both the scientific and Christian audiences which it targets, by misrepresenting scientific advances and by creating a hermeneutic of suspicion which makes it impossible for Christians to place their trust in scientific claims.

Keywords: antichrist, catastrophic, Christian, techno-apocalypse

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518 Towards Understanding the Notions of Quality Education among Internationally-Accredited Christian Schools in Southeast Asia

Authors: Selaphares Jatico Tajale

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This research aims to understand the notions of quality education by conducting case studies among internationally-accredited Christian schools in Southeast Asia. Five internationally-accredited Christian schools from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Singapore will be chosen as cases for this study. This study will utilize the processes of interviews, filling up of questionnaires, and writing of reflections in order to obtain data and relevant information. These processes will be conducted through multi-sectoral respondents such as administrators, academic heads, and faculty. This study employs five aspects within the realm of education as guides in the formulation of questionnaire and guide questions in the interview, namely: a) school context, b) classroom, c) quality assurance, d) stakeholders, e) faculty and staff. Guide interview questions and questions in the questionnaires are formulated to uncover information on how those five aspects were managed to achieve desired student learning outcomes and uncover other information useful for the study.

Keywords: internationally-accredited, notions of quality education, quality education, quality education in Southeast Asia

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517 Indian Christian View of God: Exploring Its Trajectory in 20th Century

Authors: James Ponniah

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Christianity is the largest religious tradition of the world. What makes Christianity a world religion is its characteristics of universality and particularity. Its universality and particularity are closely interrelated. Its university is realized and embodied in its particularities and its particularity is recognized and legitimized through its universality. This paper focuses on the dimension of the particularity of Christianity in that it looks at the particularized ideas and discourses of Christian thinking in India in the 20th century and pays attention to the differing shifts and new shades of meaning in Indian Christian notion of God. Drawing upon the writings of select Indian theologians such as Brahmabandhab Upadhyaya, Sundar Sing, A.J Appasamy, Raymond Panikkar, Amalorpavadass and George Soares Prabhhu, this paper delves into how the contexts—be it personal, political, historical or ecclesial—bear upon the way Indian theologians have conceived and constructed the notion of God in their work. Focusing upon how they responded to the signs of their time through their theological narratives, the paper argues that the religion of Christianity can sustain its universality only when it translates its key notions such as God into indigenous categories and local idioms and thus makes itself relevant to the people among whom it is spread. Monotheistic God of Christianity has to accommodate plurality of expressions if Christian idea God has to capture and convey everyone’s experience of God. The case of Indian Christianity then reveals that a monolithic world religion will be experienced and recognised as truly universal only when it sheds its homogeneity and assumes a heterogeneous portrait through the acquisition of local idioms. Allowing culturally diverse idioms to influence theological categories is not inconsequential to—‘accommodating differences and accepting diversities,’ an issue we encounter within and beyond religious domains in our contemporary times.

Keywords: concept of God, heterogeneity, Indian Christianity, indigenous categories

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516 Predicting the Product Life Cycle of Songs on Radio - How Record Labels Can Manage Product Portfolio and Prioritise Artists by Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Claus N. Holm, Oliver F. Grooss, Robert A. Alphinas

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This research strives to predict the remaining product life cycle of a song on radio after it has been played for one or two months. The best results were achieved using a k-d tree to calculate the most similar songs to the test songs and use a Random Forest model to forecast radio plays. An 82.78% and 83.44% accuracy is achieved for the two time periods, respectively. This explorative research leads to over 4500 test metrics to find the best combination of models and pre-processing techniques. Other algorithms tested are KNN, MLP and CNN. The features only consist of daily radio plays and use no musical features.

Keywords: hit song science, product life cycle, machine learning, radio

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515 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

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The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

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514 A Comparison of Proxemics and Postural Head Movements during Pop Music versus Matched Music Videos

Authors: Harry J. Witchel, James Ackah, Carlos P. Santos, Nachiappan Chockalingam, Carina E. I. Westling

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Introduction: Proxemics is the study of how people perceive and use space. It is commonly proposed that when people like or engage with a person/object, they will move slightly closer to it, often quite subtly and subconsciously. Music videos are known to add entertainment value to a pop song. Our hypothesis was that by adding appropriately matched video to a pop song, it would lead to a net approach of the head to the monitor screen compared to simply listening to an audio-only version of the song. Methods: We presented to 27 participants (ages 21.00 ± 2.89, 15 female) seated in front of 47.5 x 27 cm monitor two musical stimuli in a counterbalanced order; all stimuli were based on music videos by the band OK Go: Here It Goes Again (HIGA, boredom ratings (0-100) = 15.00 ± 4.76, mean ± SEM, standard-error-of-the-mean) and Do What You Want (DWYW, boredom ratings = 23.93 ± 5.98), which did not differ in boredom elicited (P = 0.21, rank-sum test). Each participant experienced each song only once, and one song (counterbalanced) as audio-only versus the other song as a music video. The movement was measured by video-tracking using Kinovea 0.8, based on recording from a lateral aspect; before beginning, each participant had a reflective motion tracking marker placed on the outer canthus of the left eye. Analysis of the Kinovea X-Y coordinate output in comma-separated-variables format was performed in Matlab, as were non-parametric statistical tests. Results: We found that the audio-only stimuli (combined for both HIGA and DWYW, mean ± SEM, 35.71 ± 5.36) were significantly more boring than the music video versions (19.46 ± 3.83, P = 0.0066 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT), Cohen's d = 0.658, N = 28). We also found that participants' heads moved around twice as much during the audio-only versions (speed = 0.590 ± 0.095 mm/sec) compared to the video versions (0.301 ± 0.063 mm/sec, P = 0.00077, WSRT). However, the participants' mean head-to-screen distances were not detectably smaller (i.e. head closer to the screen) during the music videos (74.4 ± 1.8 cm) compared to the audio-only stimuli (73.9 ± 1.8 cm, P = 0.37, WSRT). If anything, during the audio-only condition, they were slightly closer. Interestingly, the ranges of the head-to-screen distances were smaller during the music video (8.6 ± 1.4 cm) compared to the audio-only (12.9 ± 1.7 cm, P = 0.0057, WSRT), the standard deviations were also smaller (P = 0.0027, WSRT), and their heads were held 7 mm higher (video 116.1 ± 0.8 vs. audio-only 116.8 ± 0.8 cm above floor, P = 0.049, WSRT). Discussion: As predicted, sitting and listening to experimenter-selected pop music was more boring than when the music was accompanied by a matched, professionally-made video. However, we did not find that the proxemics of the situation led to approaching the screen. Instead, adding video led to efforts to control the head to a more central and upright viewing position and to suppress head fidgeting.

Keywords: boredom, engagement, music videos, posture, proxemics

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513 Examining the Perceptions of Religious Stakeholders towards Religious Tourism Development

Authors: Katerina Pericleous, Zanet Garanti

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Traveling for religious and pilgrimage purposes consist of an early-stage motivation for the historical development of tourism. Sacred places become important attractions for local and foreign visitors, and many countries invest on the development of religious and pilgrimage tourism. Cyprus has a rich tradition as an important place for the establishment and diffusion of the Christian Orthodox Religion (Greek). Being considered the ‘island of Saints’, Cyprus sets strong foundations to be recognised as a spiritual destination of devotion for visitors interested in discovering the roots and the spiritual essence of the Christian Orthodox Religion. The paper elucidates on bringing together the fact whether tourism in sacred places affect the spirituality and religiosity. Thus, the aim is to consider the perceptions of main religious stakeholders, including monastery abbots, in relation to the development of religious tourism. The aim of the study is fulfilled by incorporating questionnaires targeting the responses of the involved religious key players and stakeholders. The results of the study are indicative and provide an understanding in terms of religious tourism as an important product by interpreting the stance of religious stakeholders. In general, religious leaders support tourism in religious sites and argue that spirituality and holiness can be maintained as long there is a policy that is followed both by religious and tourism policy makers. Undoubtedly, establishing Cyprus as a religious tourism destination would bring many economic and social benefits.

Keywords: religious tourism, cyprus, Christian orthodox religion, monasteries

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512 Using Virtual Reality Exergaming to Improve Health of College Students

Authors: Juanita Wallace, Mark Jackson, Bethany Jurs

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Introduction: Exergames, VR games used as a form of exercise, are being used to reduce sedentary lifestyles in a vast number of populations. However, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the physiological response during VR exergaming to that of traditional exercises. The purpose of this study was to create a foundationary investigation establishing changes in physiological responses resulting from VR exergaming in a college aged population. Methods: In this IRB approved study, college aged students were recruited to play a virtual reality exergame (Beat Saber) on the Oculus Quest 2 (Facebook, 2021) in either a control group (CG) or training group (TG). Both groups consisted of subjects who were not habitual users of virtual reality. The CG played VR one time per week for three weeks and the TG played 150 min/week three weeks. Each group played the same nine Beat Saber songs, in a randomized order, during 30 minute sessions. Song difficulty was increased during play based on song performance. Subjects completed a pre- and posttests at which the following was collected: • Beat Saber Game Metrics: song level played, song score, number of beats completed per song and accuracy (beats completed/total beats) • Physiological Data: heart rate (max and avg.), active calories • Demographics Results: A total of 20 subjects completed the study; nine in the CG (3 males, 6 females) and 11 (5 males, 6 females) in the TG. • Beat Saber Song Metrics: The TG improved performance from a normal/hard difficulty to hard/expert. The CG stayed at the normal/hard difficulty. At the pretest there was no difference in game accuracy between groups. However, at the posttest the CG had a higher accuracy. • Physiological Data (Table 1): Average heart rates were similar between the TG and CG at both the pre- and posttest. However, the TG expended more total calories. Discussion: Due to the lack of peer reviewed literature on c exergaming using Beat Saber, the results of this study cannot be directly compared. However, the results of this study can be compared with the previously established trends for traditional exercise. In traditional exercise, an increase in training volume equates to increased efficiency at the activity. The TG should naturally increase in difficulty at a faster rate than the CG because they played 150 hours per week. Heart rate and caloric responses also increase during traditional exercise as load increases (i.e. speed or resistance). The TG reported an increase in total calories due to a higher difficulty of play. The song accuracy decreases in the TG can be explained by the increased difficulty of play. Conclusion: VR exergaming is comparable to traditional exercise for loads within the 50-70% of maximum heart rate. The ability to use VR for health could motivate individuals who do not engage in traditional exercise. In addition, individuals in health professions can and should promote VR exergaming as a viable way to increase physical activity and improve health in their clients/patients.

Keywords: virtual reality, exergaming, health, heart rate, wellness

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511 Visual, Zoological Metaphors and 'Urtiin Duu' (Long Song) in Alshaa, Inner Mongolia

Authors: Oyuna Weina

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This study examines how musicians use visual and zoological metaphors for singing technique and voice quality in a genre of traditional music called urtiin duu (‘long song’) in Alshaa, Inner Mongolia, China. Previous studies have discussed melodic contour in Mongol music, but little study of the intersection of singing technique, visual and zoological metaphors has yet been undertaken. The purpose of this study is to address this lack by analysing urtiin duu itself, traditional pedagogy and performances, all of which have been inspired and are assessed by reference to nature and mobile pastoral herding practices. This study investigates the visual and zoological metaphors related to urtiin duu especially colour, the shape of the circle and animals in the Mongol community. Urtiin duu singing is associated with certain colours in song texts, in selection of repertoire and in the status of singers. Musicians also use colour to describe timbre. These colours in turn reference worship of nature, religions, and daily practices of most Mongols in Alshaa. Moreover, voice quality and singing technique are often related to the animals not only in song text but also in the approach to breathing and to melodic contour. Additionally, the concept of boronhoi (‘the shape of circle’), not only is applied to the melodic contour but also to the voice quality and singing technique. These three factors illustrate the connections among nature, spiritual world and everyday herding life of Mongols. These different connections provide evidence of multi-layered meanings. In contemporary Alshaa, urtiin duu singers received Western musical training from the city and returned to their homelands to perform urtiin duu. In doing so, they are also trying to reconnect with the history, nature and spiritual world in order to achieve their ideal sound. Within a multicultural society, singers negotiate amongst themselves, and with ethnic groups, audiences and government officials. The power of the metaphor therefore assists and reconnects the strength of regional identity and ethnic identity in Alshaa.

Keywords: Alshaa, urtiin duu, visual, zoological metaphors

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510 Semiotics of the New Commercial Music Paradigm

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

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This presentation will address how the statistical analysis of digitized popular music influences the music creation and emotionally manipulates consumers.Furthermore, it will deal with semiological aspect of uniformization of musical taste in order to predict the potential revenues generated by popular music sales. In the USA, we live in an age where most of the popular music (i.e. music that generates substantial revenue) has been digitized. It is safe to say that almost everything that was produced in last 10 years is already digitized (either available on iTunes, Spotify, YouTube, or some other platform). Depending on marketing viability and its potential to generate additional revenue most of the “older” music is still being digitized. Once the music gets turned into a digital audio file,it can be computer-analyzed in all kinds of respects, and the similar goes for the lyrics because they also exist as a digital text file, to which any kin of N Capture-kind of analysis may be applied. So, by employing statistical examination of different popular music metrics such as tempo, form, pronouns, introduction length, song length, archetypes, subject matter,and repetition of title, the commercial result may be predicted. Polyphonic HMI (Human Media Interface) introduced the concept of the hit song science computer program in 2003.The company asserted that machine learning could create a music profile to predict hit songs from its audio features Thus,it has been established that a successful pop song must include: 100 bpm or more;an 8 second intro;use the pronoun 'you' within 20 seconds of the start of the song; hit the bridge middle 8 between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 30 seconds; average 7 repetitions of the title; create some expectations and fill that expectation in the title. For the country song: 100 bpm or less for a male artist; 14-second intro; uses the pronoun 'you' within the first 20 seconds of the intro; has a bridge middle 8 between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 30 seconds; has 7 repetitions of title; creates an expectation,fulfills it in 60 seconds.This approach to commercial popular music minimizes the human influence when it comes to which “artist” a record label is going to sign and market. Twenty years ago,music experts in the A&R (Artists and Repertoire) departments of the record labels were making personal aesthetic judgments based on their extensive experience in the music industry. Now, the computer music analyzing programs, are replacing them in an attempt to minimize investment risk of the panicking record labels, in an environment where nobody can predict the future of the recording industry.The impact on the consumers taste through the narrow bottleneck of the above mentioned music selection by the record labels,created some very peculiar effects not only on the taste of popular music consumers, but also the creative chops of the music artists as well. What is the meaning of this semiological shift is the main focus of this research and paper presentation.

Keywords: music, semiology, commercial, taste

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509 WWSE School Development in German Christian Schools Revisited: Organizational Development Taken to a Test

Authors: Marco Sewald

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WWSE School Development (Wahrnehmungs- und wertorientierte Schulentwicklung) contains surveys on pupils, teachers and parents and enables schools to align the development to the requirements mentioned by these three stakeholders. WWSE includes a derivative set of questions for Christian schools, meeting their specific needs. The conducted research on WWSE is reflecting contemporary questions on school development, questioning the quality of the implementation of the results of past surveys, delivered by WWSE School Development in Christian schools in Germany. The research focused on questions connected to organizational development, including leadership and change management. This is done contoured to the two other areas of WWSE: human resources development and development of school teaching methods. The chosen research methods are: (1) A quantitative triangulation on three sets of data. Data from a past evaluation taken in 2011, data from a second evaluation covering the same school conducted in 2014 and a structured survey among the teachers, headmasters and members of the school board taken within the research. (2) Interviews with teachers and headmasters have been conducted during the research as a second stage to fortify the result of the quantitative first stage. Results: WWSE is supporting modern school development. While organizational development, leadership, and change management are proofed to be important for modern school development, these areas are widespread underestimated by teachers and headmasters. Especially in comparison to the field of human resource development and to an even bigger extent in comparison to the area of development of school teaching methods. The research concluded, that additional efforts in the area of organizational development are necessary to meet modern demands and the research also shows which areas are the most important ones.

Keywords: school as a social organization, school development, school leadership, WWSE, Wahrnehmungs- und wertorientierte Schulentwicklung

Procedia PDF Downloads 155