Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2075

Search results for: liquid crystal

2075 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada


Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure, phase transitions

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2074 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima


In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens

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2073 Liquid Crystal Elastomers as Light-Driven Star-Shaped Microgripper

Authors: Indraj Singh, Xuan Lee, Yu-Chieh Cheng


Scientists are very keen on biomimetic research that mimics biological species to micro-robotic devices with the novel functionalities and accessibility. The source of inspiration is the complexity, sophistication, and intelligence of the biological systems. In this work, we design a light-driven star-shaped microgripper, an autonomous soft device which can change the shape under the external stimulus such as light. The design is based on light-responsive Liquid Crystal Elastomers which fabricated onto the polymer coated aligned substrate. The change in shape, controlled by the anisotropicity and the molecular orientation of the Liquid Crystal Elastomer, based on the external stimulus. This artificial star-shaped microgripper is capable of autonomous closure and capable to grab the objects in response to an external stimulus. This external stimulus-responsive materials design, based on soft active smart materials, provides a new approach to autonomous, self-regulating optical systems.

Keywords: liquid crystal elastomers, microgripper, smart materials, robotics

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2072 Adjustable Aperture with Liquid Crystal for Real-Time Range Sensor

Authors: Yumee Kim, Seung-Guk Hyeon, Kukjin Chun


An adjustable aperture using a liquid crystal is proposed for real-time range detection and obtaining images simultaneously. The adjustable aperture operates as two types of aperture stops which can create two different Depth of Field images. By analyzing these two images, the distance can be extracted from camera to object. Initially, the aperture stop has large size with zero voltage. When the input voltage is applied, the aperture stop transfer to smaller size by orientational transition of liquid crystal molecules in the device. The diameter of aperture stop is 1.94mm and 1.06mm. The proposed device has low driving voltage of 7.0V and fast response time of 6.22m. Compact size aperture of 6×6×1.1 mm3 is assembled in conventional camera which contain 1/3” HD image sensor and focal length of 3.3mm that can be used in autonomous. The measured range was up to 5m. The adjustable aperture has high stability due to no mechanically moving parts. This range sensor can be applied to the various field of 3D depth map application which is the Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS), drones and manufacturing machine.

Keywords: adjustable aperture, dual aperture, liquid crystal, ranging and imaging, ADAS, range sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2071 Naturally Occurring Abietic Acid for Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Curing Agents

Authors: Rasha A.Ibrahim El-Ghazawy, Ashraf M. El-Saeed, Heusin El-Shafey, M. Abdel-Raheim, Maher A. El-Sockary


Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens (LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and texture, respectively. POM micro graphs for both LCCs revealing cholesteric texture. A multifunctional epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability. The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs and epoxy resin was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: abietic acid, dynamic mechanical analysis, epoxy resin, liquid crystal, thermo gravimetric analysis

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2070 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana


The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
2069 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim


In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

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2068 Quartz Crystal Microbalance Holder Design for On-Line Sensing in Liquid Applications

Authors: M. A. Amer, J. A. Chávez, M. J. García-Hernández, J. Salazar, A. Turó


In this paper, the design of a QCM sensor for liquid media measurements in vertical position is described. A rugged and low-cost proof holder has been designed, the cost of which is significantly lower than those of traditional commercial holders. The crystal is not replaceable but it can be easily cleaned. Its small volume permits to be used by dipping it in the liquid with the desired location and orientation. The developed design has been experimentally validated by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and resistance of the QCM sensor immersed vertically in different calibrated aqueous glycerol solutions. The obtained results show a great agreement with the Kanazawa theoretical expression. Consequently, the designed QCM sensor would be appropriate for sensing applications in liquids, and might take part of a future on-line multichannel low-cost QCM-based measurement system.

Keywords: holder design, liquid-media measurements, multi-channel measurements, QCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2067 Thermo-Physical and Morphological Properties of Pdlcs Films Doped with Tio2 Nanoparticles.

Authors: Salima Bouadjela, Fatima Zohra Abdoune, Lahcene Mechernene


PDLCs are currently considered as promising materials for specific applications such as creation of window blinds controlled by electric field, fog simulators, UV protective glasses, high data storage device etc. We know that the electrical field inside the liquid crystal is low compare with the external electric field [1,2]. An addition of high magnetic and electrical, properties containing compounds to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) will enhance the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of the PDLC [3,4]. Low Concentration of inorganic nanoparticles TiO2 added to nematic liquid crystals (E7) and also combined with monomers (TPGDA) and cured monomer/LC mixture to elaborate polymer-LC-NP dispersion. The presence of liquid crystal and nanoparticles in TPGDA matrix were conformed and the modified properties of PDLC due to doped nanoparticle were studied and explained by the results of FTIR, POM, UV. Incorporation of nanoparticles modifies the structure of PDLC and thus it makes increase the amount of droplets and decrease in droplet size. we found that the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a shift the nematic-isotropic transition temperature TNI.

Keywords: nanocomposites, PDLC, phases diagram, TiO2

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2066 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2065 Modifying the Electrical Properties of Liquid Crystal Cells by Including TiO₂ Nanoparticles on a Substrate

Authors: V. Marzal, J. C. Torres, B. Garcia-Camara, Manuel Cano-Garcia, Xabier Quintana, I. Perez Garcilopez, J. M. Sanchez-Pena


At the present time, the use of nanostructures in complex media, like liquid crystals, is widely extended to manipulate their properties, either electrical or optical. In addition, these media can also be used to control the optical properties of the nanoparticles, for instance when they are resonant. In this work, the change on electrical properties of a liquid crystal cell by adding TiO₂ nanoparticles on one of the alignment layers has been analyzed. These nanoparticles, with a diameter of 100 nm and spherical shape, were deposited in one of the substrates (ITO + polyimide) by spin-coating in order to produce a homogeneous layer. These substrates were checked using an optical microscope (objective x100) to avoid potential agglomerates. The liquid crystal cell is then fabricated, using one of these substrates and another without nanoparticles, and filled with E7. The study of the electrical response was done through impedance measurements in a long range of frequencies (3 Hz- 6 MHz) and at ambient temperature. Different nanoparticle concentrations were considered, as well as pure E7 and an empty cell for comparison purposes. Results about the effective dielectric permittivity and conductivity are presented along with models of equivalent electric circuits and its physical interpretation. As a summary, it has been observed the clear influence of the presence of the nanoparticles, strongly modifying the electric response of the device. In particular, a variation of both the effective permittivity and the conductivity of the device have been observed. This result requires a deep analysis of the effect of these nanoparticles on the trapping of free ions in the device, allowing a controlled manipulation and frequency tuning of the electrical response of these devices.

Keywords: alignment layer, electrical behavior, liquid crystal, TiO₂ nanoparticles

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2064 Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Based on Poly Vinyl Alcohol Boric Acid Matrix

Authors: Daniela Ailincai, Bogdan C. Simionescu, Luminita Marin


Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) represent an interesting class of materials which combine the ability of polymers to form films and their mechanical strength with the opto-electronic properties of liquid crystals. The proper choice of the two components - the liquid crystal and the polymeric matrix - leads to materials suitable for a large area of applications, from electronics to biomedical devices. The objective of our work was to obtain PDLC films with potential applications in the biomedical field, using poly vinyl alcohol boric acid (PVAB) as a polymeric matrix for the first time. Presenting all the tremendous properties of poly vinyl alcohol (such as: biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, good chemical stability and film forming ability), PVAB brings the advantage of containing the electron deficient boron atom, and due to this, it should promote the liquid crystal anchoring and a narrow liquid crystal droplets polydispersity. Two different PDLC systems have been obtained, by the use of two liquid crystals, a nematic commercial one: 4-cyano-4’-penthylbiphenyl (5CB) and a new smectic liquid crystal, synthesized by us: buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate (BBO). The PDLC composites have been obtained by the encapsulation method, working with four different ratios between the polymeric matrix and the liquid crystal, from 60:40 to 90:10. In all cases, the composites were able to form free standing, flexible films. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, RAMAN- spectroscopy and the contact angle measurements have been performed, in order to characterize the new composites. The new smectic liquid crystal has been characterized using 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and its thermotropic behavior has been established using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy. The polarized light microscopy evidenced the formation of round birefringent droplets, anchored homeotropic in the first case and planar in the second, with a narrow dimensional polydispersity, especially for the PDLC containing the largest amount of liquid crystal, fact evidenced by SEM, also. The obtained values for the water to air contact angle showed that the composites have a proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, making them potential candidates for bioapplications. More than this, our studies demonstrated that the water to air contact angle varies as a function of PVAB matrix crystalinity degree, which can be controled as a function of time. This fact allowed us to conclude that the use of PVAB as matrix for PDLCs obtaining offers the possibility to modulate their properties for specific applications.

Keywords: 4-cyano-4’-penthylbiphenyl, buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate, contact angle, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, poly vinyl alcohol boric acid

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2063 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar


In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

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2062 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflect array antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflect array antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180 MHz to 200 MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10 GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71 mm3 as compared to 3.47 mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflect array, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

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2061 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska


The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: helical twist sense, liquid crystals, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy

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2060 Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.

Keywords: liquid crystals, polymers, small-angle scattering, optical properties

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2059 Synthesis and Characterization of Chiral Dopant Based on Schiff's Base Structure

Authors: Hong-Min Kim, Da-Som Han, Myong-Hoon Lee


CLCs (Cholesteric liquid crystals) draw tremendous interest due to their potential in various applications such as cholesteric color filters in LCD devices. CLC possesses helical molecular orientation which is induced by a chiral dopant molecules mixed with nematic liquid crystals. The efficiency of a chiral dopant is quantified by the HTP (helical twisting power). In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of new chiral dopants having a Schiff’s base imine structure with different alkyl chain lengths (butyl, hexyl and octyl) from chiral naphthyl amine by two-step reaction. The structures of new chiral dopants were confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The properties were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry calorimetry), POM (polarized optical microscopy) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. These solid state chiral dopants showed excellent solubility in nematic LC (MLC-6845-000) higher than 17wt%. We prepared the CLC(Cholesteric Liquid Crystal) cell by mixing nematic LC (MLC-6845-000) with different concentrations of chiral dopants and injecting into the sandwich cell of 5μm cell gap with antiparallel alignment. The cholesteric liquid crystal phase was confirmed from POM, in which all the samples showed planar phase, a typical phase of the cholesteric liquid crystals. The HTP (helical twisting power) is one of the most important properties of CLC. We measured the HTP values from the UV-Vis transmittance spectra of CLC cells with varies chiral dopant concentration. The HTP values with different alkyl chains are as follows: butyl chiral dopant=29.8μm-1; hexyl chiral dopant= 31.8μm-1; octyl chiral dopant=27.7μm-1. We obtained the red, green and blue reflection color from CLC cells, which can be used as color filters in LCDs applications.

Keywords: cholesteric liquid crystal, color filter, display, HTP

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2058 Poly (L-Lysine)-Coated Liquid Crystal Droplets for Sensitive Detection of DNA and Its Applications in Controlled Release of Drug Molecules

Authors: Indu Verma, Santanu Kumar Pal


Interactions between DNA and adsorbed Poly (L-lysine) (PLL) on liquid crystal (LC) droplets were investigated using polarizing optical microcopy (POM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Earlier, we demonstrated that adsorption of PLL to the LC/aqueous interface resulted in homeotropic orientation of the LC and thus exhibited a radial configuration of the LC confined within the droplets. Subsequent adsorption of DNA (single stranded DNA/double stranded DNA) at PLL coated LC droplets was found to trigger a LC reorientation within the droplets leading to pre-radial/bipolar configuration of those droplets. To our surprise, subsequent exposure of complementary ssDNA (c-ssDNA) to ssDNA/ adsorbed PLL modified LC droplets did not cause the LC reorientation. This is likely due to the formation of polyplexes (DNA-PLL complex) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, dsDNA adsorbed PLL droplets have been found to be effectively used to displace (controlled release) propidium iodide (a model drug) encapsulated within dsDNA over time. These observations suggest the potential for a label free droplet based LC detection system that can respond to DNA and may provide a simple method to develop DNA-based drug nano-carriers.

Keywords: DNA biosensor, drug delivery, interfaces, liquid crystal droplets

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2057 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2056 Study on Angle Measurement Interferometer around Any Axis Direction Selected by Transmissive Liquid Crystal Device

Authors: R. Furutani, G. Kikuchi


Generally, the optical interferometer system is too complicated and difficult to change the measurement items, pitch, yaw, and row, etc. In this article, the optical interferometer system using the transmissive Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) as the switch of the optical path was proposed. At first, the normal optical interferometer, Michelson interferometer, was constructed to measure the pitch angle and the yaw angle. In this optical interferometer, the ball lenses with the refractive indices of 2.0 were used as the retroreflectors. After that, the transmissive LCD was introduced as the switch to select the adequate optical path. In this article, these optical systems were constructed. Pitch measurement interferometer and yaw measurement interferometer were switched by the transmissive LCD. When the LCD was open for the yaw measurement, the yaw was sufficiently measured and optical path for the pitch measurement was blocked. On the other hand, when the LCD was open for the pitch measurement, the pitch was measured and the optical path for the yaw measurement was also blocked. In this article, the results of both of pitch measurement and yaw measurement were shown, and the result of blocked yaw measurement and pitch measurement were shown. As this measurement system was based on Michelson interferometer, the other measuring items, the deviation along the optical axis, the vertical deviation to the optical axis and row angle, could be measured by the additional ball lenses and the additional switching in future work.

Keywords: any direction angle, ball lens, laser interferometer, transmissive liquid crystal device

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2055 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, L.Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke


Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

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2054 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, T. Bouchaour, L. Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke


Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of mono functional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiator, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2053 Electro-Optic Parameters of Ferroelectric Particles- Liquid Crystal Composites

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


Influence of barium titanate particles on electro-optic properties of liquid crystal 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) with positive dielectric anisotropy and the liquid crystalline (LC) mixture Н-37 consisting of 4-methoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline and 4-ethoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline with negative dielectric anisotropy was investigated. It was shown that a presence of particles inside 5СВ and H-37 decreased the clearing temperature from 35.2 °С to 32.5°С and from 61.2 oC to 60.1oC, correspondingly. The threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect became 0.3 V for the BaTiO3-5CB colloid while the beginning of this effect of the pure 5СВ was observed at 2.1 V. Threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect increased from 2.8 V to up 3.1 V at additive of particles into H-37. A rise time of the BaTiO3-5CB colloid improved while a decay time worsened in comparison with the pure 5CB at all applied voltages. The inverse trends were observed for the H-37 matrix, namely, a rise time worsened and a decay time improved. Among other things, the effect of fast light modulation was studied at application of the rectangular impulse with direct bias to an electro-optical cell with the BaTiO3 particles+5CB and the pure 5CB. At this case, a rise time of the composite worsened, a decay time improved in comparison with the pure 5CB. The pecularities of electrohydrodynamic instability (EHDI) formation was also investigated into the composite with the H-37 matrix. It was found that the voltage of the EHDI formation decreased, a rise time increased and a decay time decreased in comparison with the pure H-37. First of all, experimental results are explained by appearance of local electric fields near the polarized ferroelectric particles at application of external electric field and an existence of the additional obstacles (particles) for movement of ions.

Keywords: liquid crystal, ferroelectric particles, composite, electro-optics

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2052 Performances of the Double-Crystal Setup at CERN SPS Accelerator for Physics beyond Colliders Experiments

Authors: Andrii Natochii


We are currently presenting the recent results from the CERN accelerator facilities obtained in the frame of the UA9 Collaboration. The UA9 experiment investigates how a tiny silicon bent crystal (few millimeters long) can be used for various high-energy physics applications. Due to the huge electrostatic field (tens of GV/cm) between crystalline planes, there is a probability for charged particles, impinging the crystal, to be trapped in the channeling regime. It gives a possibility to steer a high intensity and momentum beam by bending the crystal: channeled particles will follow the crystal curvature and deflect on the certain angle (from tens microradians for LHC to few milliradians for SPS energy ranges). The measurements at SPS, performed in 2017 and 2018, confirmed that the protons deflected by the first crystal, inserted in the primary beam halo, can be caught and channeled by the second crystal. In this configuration, we measure the single pass deflection efficiency of the second crystal and prove our opportunity to perform the fixed target experiment at SPS accelerator (LHC in the future).

Keywords: channeling, double-crystal setup, fixed target experiment, Timepix detector

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2051 Fabrication of Coatable Polarizer by Guest-Host System for Flexible Display Applications

Authors: Rui He, Seung-Eun Baik, Min-Jae Lee, Myong-Hoon Lee


The polarizer is one of the most essential optical elements in LCDs. Currently, the most widely used polarizers for LCD is the derivatives of the H-sheet polarizer. There is a need for coatable polarizers which are much thinner and more stable than H-sheet polarizers. One possible approach to obtain thin, stable, and coatable polarizers is based on the use of highly ordered guest-host system. In our research, we aimed to fabricate coatable polarizer based on highly ordered liquid crystalline monomer and dichroic dye ‘guest-host’ system, in which the anisotropic absorption of light could be achieved by aligning a dichroic dye (guest) in the cooperative motion of the ordered liquid crystal (host) molecules. Firstly, we designed and synthesized a new reactive liquid crystalline monomer containing polymerizable acrylate groups as the ‘host’ material. The structure was confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The liquid crystalline behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). It was confirmed that the monomers possess highly ordered smectic phase at relatively low temperature. Then, the photocurable ‘guest-host’ system was prepared by mixing the liquid crystalline monomer, dichroic dye and photoinitiator. Coatable polarizers were fabricated by spin-coating above mixture on a substrate with alignment layer. The in-situ photopolymerization was carried out at room temperature by irradiating UV light, resulting in the formation of crosslinked structure that stabilized the aligned dichroic dye molecules. Finally, the dichroic ratio (DR), order parameter (S) and polarization efficiency (PE) were determined by polarized UV/Vis spectroscopy. We prepared the coatable polarizers by using different type of dichroic dyes to meet the requirement of display application. The results reveal that the coatable polarizers at a thickness of 8μm exhibited DR=12~17 and relatively high PE (>96%) with the highest PE=99.3%, which possess potential for the LCD or flexible display applications.

Keywords: coatable polarizer, display, guest-host, liquid crystal

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2050 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle


Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid, carbamazepine, industry

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2049 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Indium Recycling from the Waste Liquid Crystal Displays in China

Authors: Wu Yufeng, Gu Yifan, Wang Hengguang, Gongyu, Zuo Tieyong


Indium is one the scarce resources which can be only used less than 30 years, and more than 70% of the indium is used for the production of the LCD. The benefit of recycling Indium from waste LCD is large. Take the LCD-TV for example, the yield of which was close to 90 million units in 2010. If it was available to recycle the indium effectively, the yield of the secondary-indium could reach up to 110 metric ton, which accounted for one third of the primary indium production in China. And compared with the dispersion and long process extraction of the primary indium resources, secondary indium concentrates in the waste LCD, the exploitation has great economic and environmental benefits. However, the potential benefits were indefinite, resulting in China’s government did not pay enough attention to the indium recycling industry. In our study, an estimation model was constructed to analyze the potential of the indium in the waste LCD. The different types of LCD were detected to find out the content of indium. Then, the potential of the indium in the waste LCD was estimated in China. Furthermore, the pollution emissions of the product process of the primary and secondary indium was analyzed respectively to calculate the economic and environmental benefits of the indium recycling from the waste LCD in China.

Keywords: indium recycling, waste liquid crystal displays, benefits, China

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2048 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: model predictive control, optimal control, process control, crystal growth

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2047 A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate

Authors: Arpit Bhardwaj, Koushik Roy


The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.

Keywords: free vibration, multilayered plates, surface loading, quasicrystals

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2046 Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method

Authors: Kei Kamada, Rikito Murakami, Masahiko Ito, Mototaka Arakawa, Yasuhiro Shoji, Toshiyuki Ueno, Masao Yoshino, Akihiro Yamaji, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Yuji Ohashi, Akira Yoshikawa


Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A <100> oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.

Keywords: crystal growth, micro-pulling-down method, Fe-Ga, Fe-Al

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