Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: zirconia

52 Comparison of the Effect of Feldspathic Porcelain and Zirconia on Natural Tooth Wear

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan


Background and Aim: Enamel wear is among the main disadvantages of ceramic restorations. Recently, use of full zirconia crowns without dental porcelain has been suggested. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feldspathic porcelain and zirconia on the wear of natural teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 22 zirconia specimens were fabricated; out of which, 11 specimens were polished and used as zirconia specimens while the remaining 11 were used to fabricate porcelain specimens. A total of 22 natural human teeth were also collected. The natural teeth were photographed by a stereomicroscope in a fixed position and the distance from the cusp tip to a reference point was measured. Next, 11 teeth opposed zirconia and the remaining 11 opposed porcelain specimens in a chewing simulator and subjected to 120,000 masticatory cycles. The teeth were photographed again and the greatest difference between the before and after values was recorded. Results: The mean (± standard deviation) wear rate was 153.8±95.68 and 306.3±127.74, in the zirconia and porcelain groups, respectively; and the two groups had a statistically significant difference in this respect (P=0.007). Conclusion: The mean wear was significantly lower in teeth opposing zirconia than in those opposing feldspathic porcelain.

Keywords: natural tooth wear, feldspathic porcelain, zirconia, effect

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51 Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating

Authors: Hyeong-Jin Kim, Jong Kook Lee


Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.

Keywords: implant, aerosoldeposition, zirconia, dental

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50 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee


Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

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49 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Buno Henriques, Rafaela Santos, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel


Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test, Vickers indentations and fracture toughness. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical and wear results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 particles.

Keywords: dental restoration, zirconia, porcelain, composites, strengthening, toughening, wear

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48 Fabrication of Wollastonite/Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process

Authors: Jong Kook Lee, Sangcheol Eum, Jaehong Kim


Wollastonite/hydroxyapatite composite coatings on zirconia were obtained by room temperature spray process. Wollastonite powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction between calcite and silica powder. Hydroxyapatite powder was prepared from bovine bone by the calcination at 1200oC 1h. From two starting raw powders, three kinds of powder mixture were obtained by the ball milling for 24h. By using these powders, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process, and their microstructure and biological behavior were investigated and compared with pure wollastonite and hydroxyapatite coatings. Wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings on zirconia substrates were homogeneously formed in microstructure and had a nanoscaled grain size. The phase composition of the resultant wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coatings was similar to that of the starting powders, however, the grain size of the wollastonite or hydroxyapatite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. The wollastonite/hydroxyapatite coating layer exhibited bioactivity in a stimulated body fluid and forming ability of new hydroxyapatite precipitates of 25 nm during in vitro test in SBF solution, which was enhanced by the increasing wollastonite content.

Keywords: wollastonite, hydroxyapatite composite coatings, room temperature spay process, zirconia

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47 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras


Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

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46 Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic

Authors: Deog-Gyu Seo, Jin-Soo Ahn


Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).

Keywords: primer, resin cement, shear bond strength, zirconia

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45 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine


In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: abrasive wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia, tool wear

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44 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia


A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: nano alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel

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43 Indium Oxide/Scandium Doping Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Composite Films as Electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Yong-Jie Lin, Yi-Feng Lin


In this study, scandium-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (ScYSZ) and In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with cubic crystalline structures were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal process. ScYSZ films were prepared by the pressing of ScYSZ NPs and were further used for the electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To increase the ionic conductivity of the ScYSZ electrolyte, different amounts of In2O3 NPs [0 wt% (X(In2O3)=0), 0.21 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.001) and 1.13 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.005)] were doped in the ScYSZ films to increase their oxygen vacancy. The result shows In2O3 NP/ScYSZ films with 1.13 wt% (X(In2O3 )=0.005) In2O3 NPs doping are with largest ionic conductivity of 0.057Ω-1 cm-1 at 900oC, which is 1.6 and 1.8 times higher than YSZ and In2O3 NP/ScYSZ films with 0.21 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.001) In2O3 NPs doping, respectively.

Keywords: indium oxide/scandium doping Yttria-stabilized zirconia, solid oxide fuel cells, scandium-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia, indium oxide

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42 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad


The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO₃, YTZ, mullite and alumina

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41 Characterization and Modification of the Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. Standard, J. Hart, C. C. Sorrell


Yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystalline (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial. The strength and toughness of zirconia can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucency of Y-TZP means that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance in polycrystalline form. To improve optical property of the Zirconia, precise evaluation of its refractive index is of significance. Zirconia`s optical properties need to be studied more in depth. Number of studies assumed, scattered light is isotropically distributed over all angles from biological media when defining optical parameters. Nevertheless, optical behaviour of real biological material depends on angular scattering of light by anisotropy material. Therefore, the average cosine of the scattering angle (which represent recovery phase function in the scattering angular distribution) usually characterized by anisotropy material. It has been identified that yttrium anti-sites present in the space charge layer have no significant role in the absorption of light in the visible range. Addition of cation dopant to polycrystalline zirconia results in segregate to grain boundaries and grain growth. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties of ZrO2 and their effect on optical properties need to be investigated. Intrinsic properties such as chemical composition, defect structure (oxygen vacancy), phase configuration (porosity, second phase) and distribution of phase need to be studied to comprehend their effect on refraction index, absorption/reflection and scattering. Extrinsic properties such as surface structure, thickness, underlying tooth structure, cement layer (type, thickness), and light source (natural, curing, artificial) of ZrO2 need to be studied to understand their effect on colour and translucency of material. This research reviewed effect of stabilization of tetragonal zirconia on optical property of zirconia for dental application.

Keywords: optical properties, zirconia dental biomaterial, chemical composition, phase composition

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40 Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

Authors: Chan Park, Sang-Won Park, Kwi-Dug Yun, Hyun-Pil Lim


Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.

Keywords: NTAPP, SBS, antimicrobial effect, zirconia

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39 Sol-Gel Derived Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles for Dental Applications: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Anastasia Beketova, Emmanouil-George C. Tzanakakis, Ioannis G. Tzoutzas, Eleana Kontonasaki


In restorative dentistry, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles can be applied as fillers to improve the mechanical properties of various resin-based materials. Using sol-gel based synthesis as simple and cost-effective method, nano-sized YSZ particles with high purity can be produced. The aim of this study was to synthesize YSZ nanoparticles by the Pechini sol-gel method at different temperatures and to investigate their composition, structure, and morphology. YSZ nanopowders were synthesized by the sol-gel method using zirconium oxychloride octahydrate (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O) and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate (Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O) as precursors with the addition of acid chelating agents to control hydrolysis and gelation reactions. The obtained powders underwent TG_DTA analysis and were sintered at three different temperatures: 800, 1000, and 1200°C for 2 hours. Their composition and morphology were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with associated with Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). FTIR and XRD analysis showed the presence of pure tetragonal phase in the composition of nanopowders. By increasing the calcination temperature, the crystallinity of materials increased, reaching 47.2 nm for the YSZ1200 specimens. SEM analysis at high magnifications and DLS analysis showed submicron-sized particles with good dispersion and low agglomeration, which increased in size as the sintering temperature was elevated. From the TEM images of the YSZ1000 specimen, it can be seen that zirconia nanoparticles are uniform in size and shape and attain an average particle size of about 50 nm. The electron diffraction patterns clearly revealed ring patterns of polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia phase. Pure YSZ nanopowders have been successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method at different temperatures. Their size is small, and uniform, allowing their incorporation of dental luting resin cements to improve their mechanical properties and possibly enhance the bond strength of demanding dental ceramics such as zirconia to the tooth structure. This research is co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund- ESF) through the Operational Programme 'Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning 2014- 2020' in the context of the project 'Development of zirconia adhesion cements with stabilized zirconia nanoparticles: physicochemical properties and bond strength under aging conditions' (MIS 5047876).

Keywords: dental cements, nanoparticles, sol-gel, yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ

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38 The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth

Authors: T. Qasim, B. El Masoud, D. Ailabouni


This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples are loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.

Keywords: all ceramic, cyclic loading, chewing simulator, dental crowns, relative wear, thermally ageing

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37 Vapor Phase Transesterification of Dimethyl Malonate with Phenol over Cordierite Honeycomb Coated with Zirconia and Its Modified Forms

Authors: Prathap S. Raghavendra, Mohamed S. Z. Shamshuddin, Thimmaraju N. Venkatesh


The transesterification of dimethyl malonate (DMM) with phenol has been studied in vapour phase over cordierite honeycomb coated with solid acid catalysts such as ZrO2,Mo(VI)/ZrO2 and SO42-/ZrO2. The catalytic materials were prepared honeycomb coated and powder forms and characterized for their total surface acidity by NH3-TPD and crystalinity by powder XRD methods. Phenyl methyl malonate (PMM) and diphenyl malonate (DPM) were obtained as the reaction products. A good conversion of DMM (up to 82%) of MPM with 95% selectivity was observed when the reactions were carried out at a catalyst bed temperature of 200 °C and flow-rate of 10 mL/h in presence of Mo(VI)/ZrO2 as catalyst. But over SO42-/ZrO2 catalyst, the yield of DPM was found to be higher. The results have been interpreted based on the variation of acidic properties and powder XRD phases of zirconia on incorporation of Mo(VI) or SO42– ions. Transesterification reactions were also carried out over powder forms of the catalytic materials and the yield of the desired phenyl ester products were compared with that of the HC coated catalytic materials. The solid acids were found to be reusable when used for at least 5 reaction cycles.

Keywords: cordierite honeycomb, methyl phenyl malonate, vapour phase transesterification, zirconia

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36 Rule-Based Mamdani Type Fuzzy Modeling of Performances of Anode Side of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Spin-Coated with Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

Authors: Sadık Ata, Kevser Dincer


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was experimentally investigated and modelled with Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF) modelling technique. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Input parameters voltage density (V/cm2), and current density (A/cm2), temperature (°C), time (s); output parameter power density (W/cm2) were described by RBMTF if-then rules. Numerical parameters of input and output variables were fuzzificated as linguistic variables: Very Very Low (L1), Very Low (L2), Low (L3), Negative Medium (L4), Medium (L5), Positive Medium (L6), High (L7), Very High (L8) and Very Very High (L9) linguistic classes. The comparison between experimental data and RBMTF is done by using statistical methods like absolute fraction of variance (R2). The actual values and RBMTF results indicated that RBMTF can be successfully used for the analysis of performance of PEM fuel cell.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane (PEM), fuel cell, rule-based Mamdani-type fuzzy (RMBTF) modeling, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)

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35 Relation of Cad/Cam Zirconia Dental Implant Abutments with Periodontal Health and Final Aesthetic Aspects; A Systematic Review

Authors: Amin Davoudi


Aim: New approaches have been introduced to improve soft tissue indices of the dental implants. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia (Zr) implant abutments on periodontal aspects. Materials and Methods: Five electronic databases were searched thoroughly based on prior defined MeSH and non-MeSH keywords. Clinical studies were collected via hand searches in English language journals up to September 2020. Interproximal papilla stability, papilla recession, pink and white esthetic score (PES, WES), bone and gingival margin levels, color, and contour of soft tissue were reviewed. Results: The initial literature search yielded 412 articles. After the evaluation of abstracts and full texts, six studies were eligible to be screened. The study design of the included studies was a prospective cohort (n=3) and randomized clinical trial (n=3). The outcome was found to be significantly better for Zr than titanium abutments, however, the studies did not show significant differences between stock and CAD/CAM abutments. Conclusion: Papilla fill, WES, PES, and the distance from the contact point to dental crest bone of adjacent tooth and inter-tooth–implant distance were not significantly different between Zr CAD/CAM and Zr stock abutments. However, soft tissue stability and recession index were better in Zr CAD/CAM abutments.

Keywords: zirconia, CADCAM, periodental, implant

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34 Comparison of Tribological Properties of TiO₂, ZrO₂ and TiO₂–ZrO₂ Composite Films Prepared by Sol–Gel Method

Authors: O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim, A. Çelik


In this study, TiO₂, ZrO₂, and TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films were coated on Cp-Ti substrates by sol-gel method. Structures of uncoated and coated samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. XRD data identified anatase phase in TiO₂ coated samples and tetragonal zirconia phase in ZrO₂ coated samples while both of anatase and tetragonal zirconia phases in TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. The mechanical and wear properties of samples were investigated using micro hardness, pin-on-disk tribotester, and 3D profilometer. The best wear resistance was obtained from TiO₂–ZrO₂ composite films. This can be attributed to their high surface hardness, low surface roughness and high thickness of the film.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO₂, ZrO₂, TiO₂–ZrO₂, composite films, wear

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33 The Effect of the Precursor Powder Size on the Electrical and Sensor Characteristics of Fully Stabilized Zirconia-Based Solid Electrolytes

Authors: Olga Yu Kurapova, Alexander V. Shorokhov, Vladimir G. Konakov


Nowadays, due to their exceptional anion conductivity at high temperatures cubic zirconia solid solutions, stabilized by rare-earth and alkaline-earth metal oxides, are widely used as a solid electrolyte (SE) materials in different electrochemical devices such as gas sensors, oxygen pumps, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), etc. Nowadays the intensive studies are carried out in a field of novel fully stabilized zirconia based SE development. The use of precursor powders for SE manufacturing allows predetermining the microstructure, electrical and sensor characteristics of zirconia based ceramics used as SE. Thus the goal of the present work was the investigation of the effect of precursor powder size on the electrical and sensor characteristics of fully stabilized zirconia-based solid electrolytes with compositions of 0,08Y2O3∙0,92ZrO2 (YSZ), 0,06Ce2O3∙ 0,06Y2O3∙0,88ZrO2 and 0,09Ce2O3∙0,06Y2O3-0,85ZrO2. The synthesis of precursors powders with different mean particle size was performed by sol-gel synthesis in the form of reversed co-precipitation from aqueous solutions. The cakes were washed until the neutral pH and pan-dried at 110 °С. Also, YSZ ceramics was obtained by conventional solid state synthesis including milling into a planetary mill. Then the powder was cold pressed into the pellets with a diameter of 7.2 and ~4 mm thickness at P ~16 kg/cm2 and then hydrostatically pressed. The pellets were annealed at 1600 °С for 2 hours. The phase composition of as-synthesized SE was investigated by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy ESCA (spectrometer ESCA-5400, PHI) X-ray diffraction analysis - XRD (Shimadzu XRD-6000). Following galvanic cell О2 (РО2(1)), Pt | SE | Pt, (РО2(2) = 0.21 atm) was used for SE sensor properties investigation. The value of РО2(1) was set by mixing of O2 and N2 in the defined proportions with the accuracy of  5%. The temperature was measured by Pt/Pt-10% Rh thermocouple, The cell electromotive force (EMF) measurement was carried out with ± 0.1 mV accuracy. During the operation at the constant temperature, reproducibility was better than 5 mV. Asymmetric potential measured for all SE appeared to be negligible. It was shown that the resistivity of YSZ ceramics decreases in about two times upon the mean agglomerates decrease from 200-250 to 40 nm. It is likely due to the both surface and bulk resistivity decrease in grains. So the overall decrease of grain size in ceramic SE results in the significant decrease of the total ceramics resistivity allowing sensor operation at lower temperatures. For the SE manufactured the estimation of oxygen ion transfer number tion was carried out in the range 600-800 °С. YSZ ceramics manufactured from powders with the mean particle size 40-140 nm, shows the highest values i.e. 0.97-0.98. SE manufactured from precursors with the mean particle size 40-140 nm shows higher sensor characteristic i.e. temperature and oxygen concentration EMF dependencies, EMF (ENernst - Ereal), tion, response time, then ceramics, manufactured by conventional solid state synthesis.

Keywords: oxygen sensors, precursor powders, sol-gel synthesis, stabilized zirconia ceramics

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32 Improving the Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Sadık Ata, Kevser Dincer


In this study, the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was experimentally investigated and modelled with Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF) modelling technique. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Input-output parameters were described by RBMTF if-then rules. Numerical parameters of input and output variables were fuzzificated as linguistic variables: Very Very Low (L1), Very Low (L2), Low (L3), Negative Medium (L4), Medium (L5), Positive Medium (L6),High (L7), Very High (L8) and Very Very High (L9) linguistic classes. The comparison between experimental data and RBMTF is done by using statistical methods like absolute fraction of variance (R2). The actual values and RBMTF results indicated that RBMTF can be successfully used for the analysis of performance PEM fuel cell.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane (PEM), fuel cell, rule-based mamdani-type fuzzy (RMBTF) modelling, Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)

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31 Improvement of the Geometric of Dental Bridge Framework through Automatic Program

Authors: Rong-Yang Lai, Jia-Yu Wu, Chih-Han Chang, Yung-Chung Chen


The dental bridge is one of the clinical methods of the treatment for missing teeth. The dental bridge is generally designed for two layers, containing the inner layer of the framework(zirconia) and the outer layer of the porcelain-fused to framework restorations. The design of a conventional bridge is generally based on the antagonist tooth profile so that the framework evenly indented by an equal thickness from outer contour. All-ceramic dental bridge made of zirconia have well demonstrated remarkable potential to withstand a higher physiological occlusal load in posterior region, but it was found that there is still the risk of all-ceramic bridge failure in five years. Thus, how to reduce the incidence of failure is still a problem to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop mechanical designs for all-ceramic dental bridges framework by reducing the stress and enhancing fracture resistance under given loading conditions by finite element method. In this study, dental design software is used to design dental bridge based on tooth CT images. After building model, Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) Method algorithm implemented in finite element software was employed to analyze results of finite element software and determine the distribution of the materials in dental bridge; BESO searches the optimum distribution of two different materials, namely porcelain and zirconia. According to the previous calculation of the stress value of each element, when the element stress value is higher than the threshold value, the element would be replaced by the framework material; besides, the difference of maximum stress peak value is less than 0.1%, calculation is complete. After completing the design of dental bridge, the stress distribution of the whole structure is changed. BESO reduces the peak values of principle stress of 10% in outer-layer porcelain and avoids producing tensile stress failure.

Keywords: dental bridge, finite element analysis, framework, automatic program

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30 Experimental Investigation Of Membrane Performance

Authors: Ali Serhat Ersoyoğlu, Kevser Dincer, Salih Yayla, Derya Saygılı


In this study, performance of membrane was experimentally investigated. A solution having 1,5 gr Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)+ 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a spinning syringe. 6 grill-shaped wires having the sizes of 2x2 cm2’were cladded with YSZ + methanol solution by using the spinning method. After coating, the grill-shaped wires were left to dry. The dry wires were then weighed on a precision scale to determine the amount of coating imposed. The grill-shaped wires were mounted on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell membrane. Effects of the coating on the wires on current, power and resistance performances in the PEM fuel cells were determined experimentally and compared for every case. The highest current occurred at the 1st second on current #1, while the lowest current occurred at the 1171th second on current #6. The highest resistance was recorded at the 1171th second on resistance # 6, the lowest occurred at the 1st second on resistance # 1, whereas the highest power took place at the 1st second on power #1, the lowest power appeared at the 1171th second on power #5.

Keywords: membrane, electro-spinning method, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia, fuel cells

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29 Performance Evaluation of 3D Printed ZrO2 Ceramic Components by NanoParticle Jetting™

Authors: Shengping Zhong, Qimin Shi, Yaling Deng, Shoufeng Yang


Additive Manufacturing has exerted a tremendous fascination on the development of the manufacturing and materials industry in the past three decades. Zirconia-based advanced ceramic has been poured substantial attention in the interest of structural and functional ceramics. As a novel material jetting process for selectively depositing nanoparticles, nanoparticle Jetting™ is capable of fabricating dense Zirconia components with the high-detail surface, precisely controllable shrinkage, and remarkable mechanical properties. The presence of NPJ™ gave rise to a higher elevation regarding the printing process and printing accuracy. Emphasis is placed on the performance evaluation of NPJ™ printed ceramic components by which the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties are evaluated. The experimental results suggest the Y₂O₃-stabilized ZrO₂ boxes exhibit a high relative density of 99.5%, glossy surface of a minimum of 0.33 µm, general linear shrinkage factor of 17.47%, outstanding hardness and fracture toughness of 12. 43±0. 09 GPa and 7. 52±0. 34 MPa•m1/2, the comparable flexural strength of 699±104 MPa, and dense and homogeneous grain distribution of microstructure. This innovative NanoParticle Jetting system manifests an overwhelming potential in dental, medical, and electronic applications.

Keywords: nanoparticle jetting, ZrO₂ ceramic, materials jetting, performance evaluation

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28 Influence of Bismuth Oxide as a Sintering Aid on the Densification of Cold Sintering of Zirconia

Authors: N. Bhootpur, H. Brouwer, S. Van Der Zwaag, Y. Tang


In the past decades, Zirconia (ZrO₂) has emerged as a promising technical ceramic, both as high-temperature structural material and electrolyte for fuel cells, etc. The traditional synthesis of ZrO₂ with spark plasma sintering (SPS) usually requires a sintering temperature as high as 1200 °C. General interest in lowering the sintering temperature to reduce energy consumption and thermal stresses has led to research on two promising routes - cold sintering via temperature-dependent chemical reactivity and sintering aids, which facilitates mass transport and improves densification. Here we combine both by developing a single-step sintering process benefitting from both water vapor through the in-situ conversion of Zr(OH)₄ to ZrO₂ and liquid phase Bi₂O₃ as a sintering aid. The resultant ZrO₂ has a relative density above 80% with a sintering temperature as low as 900 °C, significantly higher than that of ZrO₂ without sintering aids, which had a relative density of 54%, both sintered at 50 MPa. The dependence of porosity of sintered samples as a function of sintering pressure (range: 50MPa - 300MPa) and temperature (range 400 °C – 1200 °C) is mapped out as guidance for further material property design. A linear relationship between hardness and relative density was found, with a maximal hardness of 6.6 GPa achieved in samples with 30% porosity. In addition to sintered density, phase stabilization of tetragonal ZrO₂ is enhanced at a sintering temperature of 900 °C with water vapor and Bi₂O₃, respectively.

Keywords: low-temperature sintering, sintering aid, spark plasma sintering, zirconium hydroxide

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27 Modelling the Tensile Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Freestanding Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings

Authors: Supriya Patibanda, Xiaopeng Gong, Krishna N. Jonnalagadda, Ralph Abrahams


Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a top coat in thermal barrier coatings in high-temperature turbine/jet engine applications. The mechanical behaviour of YSZ depends on the microstructural features like crack density and porosity, which are a result of coating method. However, experimentally ascertaining their individual effect is difficult due to the inherent challenges involved like material synthesis and handling. The current work deals with the development of a phenomenological model to replicate the tensile behavior of air plasma sprayed YSZ obtained from experiments. Initially, uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on freestanding YSZ coatings of ~300 µm thick for different crack densities and porosities. The coatings exhibited a nonlinear behavior and also a huge variation in strength values. With the obtained experimental tensile curve as a base and crack density and porosity as prime variables, a phenomenological model was developed using ABAQUS interface with new user material defined employing VUMAT sub routine. The relation between the tensile stress and the crack density was empirically established. Further, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of the individual features on the non-linearity in these coatings. This work enables to generate new coating designs by varying the key parameters and predicting the mechanical properties with the help of a simulation, thereby minimizing experiments.

Keywords: crack density, finite element method, plasma sprayed coatings, VUMAT

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26 Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures

Authors: Abinash Tripathy, Girish Muralidharan, Amitava Pramanik, Prosenjit Sen


Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Keywords: contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, contact time, superhydrophobic

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25 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı


Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: 4-point probe technique, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction, solid oxide fuel cell

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24 Li2o Loss of Lithium Niobate Nanocrystals during High-Energy Ball-Milling

Authors: Laura Kocsor, Laszlo Peter, Laszlo Kovacs, Zsolt Kis


The aim of our research is to prepare rare-earth-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanocrystals, having only a few dopant ions in the focal point of an exciting laser beam. These samples will be used to achieve individual addressing of the dopant ions by light beams in a confocal microscope setup. One method for the preparation of nanocrystalline materials is to reduce the particle size by mechanical grinding. High-energy ball-milling was used in several works to produce nano lithium niobate. Previously, it was reported that dry high-energy ball-milling of lithium niobate in a shaker mill results in the partial reduction of the material, which leads to a balanced formation of bipolarons and polarons yielding gray color together with oxygen release and Li2O segregation on the open surfaces. In the present work we focus on preparing LiNbO3 nanocrystals by high-energy ball-milling using a Fritsch Pulverisette 7 planetary mill. Every ball-milling process was carried out in zirconia vial with zirconia balls of different sizes (from 3 mm to 0.1 mm), wet grinding with water, and the grinding time being less than an hour. Gradually decreasing the ball size to 0.1 mm, an average particle size of about 10 nm could be obtained determined by dynamic light scattering and verified by scanning electron microscopy. High-energy ball-milling resulted in sample darkening evidenced by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements indicating that the material underwent partial reduction. The unwanted lithium oxide loss decreases the Li/Nb ratio in the crystal, strongly influencing the spectroscopic properties of lithium niobate. Zirconia contamination was found in ground samples proved by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements; however, it cannot be explained based on the hardness properties of the materials involved in the ball-milling process. It can be understood taking into account the presence of lithium hydroxide formed the segregated lithium oxide and water during the ball-milling process, through chemically induced abrasion. The quantity of the segregated Li2O was measured by coulometric titration. During the wet milling process in the planetary mill, it was found that the lithium oxide loss increases linearly in the early phase of the milling process, then a saturation of the Li2O loss can be seen. This change goes along with the disappearance of the relatively large particles until a relatively narrow size distribution is achieved in accord with the dynamic light scattering measurements. With the 3 mm ball size and 1100 rpm rotation rate, the mean particle size achieved is 100 nm, and the total Li2O loss is about 1.2 wt.% of the original LiNbO3. Further investigations have been done to minimize the Li2O segregation during the ball-milling process. Since the Li2O loss was observed to increase with the growing total surface of the particles, the influence of ball-milling parameters on its quantity has also been studied.

Keywords: high-energy ball-milling, lithium niobate, mechanochemical reaction, nanocrystals

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23 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

Procedia PDF Downloads 438