Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: monomers

91 Synthesis and Characterization of New Thermotropic Monomers – Containing Phosphorus

Authors: Diana Serbezeanu, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Sergiu Sova

Abstract:

New phosphorus-containing monomers having methoxy end functional groups were prepared from methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and two different dichlorides with phosphorus, namely phenyl phosphonic dichloride and phenyl dichlorophosphate. The structures of the monomers were confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The assignments for the 1H, 13C and 31P chemical shifts are based on 1D and 2D NMR homo- and heteronuclear correlations (H,H-COSY (Correlation Spectroscopy), H,C-HMQC (Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation and H,C-HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation)) and 31P-13C couplings. The monomers exhibited good solubility in common organic solvents. Dimethyl sulfoxide was to be a good solvent to grow crystals of considerable size which were investigated by X-ray analysis. One of these two new monomers presented thermotropic liquid crystalline behaviour, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The transition temperature from crystal to liquid crystalline state (K→LC) was 143°C and from the LC to isotropic state (LC→I) was 167°C. Upon heating, bis(4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl formed fine textures, difficult to be ascribed to smectic or nematic phases. Upon cooling from the isotropic state, bis(4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl exhibited a mosaic-type texture. X-ray diffraction measurements at small angles (SAXS) of bis(4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl showed two peaks at 1.8 Å and 3.5 Å, respectively suggesting organization at supramolecular level.

Keywords: phosphorus-containing monomers, polarized light microscopy, structure investigation, thermotropic liquid crystalline properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
90 Characterization of Enhanced Thermostable Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Authors: Ahmad Idi

Abstract:

The biosynthesis and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) are determined by the bacterial strain and the culture condition. Hence this study elucidates the structure and properties of PHA produced by a newly isolated strain of photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides ADZ101 grown under the optimized culture condition. The properties of the accumulated PHA were determined via FTIR, NMR, TGA, and GCMS analyses. The results showed that acetate and ammonia chloride had the highest PHA accumulation with a ratio of 32.5 mM at neutral pH. The structural analyses showed that the polymer comprises both short and medium-chain length monomers ranging from C5, C13, C14, and C18, as well as the presence of novel PHA monomers. The thermal analysis revealed that the maximum temperature of decomposition occurred at 395°C and 454°C, indicating two major decomposition reactions. Thus this bacterial strain, optimized culture condition, and the abundance of novel monomers enhanced the thermostability of the accumulated PHA.

Keywords: bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates Rhodobacter sphaeroides ADZ101 thermostable PHA

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
89 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache, Bernard Boutevin

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: lignin, vanillin, epoxy, amine, carbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
88 Comparison of Non-Organic (Suspended and Solved) Solids Removal with and without Sediments in Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater with and without Ozonation

Authors: Amir Hajiali, Gevorg P. Pirumyan

Abstract:

In this research, removal of Non-Organic Suspended Solids and Non-Organic Solved Solids with and without sediment in treatment of an industrial wastewater system before and after ozonation was studied and compared. The most hazardous part of these substances is monomers of chlorophenolic combinations which in biological reactors in a liquid phase could be absorbed much easier and with a high velocity. These monomers and particularly monomers with high molecular weights are seen a lot in such wastewater treatment systems. After the treatment, the measured non-organic solved and suspended solids contents in the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system compared to the non-organic solved and suspended solids values in the treatment method without ozonation. Sedimentation was the other factor which was considered in this experiment.The solids removals were measured with and without sediments. The comparison revealed that the remarkable efficiency of the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system in removing the non-organic solids both with and without sediments is extremely considerable. Results of the experiments showed that ozone can be dramatically effective for solving most organic materials in activated sludge in such a wastewater or for making them mineral. Moreover, bio dissolubility increase related to the solved materials was reported.

Keywords: non-organic solids, ozonation, sediment, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
87 Renewable and Functional Biopolymers Using Green Chemistry

Authors: Aman Ullah

Abstract:

The use of renewable resources in supplementing and/or replacing traditional petrochemical products, through green chemistry, is becoming the focus of research. The utilization of oils can play a primitive role towards sustainable development due to their large scale availability, built-in-functionality, biodegradability and no net CO2 production. Microwaves, being clean, green and environmentally friendly, are emerging as an alternative source for product development. Solvent free conversion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) derived from canola oil and waste cooking oil under microwave irradiation demonstrated dramatically enhanced rates. The microwave-assisted reactions lead to the most valuable terminal olefins with enhanced yields, purities and dramatic shortening of reaction times. Various monomers/chemicals were prepared in high yield in very short time. The complete conversions were observed at temperatures as low as 40 ºC within less than five minutes. The products were characterized by GC-MS, GC-FID and NMR. The monomers were separated and polymerized into different polymers including biopolyesthers, biopolyesters, biopolyamides and biopolyolefins. The polymers were characterized in details for their structural, thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties. The ability for complete conversion of oils under solvent free conditions and synthesis of different biopolymers is undoubtedly an attractive concept from both an academic and an industrial point of view.

Keywords: monomers, biopolymers, green chemistry, bioplastics, biomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
86 Pet Bearing Bio-Based Moities

Authors: Majdi Abid

Abstract:

During the last few decades, great efforts have been made for the development of innovative materials using vegetal biomass. This strategy is understandable for different reasons including the predictable dwindling of the petrochemical feedstock and their price increase as well as the counterbalancing of the environmental problems. As novel bio-based monomers used in polyesters synthesis, two families, namely 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols and furanics were prepared for saccharidic renewable resources. The present work deals with a detail investigation on the synthesis of poly(ethylene-co-isosorbide terephthalate-co-furoate) (PEITF) by melt polycondensation of dimethylterephtalate (DMT), 5,5’-isopropylidene-bis (ethyl 2-furoate) (DEF) ethan-1,2-diol (ED) and isosorbide (IS). Polycondensationwas achieved in two steps: (i) the formation of a hydroxyethylterminated oligomer by reaction of starting diester mixture with excess ED and, (ii) a polycondensation step with elimination of ED was used to obtain high molar mass copolyesters. Copolymers of various compositions were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, SEC, DSC and TGA. The resulting materials are amorphous polymers (Tg = 104–127 °C) with good thermal stability.

Keywords: bio-based monomers, furan, isosrbide, polycondensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
85 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, L.Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke

Abstract:

Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
84 First-Principles Calculations of Hydrogen Adsorbed in Multi-Layer Graphene

Authors: Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Mineo Saito

Abstract:

Graphene-based materials have attracted much attention because they are candidates for post silicon materials. Since controlling of impurities is necessary to achieve nano device, we study hydrogen impurity in multi-layer graphene. We perform local spin Density approximation (LSDA) in which the plane wave basis set and pseudopotential are used. Previously hydrogen monomer and dimer in graphene is well theoretically studied. However, hydrogen on multilayer graphene is still not clear. By using first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the LSDA within the density functional theory method, we studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in two-layer graphene. We found that the monomers are spin-polarized and have magnetic moment 1 µB. We also found that most stable dimer is much more stable than monomer. In the most stable structures of the dimers in two-layer graphene, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the host carbon atoms which are nearest-neighbors. In this case two hydrogen atoms are located on the opposite sides. Whereas, when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the same sublattice of the host materials, magnetic moments of 2 µB appear in two-layer graphene. We found that when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to third-nearest-neighbor carbon atoms, the electronic structure is nonmagnetic. We also studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in three-layer graphene. The result is same as that of two-layer graphene. These results are very important in the field of carbon nanomaterials as it is experimentally difficult to show the magnetic state of those materials.

Keywords: first-principles calculations, LSDA, multi-layer gra-phene, nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
83 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, T. Bouchaour, L. Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke

Abstract:

Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of mono functional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiator, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
82 Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of New Series of Oil Sorbers Based on Maleate Esters

Authors: Nora A. Hamad, Ayman M. Atta, Adel A. H. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

Two malice anhydride esters were prepared using long chain aliphatic alcohols (C8H17OH and C12H25OH, 1:1 mole ratio). Three series of crosslinked homo and copolymers of maleate esters with octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid were prepared respectively through suspension copolymerization. The monomers were mixed with 0.02 Wt% of BP initiator, PVA 1% (170 ml for each 100g of monomers) and different weight ratios of DVB crosslinked (1% and 4%) in cyclohexane. The prepared crosslinked homo and copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly (ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene.

Keywords: acrylic acid, crosslinked copolymers, maleate ester, poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET), oil absorbency, octadecyl acrylat

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
81 Photopolymerization of Dimethacrylamide with (Meth)acrylates

Authors: Yuling Xu, Haibo Wang, Dong Xie

Abstract:

A photopolymerizable dimethacrylamide was synthesized and copolymerized with the selected (meth)acrylates. The polymerization rate, degree of conversion, gel time, and compressive strength of the formed neat resins were investigated. The results show that in situ photo-polymerization of the synthesized dimethacrylamide with comonomers having an electron-withdrawing and/or acrylate group dramatically increased the polymerization rate, degree of conversion, and compressive strength. On the other hand, an electron-donating group on either carbon-carbon double bond or the ester linkage slowed down the polymerization. In contrast, the triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-based system did not show a clear pattern. Both strong hydrogen-bonding between (meth)acrylamide and organic acid groups may be responsible for higher compressive strengths. Within the limitation of this study, the photo-polymerization of dimethacrylamide can be greatly accelerated by copolymerization with monomers having electron-withdrawing and/or acrylate groups. The monomers with methacrylate group can significantly reduce the polymerization rate and degree of conversion.

Keywords: photopolymerization, dimethacrylamide, the degree of conversion, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
80 Investigate the Effects of Anionic Surfactant on THF Hydrate

Authors: Salah A. Al-Garyani, Yousef Swesi

Abstract:

Gas hydrates can be hazardous to upstream operations. On the other hand, the high gas storage capacity of hydrate may be utilized for natural gas storage and transport. Research on the promotion of hydrate formation, as related to natural gas storage and transport, has received relatively little attention. The primary objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the effects of ionic surfactants, particularly their molecular structures and concentration, on the formation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, which is often used as a model hydrate former for screening hydrate promoters or inhibitors. The surfactants studied were sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). Our results show that, at concentrations below the solubility limit, the induction time decreases with increasing surfactant concentration. At concentrations near or above the solubility, however, the surfactant concentration no longer has any effect on the induction time. These observations suggest that the effect of surfactant on THF hydrate formation is associated with surfactant monomers, not the formation of micelle as previously reported. The lowest induction time (141.25 ± 21 s, n = 4) was observed in a solution containing 7.5 mM SDS. The induction time decreases by a factor of three at concentrations near or above the solubility, compared to that without surfactant.

Keywords: tetrahydrofuran, hydrate, surfactant, induction time, monomers, micelle

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
79 Biospiral-Detect to Distinguish PrP Multimers from Monomers

Authors: Gulyas Erzsebet

Abstract:

The multimerisation of proteins is a common feature of many cellular processes; however, it could also impair protein functions and/or be associated with the occurrence of diseases. Thus, development of a research tool monitoring the appearance/presence of multimeric protein forms has great importance for a variety of research fields. Such a tool is potentially applicable in the ante-mortem diagnosis of certain conformational diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and Alzheimer’s disease. These conditions are accompanied by the appearance of aggregated protein multimers, present in low concentrations in various tissues. This detection is particularly relevant for TSE where the handling of tissues derived from affected individuals and of meat products of infected animals have become an enormous health concern. Here we demonstrate the potential of such a multimer detection approach in TSE by developing a facile approach. The Biospiral-Detect system resembles a traditional sandwich ELISA, except that the capturing antibody that is attached to a solid surface and the detecting antibody is directed against the same or overlapping epitopes. As a consequence, the capturing antibody shields the epitope on the captured monomer from reacting with the detecting antibody, therefore monomers are not detected. Thus, MDS is capable of detecting only protein multimers with high specificity. We developed an alternative system as well, where RNA aptamers were employed instead of monoclonal antibodies. In order to minimize degradation, the 3' and 5' ends of the aptamer contained deoxyribonucleotides and phosphorothioate linkages. When compared the monoclonal antibodies-based system with the aptamers-based one, the former proved to be superior. Thus all subsequent experiments were conducted by employing the Biospiral -Detect modified sandwich ELISA kit. Our approach showed an order of magnitude higher sensitivity toward mulimers than monomers suggesting that this approach may become a valuable diagnostic tool for conformational diseases that are accompanied by multimerization.

Keywords: diagnosis, ELISA, Prion, TSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
78 Heterophase Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thienyl End Capped Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol by Iron (III) Chloride

Authors: Görkem Ülkü, Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Ethoxylated nonyl phenols (ENP) and ceric ammonium nitrate redox systems have been used for the polymerization of vinyl and acrylic monomers. In that case, ENP acted as an organic reducing agent in the presence of Ce (IV) salt and a radical was formed. The polymers obtained with that redox system contained ENP chain ends because the radicals are formed on the reducing molecules. Similar copolymer synthesis has been reported using poly(ethylene oxide) instead of its nonyl phenol terminated derivative, ENP. However, copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and conducting polymers synthesized by ferric ions were produced in two steps. Firstly, heteroatoms (pyrrole, thiophene etc.) were attached to the poly(ethylene oxide) chains then copolymerization with heterocyclic monomers was carried out. In this work, ethoxylated nonylphenol (ENP) was reacted with 2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride in order to synthesize a macromonomer containing thienyl end-group (ENP-ThC). Then, copolymers of ENP-ThC and pyrrole were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using iron (III) chloride as an oxidant.

Keywords: end capped polymer, ethoxylated nonylphenol, heterophase polymerization, polypyrrole

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
77 Can We Meet the New Challenges of NonIsocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) towards NIPU Foams?

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Marine Blain, Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol

Abstract:

Generally, linear polyurethanes (PUs) are obtained by the reaction between an oligomeric diol, a short diol as chain extender and a diisocyanate. However the use of diisocyanate should be avoided since they are generally very harmful for human health. Therefore the synthesis of NIPUs (non isocyanate PUs) from step growth polymerization of dicyclocarbonates and diamines should be favoured. This method is particularly interesting since no hazardous isocyanates are used. Thus, this reaction, extensively studied by Endo et al. is currently gaining a lot of attention as a substitution route for the synthesis of NIPUs, both from industrial and academic community. However, the reactivity of reaction between amine and cyclic carbonate is a major scientific issue, since cyclic carbonates are poorly reactive. Thus, our team developed several synthetic ways for the synthesis of various di-cyclic carbonates based on C5-, C6- and dithio- cyclic carbonates, from different biobased raw materials (glycerin isosorbide, vegetable oils…). These monomers were used to synthesize NIPUs with various mechanical and thermal properties for various applications. We studied the reactivity of reaction with various catalysts and find optimized conditions for room temperature reaction. We also studied the radical copolymerization of cyclic carbonate monomers in styrene-acrylate copolymers for coating applications. We also succeeded in the elaboration of biobased NIPU flexible foams. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in literature on the preparation of non-isocyanate polyurethane foams.

Keywords: foam, nonisocyanate polyurethane, cyclic carbonate, blowing agent, scanning electron microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
76 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: T. Moremedi, L. Katata-Seru, S. Sardar, A. Bandyopadhyay, E. Makhado, M. Joseph Hato

Abstract:

The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer, and acrylic acid (AA) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Furthermore, the factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from aqueous media, such as pH, dosage, concentration, and time were also investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer by the strong vibrational bands at 1709 cm-1 and 1612 cm-1 for AA and AAm, respectively. Additionally, more irregular, porous and wrinkled surface observed from SEM of XG-g-AAm/AA indicated copolymerization interaction of monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 0C from aqueous solution were pH approximately 5, initial dye concentration = 200 ppm, adsorbent dose = 30 mg. Also, the detailed investigation of the isothermal and adsorption kinetics of RhB from aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of the dye followed a Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96333) and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results further indicated that this absorbent based on XG had the universality to remove dye through the mechanism of chemical adsorption. The outstanding adsorption potential of the grafted copolymer could be used to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution as a low-cost product.

Keywords: xanthan gum, adsorbents, rhodamine B, Freundlich

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
75 Synthesis of Bisphenols Containing Pendant Furyl Group Based on Chemicals Derived from Lignocellulose and Their Utilization for Preparation of Clickable Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s

Authors: Samadhan S. Nagane, Sachin S. Kuhire, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar

Abstract:

Lignocellulose-derived chemicals such as furfural, furandicarboxylic acid, syringol, guaiacol, etc are highly attractive as sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals for the synthesis of monomers and polymers. We wish to report herein the facile synthesis of fully bio-based bisphenols containing pendant furyl group by base-catalyzed condensation of furfural with guaiacol. Bisphenols possessing pendant furyl group represent valuable monomers for the synthesis of a range of polymers which include epoxy resins, polyesters, polycarbonates, poly(aryl ether)s, etc. Several new homo/co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4(-fluorodiphenyl sulfone (FDS) with 4,4'-(furan-2-ylmethylene)bis(2-methoxyphenol) (BPF) and 4,4(-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) using different molar ratios of bisphenols. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed inherent viscosities in the range 0.92-1.47 dLg-1 and number average molecular weights (Mn), obtained from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were in the range 91,300 – 1,31,000. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s could be cast into tough, transparent and flexible films from chloroform solutions. X-Ray diffraction studies indicated amorphous nature of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed Tg values in the range 179-191 oC. Additionally, the pendant furyl groups in poly(arylene ether sulfone)s provide reactive sites for chemical modifications and cross-linking via Diels-Alder reaction with maleimides and bismaleimides, respectively.

Keywords: bio-based, bisphenols, Diels-Alder reaction, poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
74 Effects of Auxetic Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfate Copolymer Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Vee, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterionic polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
73 Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfonate Copolymer Auxetic Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Veerabagu, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterion carboxylate and sulfonate polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
72 Correlation Volumic Shrinkage, Conversion Degree of Dental Composites

Authors: A. Amirouche, M. Mouzali, D. C. Watts

Abstract:

During polymerization of dental composites, the volumic shrinkage is related to the conversion degree. The variation of the volumic shrinkage (S max according to the degree of conversion CD.), was examined for the experimental composites: (BisGMA/TEGDMA): (50/50), (75/25), (25/75) mixed with seven radiopac fillers: La2O3, BaO, BaSO4, SrO, ZrO2 , SrZrO3 and BaZrO 3 with different contents in weight, from 0 to 80%. We notice that whatever the filler and the composition in monomers, Smax increases with the increase in CD. This variation is, linear in particular in the case of the fillers containing only one heavy metal, and that whatever the composition in monomers. For a given salt, the increase of BisGMA composition leads to significant increase of S max more pronounced than the increase in CD. The variation of ratio (S max / CD.) with the increase of filler content is negligible. However the fillers containing two types of heavy metals have more effect on the volumic shrinkage than on the degree of conversion. Whatever the composition in monomer, and the content of filler containing only one heavy atom, S max increases with the increase in CD. Nevertheless, S max is affected by the viscosity of the medium compared with CD. For high percentages of mineral fillers (≥ 70% in weight), the diagrams S max according to CD are deviated of the linearity, owing to the fact that S max is affected by the high percentage of fillers compared with CD. The number of heavy atoms influences directly correlation (S max / CD.). In the case of the two mineral fillers: SrZrO3 and BaZrO3 ratio (S max / CD) moves away from the proportionality. The linearity of the diagrams Smax according to CD is less regular, due to the viscosity of high content of BisGMA. The study of Smax and DC of four commercial composites are presented and compared to elaborate experimental composites.

Keywords: Dental composites, degree of conversion, volumic shrinkage, photopolymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
71 Numerical Study of Homogeneous Nanodroplet Growth

Authors: S. B. Q. Tran

Abstract:

Drop condensation is the phenomenon that the tiny drops form when the oversaturated vapour present in the environment condenses on a substrate and makes the droplet growth. Recently, this subject has received much attention due to its applications in many fields such as thin film growth, heat transfer, recovery of atmospheric water and polymer templating. In literature, many papers investigated theoretically and experimentally in macro droplet growth with the size of millimeter scale of radius. However few papers about nanodroplet condensation are found in the literature especially theoretical work. In order to understand the droplet growth in nanoscale, we perform the numerical simulation work to study nanodroplet growth. We investigate and discuss the role of the droplet shape and monomer diffusion on drop growth and their effect on growth law. The effect of droplet shape is studied by doing parametric studies of contact angle and disjoining pressure magnitude. Besides, the effect of pinning and de-pinning behaviours is also studied. We investigate the axisymmetric homogeneous growth of 10–100 nm single water nanodroplet on a substrate surface. The main mechanism of droplet growth is attributed to the accumulation of laterally diffusing water monomers, formed by the absorption of water vapour in the environment onto the substrate. Under assumptions of quasi-steady thermodynamic equilibrium, the nanodroplet evolves according to the augmented Young–Laplace equation. Using continuum theory, we model the dynamics of nanodroplet growth including the coupled effects of disjoining pressure, contact angle and monomer diffusion with the assumption of constant flux of water monomers at the far field. The simulation result is validated by comparing with the published experimental result. For the case of nanodroplet growth with constant contact angle, our numerical results show that the initial droplet growth is transient by monomer diffusion. When the flux at the far field is small, at the beginning, the droplet grows by the diffusion of initially available water monomers on the substrate and after that by the flux at the far field. In the steady late growth rate of droplet radius and droplet height follow a power law of 1/3, which is unaffected by the substrate disjoining pressure and contact angle. However, it is found that the droplet grows faster in radial direction than high direction when disjoining pressure and contact angle increase. The simulation also shows the information of computational domain effect in the transient growth period. When the computational domain size is larger, the mass coming in the free substrate domain is higher. So the mass coming in the droplet is also higher. The droplet grows and reaches the steady state faster. For the case of pinning and de-pinning droplet growth, the simulation shows that the disjoining pressure does not affect the droplet radius growth law 1/3 in steady state. However the disjoining pressure modifies the growth rate of the droplet height, which then follows a power law of 1/4. We demonstrate how spatial depletion of monomers could lead to a growth arrest of the nanodroplet, as observed experimentally.

Keywords: augmented young-laplace equation, contact angle, disjoining pressure, nanodroplet growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
70 Carbon Aerogel Spheres from Resorcinol/Phenol and Formaldehyde for CO₂ Adsorption

Authors: Jessica Carolina Hernandez Galeano, Juan Carlos Moreno Pirajan, Liliana Giraldo

Abstract:

Carbon gels are materials whose structure and porous texture can be designed and controlled on a nanoscale. Among their characteristics it is found their low density, large surface area and high degree of porosity. These materials are produced by a sol-gel polymerization of organic monomers using basic or acid catalysts, followed by drying and controlled carbonization. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels from resorcinol, phenol and formaldehyde in ethanol is described. The aim of this study is obtaining different carbonaceous materials in the form of spheres using the Stöber method to perform a further evaluation of CO₂ adsorption of each material. In general, the synthesis consisted of a sol-gel polymerization process that generates a cluster (cross-linked organic monomers) from the precursors in the presence of NH₃ as a catalyst. This cluster was subjected to specific conditions of gelling and curing (30°C for 24 hours and 100°C for 24 hours, respectively) and CO₂ supercritical drying. Finally, the dry material was subjected to a process of carbonization or pyrolysis, in N₂ atmosphere at 350°C (1° C / min) for 2 h and 600°C (1°C / min) for 4 hours, to obtain porous solids that retain the structure initially desired. For this work, both the concentrations of the precursors and the proportion of ammonia in the medium where modify to describe the effect of the use of phenol and the amount of catalyst in the resulting material. Carbon aerogels were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), N₂ isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) showing the obtention of carbon spheres in the nanometric scale with BET areas around 500 m2g-1.

Keywords: carbon aerogels, carbon spheres, CO₂ adsorption, Stöber method

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
69 Organic Co-Polymer Monolithic Columns for Liquid Chromatography Mixed Mode Protein Separations

Authors: Ahmed Alkarimi, Kevin Welham

Abstract:

Organic mixed mode monolithic columns were fabricated from; glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate-co-stearyl methacrylate, using glycidyl methacrylate and stearyl methacrylate as co monomers representing 30% and 70% respectively of the liquid volume with ethylene dimethacrylate crosslinker and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone as the free radical initiator. The monomers were mixed with a binary porogenic solvent, comprising propan-1-ol, and methanol (0.825 mL each). The monolith was formed by photo polymerization (365 nm) inside a borosilicate glass tube (1.5 mm ID and 3 mm OD x 50 mm length). The monolith was observed to have formed correctly by optical examination and generated reasonable backpressure, approximately 650 psi at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min⁻¹ 50:50 acetonitrile: water. The morphological properties of the monolithic columns were investigated using scanning electron microscopy images, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, the results showed that the monolith was formed properly with 19.98 ± 0.01 mm² surface area, 0.0205 ± 0.01 cm³ g⁻¹ pore volume and 6.93 ± 0.01 nm average pore size. The polymer monolith formed was further investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The monolithic columns were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography to test their ability to separate different samples with a range of properties. The columns displayed both hydrophobic/hydrophilic and hydrophobic/ion exchange interactions with the compounds tested indicating that true mixed mode separations. The mixed mode monolithic columns exhibited significant separation of proteins.

Keywords: LC separation, proteins separation, monolithic column, mixed mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
68 Liquid Tin(II) Alkoxide Initiators for Use in the Ring-Opening Polymerisation of Cyclic Ester Monomers

Authors: Sujitra Ruengdechawiwat, Robert Molloy, Jintana Siripitayananon, Runglawan Somsunan, Paul D. Topham, Brian J. Tighe

Abstract:

The main aim of this research has been to design and synthesize some completely soluble liquid tin(II) alkoxide initiators for use in the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of cyclic ester monomers. This is in contrast to conventional tin(II) alkoxides in solid form which tend to be molecular aggregates and difficult to dissolve. The liquid initiators prepared were bis(tin(II) monooctoate) diethylene glycol ([Sn(Oct)]2DEG) and bis(tin(II) monooctoate) ethylene glycol ([Sn(Oct)]2EG). Their efficiencies as initiators in the bulk ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL) at 130oC were studied kinetically by dilatometry. Kinetic data over the 20-70% conversion range was used to construct both first-order and zero-order rate plots. It was found that the rate data fitted more closely to first-order kinetics with respect to the monomer concentration and gave higher first-order rate constants than the corresponding tin(II) octoate/diol initiating systems normally used to generate the tin(II) alkoxide in situ. Since the ultimate objective of this work is to produce copolymers suitable for biomedical use as absorbable monofilament surgical sutures, poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) 75:25 mol %, P(LL-co-CL), copolymers were synthesized using both solid and liquid tin(II) alkoxide initiators at 130°C for 48 hrs. The statistical copolymers were obtained in near-quantitative yields with compositions (from 1H-NMR) close to the initial comonomer feed ratios. The monomer sequencing (from 13C-NMR) was partly random and partly blocky (gradient-type) due to the much differing monomer reactivity ratios (rLL >> rCL). From GPC, the copolymers obtained using the soluble liquid tin(II) alkoxides were found to have higher molecular weights (Mn = 40,000-100,000) than those from the only partially soluble solid initiators (Mn = 30,000-52,000).

Keywords: biodegradable polyesters, poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone), ring-opening polymerisation, tin(II) alkoxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
67 Chromatographic Preparation and Performance on Zinc Ion Imprinted Monolithic Column and Its Adsorption Property

Authors: X. Han, S. Duan, C. Liu, C. Zhou, W. Zhu, L. Kong

Abstract:

The ionic imprinting technique refers to the three-dimensional rigid structure with the fixed pore sizes, which was formed by the binding interactions of ions and functional monomers and used ions as the template, it has a high level of recognition to the ionic template. The preparation of monolithic column by the in-situ polymerization need to put the compound of template, functional monomers, cross-linking agent and initiating agent into the solution, dissolve it and inject to the column tube, and then the compound will have a polymerization reaction at a certain temperature, after the synthetic reaction, we washed out the unread template and solution. The monolithic columns are easy to prepare, low consumption and cost-effective with fast mass transfer, besides, they have many chemical functions. But the monolithic columns have some problems in the practical application, such as low-efficiency, quantitative analysis cannot be performed accurately because of the peak shape is wide and has tailing phenomena; the choice of polymerization systems is limited and the lack of theoretical foundations. Thus the optimization of components and preparation methods is an important research direction. During the preparation of ionic imprinted monolithic columns, pore-forming agent can make the polymer generate the porous structure, which can influence the physical properties of polymer, what’ s more, it can directly decide the stability and selectivity of polymerization reaction. The compounds generated in the pre-polymerization reaction could directly decide the identification and screening capabilities of imprinted polymer; thus the choice of pore-forming agent is quite critical in the preparation of imprinted monolithic columns. This article mainly focuses on the research that when using different pore-forming agents, the impact of zinc ion imprinted monolithic column on the enrichment performance of zinc ion.

Keywords: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ionic imprinting, monolithic column, pore-forming agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
66 New Biobased(Furanic-Sulfonated) Poly(esteramide)s

Authors: Souhir Abid

Abstract:

The growing interest in vegetal biomass as an alternative for fossil resources has stimulated the development of numerous classes of monomers. Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons (i) firstly environmental concerns, and (ii) secondly the use of monomers from renewable feedstock is a steadily growing field of interest in order to reduce the amount of petroleum consumed in the chemical industry and to open new high-value-added markets to agriculture. Furanic polymers have been considered as alternative environmentally friendly polymers. In our earlier work, modifying furanic polyesters by incorporation of amide functions along their backbone, lead to a particular class of polymer ‘poly(ester-amide)s’, was investigated to combine the excellent mechanical properties of polyamides and the biodegradability of polyesters. As a continuation of our studies on this family of polymer, a series of furanic poly(ester-amide)s bearing sulfonate groups in the main chain were synthesized from 5,5’-Isopropylidene-bis(ethyl 2-furoate), dimethyl 5-sodiosulfoisophthalate, ethylene glycol and hexamethylene diamine by melt polycondensation using zinc acetate as a catalyst. In view of the complexity of the NMR spectrum analysis of the resulting sulfonated poly(ester-amide)s, we found that it is useful to prepare initially the corresponding homopolymers: sulfonated polyesters and polyamides. Structural data of these polymers will be used as a basic element in 1H NMR characterization. The hydrolytic degradation in acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 4,35 ) at 37 °C over the period of four weeks show that the mechanism of the hydrolysis of poly(ester amide)s was elucidated in relation with the microstructure. The strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between amide functions and water molecules increases the hydrophilicity of the macromolecular chains and consequently their hydrolytic degradation.

Keywords: furan, hydrolytic degradation, polycondensation, poly(ester amide)

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
65 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Gordana Ćetković, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Milica Vinčić

Abstract:

In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
64 Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic

Authors: Deog-Gyu Seo, Jin-Soo Ahn

Abstract:

Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).

Keywords: primer, resin cement, shear bond strength, zirconia

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
63 Crosslinking of Unsaturated Elastomers in Presence of Aromatic Chlorine-Containing Compounds

Authors: Shiraz M. Mammadov, Elvin M. Aliyev, Adil A. Garibov

Abstract:

The role of the disulfochloride benzene in unsaturated rubbers (SKIN, SKN-26) which is in the systems of SKIN+disulfochloride benzene and SKN-26+disulfochloride benzene was studied by the radiation exposure. By the usage of physical, chemical and spectral methods the changes in the molecular structure of the rubber were shown after irradiation by y-rays at 300 kGy. The outputs and the emergence of the crosslinking in the elastomers for each system depending on absorbed dose were defined. It is suggested that the mechanism of radiation occurs by the heterogeneous transformation of elastomers in the presence of disulfochloride benzene.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, crosslinking, polyfunctional monomers, radiation, sensitizier, vulcanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
62 Synthesis and Charaterization of Nanocomposite Poly (4,4' Methylenedianiline) Catalyzed by Maghnite-H+

Authors: A. Belmokhtar, A. Yahiaoui, A. Benyoucef, M. Belbachir

Abstract:

We reported the synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) via chemical polymerization of monomers 4,4’ methylenedianiline by ammonium persulfate (APS) at room temperature catalyzed by Maghnite-H+. A facile method was demonstrated to grow poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) nanocomposite, which was carried out by mixing Ammonium Persulfate (APS) aqueous and 4,4’ methylenedianiline solution in the presence of Maghnite-H+ at room temperature The effect of amount of catalyst and time on the polymerization yield of the polymers was studied. Structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, UV vis, RMN-1H, and voltammetry cyclique.

Keywords: charaterization, maghnite-h+, polymerization, poly (4, 4’ methylenedianiline)

Procedia PDF Downloads 210