Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 312

Search results for: biodegradable polyesters

312 Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Based on Diarylidene-1-Methyl-4-Piperidone

Authors: Tareg M. Elsunaki, Suleiman A. Arafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Alla

Abstract:

New interesting thermal stable polyesters containing 1-methyl-4-piperidone moiety in the main chain have been synthesized. These polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique of 3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (I) and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyli-dene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (II) with terphthaloyl, isophthaloyl, 4,4'-diphenic, adipoyl and sebacoyl dichlorides. The yield and the values of the reduced viscosity of the produced polyesters were found to be affected by the type of an organic phase. In order to characterize these polymers, the necessary model compounds (A), (B) were prepared from (I), (II) respectively and benzoyl chloride. The structure of monomers (I), (II), model compounds and resulting polyesters were confirmed by IR, elemental analysis and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The various characteristic of the resulting polymers including solubility, thermal properties, viscosity and X-ray analysis were also studied.

Keywords: synthesis, characterization, new polyesters, chemistry

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311 Biodegradable Self-Supporting Nanofiber Membranes Prepared by Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Milos Beran, Josef Drahorad, Ondrej Vltavsky, Martin Fronek, Jiri Sova

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While most nanofibers are produced using electrospinning, this technique suffers from several drawbacks, such as the requirement for specialized equipment, high electrical potential, and electrically conductive targets. Consequently, recent years have seen the increasing emergence of novel strategies in generating nanofibers in a larger scale and higher throughput manner. The centrifugal spinning is simple, cheap and highly productive technology for nanofiber production. In principle, the drawing of solution filament into nanofibers using centrifugal spinning is achieved through the controlled manipulation of centrifugal force, viscoelasticity, and mass transfer characteristics of the spinning solutions. Engineering efforts of researches of the Food research institute Prague and the Czech Technical University in the field the centrifugal nozzleless spinning led to introduction of a pilot plant demonstrator NANOCENT. The main advantages of the demonstrator are lower investment cost - thanks to simpler construction compared to widely used electrospinning equipments, higher production speed, new application possibilities and easy maintenance. The centrifugal nozzleless spinning is especially suitable to produce submicron fibers from polymeric solutions in highly volatile solvents, such as chloroform, DCM, THF, or acetone. To date, submicron fibers have been prepared from PS, PUR and biodegradable polyesters, such as PHB, PLA, PCL, or PBS. The products are in form of 3D structures or nanofiber membranes. Unique self-supporting nanofiber membranes were prepared from the biodegradable polyesters in different mixtures. The nanofiber membranes have been tested for different applications. Filtration efficiencies for water solutions and aerosols in air were evaluated. Different active inserts were added to the solutions before the spinning process, such as inorganic nanoparticles, organic precursors of metal oxides, antimicrobial and wound healing compounds or photocatalytic phthalocyanines. Sintering can be subsequently carried out to remove the polymeric material and transfer the organic precursors to metal oxides, such as Si02, or photocatalytic Zn02 and Ti02, to obtain inorganic nanofibers. Electrospinning is more suitable technology to produce membranes for the filtration applications than the centrifugal nozzleless spinning, because of the formation of more homogenous nanofiber layers and fibers with smaller diameters. The self-supporting nanofiber membranes prepared from the biodegradable polyesters are especially suitable for medical applications, such as wound or burn healing dressings or tissue engineering scaffolds. This work was supported by the research grants TH03020466 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: polymeric nanofibers, self-supporting nanofiber membranes, biodegradable polyesters, active inserts

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310 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Diakowska K., Zaborski M.

Abstract:

Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: renewable resources, biopolymer, degradation, polylactide

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309 Enzymatic Degradation of Poly (Butylene Adipate Terephthalate) Copolymer Using Lipase B From Candida Antarctica and Effect of Poly (Butylene Adipate Terephthalate) on Plant Growth

Authors: Aqsa Kanwal, Min Zhang, Faisal Sharaf, Li Chengtao

Abstract:

The globe is facing increasing challenges of plastic pollution due to single-use of plastic-based packaging material. The plastic material is continuously being dumped into the natural environment, which causes serious harm to the entire ecosystem. Polymer degradation in nature is very difficult, so the use of biodegradable polymers instead of conventional polymers can mitigate this issue. Due to the good mechanical properties and biodegradability, aliphatic-aromatic polymers are being widely commercialized. Due to the advancement in molecular biology, many studies have reported specific microbes that can effectively degrade PBAT. Aliphatic polyesters undergo hydrolytic cleavage of ester groups, so they can be easily degraded by microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the enzymatic degradation of poly (butylene adipate terephthalate) (PBAT) copolymer using lipase B from Candida Antarctica (CALB). Results of the study displayed approximately 5.16 % loss in PBAT mass after 2 days which significantly increased to approximately 15.7 % at the end of the experiment (12 days) as compared to blank. The pH of the degradation solution also displayed significant reduction and reached the minimum value of 6.85 at the end of the experiment. The structure and morphology of PBAT after degradation were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TGA. FTIR analysis showed that after degradation many peaks become weaker and the peak at 2950 cm-1 almost disappeared after 12 days. The XRD results indicated that as the degradation time increases the intensity of diffraction peaks slightly increases as compared to the blank PBAT. TGA analysis also confirmed the successful degradation of PBAT with time. SEM micrographs further confirmed that degradation has occurred. Hence, biodegradable polymers can widely be used. The effect of PBAT biodegradation on plant growth was also studied and it was found that PBAT has no toxic effect on the growth of plants. Hence PBAT can be employed in a wide range of applications.

Keywords: aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters, polybutylene adipate terephthalate, lipase (CALB), biodegradation, plant growth

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308 Study of Hot Press Molding Method of Biodegradable Composite, Polypropylene Reinforced Coconut Coir

Authors: Herman Ruswan Suwarman, Ahmad Rivai, Mochamad Saidiman, Kuncoro Diharjo, Dody Ariawan

Abstract:

The use of biodegradable composite to solve ecological and environmental problems has currently risen as a trend. With the increasing use of biodegradable composite comes an increasing need to fabricate it properly. Yet this understanding has remained a challenge for the design engineer. Therefore, this study aims to explore how to combine coconut coir as a reinforcing material and polypropylene (PP) as a biodegradable polymer matrix. By using Hotpress Molding, two methods were developed and compared. The difference between these two methods is not only the step of fabrication but also the raw material. The first method involved a PP sheet and the second used PP pellets directly. Based on the results, it can be concluded that PP pellets yield better results, where the composite was produced in a shorter time, with an evenly distributed coconut coir and a smaller number of voids.

Keywords: biodegradable, coconut coir, hot press molding, polypropylene

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307 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

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Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable poly (ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles

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306 A Two-Stage Process for the Sustainable Production of Aliphatic Polyesters

Authors: A. Douka, S. Vouyiouka, L. M. Papaspyridi, D. Korres, C. Papaspyrides

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A "green" process was studied for the preparation of partially renewable aliphatic polyesters based on 1,4-butanediol and 1,8-octanediol with various diacids and derivatives, namely diethyl succinate, adipic acid, sebacic acid, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid. A first step of enzymatic prepolymerization was carried out in the presence of two different solvents, toluene and diphenylether, applying molecular sieves and vacuum, respectively, to remove polycondensation by-products. Poly(octylene adipate) (PE 8.6), poly(octylene dodecanate)(PE 8.12) and poly(octylene tetradecanate) (PE 8.14) were firstly enzymatically produced in toluene using molecular sieves giving however, low-molecular-weight products. Thereafter, the synthesis of PE 8.12 and PE 8.14 was examined under optimized conditions using diphenylether as solvent and a more vigorous by-product removal step, such as application of vacuum. Apart from these polyesters, the optimized process was also implemented for the production of another long-chain polyester-poly(octylene sebacate) (PE 8.10) and a short-chain polyester-poly(butylene succinate) (PE 4.4). Subsequently, bulk post-polymerization in the melt or solid state was performed. SSP runs involved absence of biocatalyst and reaction temperatures (T) in the vicinity of the prepolymer melting point (Tm-T varied between 15.5 up to 4oC). Focusing on PE 4.4 and PE 8.12, SSP took place under vacuum or flowing nitrogen leading to increase of the molecular weight and improvement of the end product physical appearance and thermal properties.

Keywords: aliphatic polyester, enzymatic polymerization, solid state polymerization, Novozym 435

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305 Melting and Making Zn-Based Alloys and Examine Their Biodegradable and Biocompatible Properties

Authors: Abdulrahman Sumayli

Abstract:

Natural Zinc has many significant biological functions, including developments and sustainable of bones and wound healing. Metallic zinc has recently been explored as potential biomaterials that have preferable biodegradable, biocompatible, and mechanical properties. Pure metal zinc has a preferable physical and mechanical properties for biodegradable and biocompatible applications such as density and modulus of elasticity. The aim of the research is to make different Zn-based metallic alloys and test them effectively to be used as biocompatible and biodegradable materials in the field biomedical application. Microstructure study of the as-cast alloys will be examined using SEM (scanning electron microscope) followed by X-ray diffraction investigated so as to evaluate phase constitution of the designed alloys. After that, immersion test and electrochemical test will be applied to the designed alloys so as to study bio corrosion behaviour of the proposed alloys. Finally, in vitro cytocompatibility well conducted to study biocompatibility of the made alloys.

Keywords: Zn-based alloys, biodegradable and biocompatible materials, cytotoxicity test, neutron synchrotron imaging

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304 Bis-Azlactone Based Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide)s: Design, Synthesis and Study

Authors: Kobauri Sophio, Kantaria Tengiz, Tugushi David, Puiggali Jordi, Katsarava Ramaz

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Biodegradable biomaterials (BB) are of high interest for numerous applications in modern medicine as resorbable surgical materials and drug delivery systems. This kind of materials can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function that excludes a surgical intervention for their removal. One of the most promising BBare amino acids based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) which are composed of naturally occurring (α-amino acids) and non-toxic building blocks such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. Key bis-nucleophilic monomers for synthesizing the PEAs are diamine-diesters-di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-(α-amino acid)-alkylenediesters (TAADs) which form the PEAs after step-growth polymerization (polycondensation) with bis-electrophilic counter-partners - activated diesters of dicarboxylic acids. The PEAs combine all advantages of the 'parent polymers' – polyesters (PEs) and polyamides (PAs): Ability of biodegradation (PEs), a high affinity with tissues and a wide range of desired mechanical properties (PAs). The scopes of applications of thePEAs can substantially be expanded by their functionalization, e.g. through the incorporation of hydrophobic fragments into the polymeric backbones. Hydrophobically modified PEAs can form non-covalent adducts with various compounds that make them attractive as drug carriers. For hydrophobic modification of the PEAs, we selected so-called 'Azlactone Method' based on the application of p-phenylene-bis-oxazolinons (bis-azlactones, BALs) as active bis-electrophilic monomers in step-growth polymerization with TAADs. Interaction of BALs with TAADs resulted in the PEAs with low MWs (Mw2,800-19,600 Da) and poor material properties. The high-molecular-weight PEAs (Mw up to 100,000) with desirable material properties were synthesized after replacement of a part of BALs with activated diester - di-p-nitrophenylsebacate, or a part of TAAD with alkylenediamine – 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The new hydrophobically modified PEAs were characterized by FTIR, NMR, GPC, and DSC. It was shown that after the hydrophobic modification the PEAs retain the biodegradability (in vitro study catalyzed by α-chymptrypsin and lipase), and are of interest for constructing resorbable surgical and pharmaceutical devices including drug delivering containers such as microspheres. The new PEAs are insoluble in hydrophobic organic solvents such as chloroform or dichloromethane (swell only) that allowed elaborating a new technology of fabricating microspheres.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bis-azlactones, microspheres

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303 Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

Authors: Andres M. Tuates Jr., Ofero A. Caparino

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Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. However, this generates a higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose of by farmers. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. The PBS and starch were melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition. The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. It is projected that after thirty-six (36) weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing show that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at the ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag and old newspaper.

Keywords: cassava starch, PBS, biodegradable, chemical, mechanical properties

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302 New Biobased(Furanic-Sulfonated) Poly(esteramide)s

Authors: Souhir Abid

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The growing interest in vegetal biomass as an alternative for fossil resources has stimulated the development of numerous classes of monomers. Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons (i) firstly environmental concerns, and (ii) secondly the use of monomers from renewable feedstock is a steadily growing field of interest in order to reduce the amount of petroleum consumed in the chemical industry and to open new high-value-added markets to agriculture. Furanic polymers have been considered as alternative environmentally friendly polymers. In our earlier work, modifying furanic polyesters by incorporation of amide functions along their backbone, lead to a particular class of polymer ‘poly(ester-amide)s’, was investigated to combine the excellent mechanical properties of polyamides and the biodegradability of polyesters. As a continuation of our studies on this family of polymer, a series of furanic poly(ester-amide)s bearing sulfonate groups in the main chain were synthesized from 5,5’-Isopropylidene-bis(ethyl 2-furoate), dimethyl 5-sodiosulfoisophthalate, ethylene glycol and hexamethylene diamine by melt polycondensation using zinc acetate as a catalyst. In view of the complexity of the NMR spectrum analysis of the resulting sulfonated poly(ester-amide)s, we found that it is useful to prepare initially the corresponding homopolymers: sulfonated polyesters and polyamides. Structural data of these polymers will be used as a basic element in 1H NMR characterization. The hydrolytic degradation in acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 4,35 ) at 37 °C over the period of four weeks show that the mechanism of the hydrolysis of poly(ester amide)s was elucidated in relation with the microstructure. The strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between amide functions and water molecules increases the hydrophilicity of the macromolecular chains and consequently their hydrolytic degradation.

Keywords: furan, hydrolytic degradation, polycondensation, poly(ester amide)

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301 Modification of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters with Polyether Block for Segmented Copolymers with Elastothemoplastic Properties

Authors: I. Irska, S. Paszkiewicz, D. Pawlikowska, E. Piesowicz, A. Linares, T. A. Ezquerra

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Due to the number of advantages such as high tensile strength, sensitivity to hydrolytic degradation, and biocompatibility poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most common polyesters for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, PLA is a rigid, brittle polymer with low heat distortion temperature and slow crystallization rate. In order to broaden the range of PLA applications, it is necessary to improve these properties. In recent years a number of new strategies have been evolved to obtain PLA-based materials with improved characteristics, including manipulation of crystallinity, plasticization, blending, and incorporation into block copolymers. Among the other methods, synthesis of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters has been attracting considerable attention as they may combine the mechanical performance of aromatic polyesters with biodegradability known from aliphatic ones. Given the need for highly flexible biodegradable polymers, in this contribution, a series of aromatic-aliphatic based on poly(butylene terephthalate) and poly(lactic acid) (PBT-b-PLA) copolyesters exhibiting superior mechanical properties were copolymerized with an additional poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) soft block. The structure and properties of both series were characterized by means of attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and dynamic mechanical, thermal analysis (DMTA). Moreover, the related changes in tensile properties have been evaluated and discussed. Lastly, the viscoelastic properties of synthesized poly(ester-ether) copolymers were investigated in detail by step cycle tensile tests. The block lengths decreased with the advance of treatment, and the block-random diblock terpolymers of (PBT-ran-PLA)-b-PTMO were obtained. DSC and DMTA analysis confirmed unambiguously that synthesized poly(ester-ether) copolymers are microphase-separated systems. The introduction of polyether co-units resulted in a decrease in crystallinity degree and melting temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that only PBT blocks are able to crystallize. The mechanical properties of (PBT-ran-PLA)-b-PTMO copolymers are a result of a unique arrangement of immiscible hard and soft blocks, providing both strength and elasticity.

Keywords: aliphatic-aromatic copolymers, multiblock copolymers, phase behavior, thermoplastic elastomers

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300 Bio Based Agro Textiles

Authors: K. Sakthivel

Abstract:

With the continuous increase in population worldwide, stress increased among agricultural peoples, so it is necessary to increase the yield of agro-products. But it is not possible to meet fully with the traditionally adopted ways of using pesticides and herbicides. Today, agriculture and horticulture has realized the need of tomorrow and opting for various technologies to get higher overall yield, quality agro-products. Most of today’s synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemical bi-products and are not biodegradable. Persistent polymers generate significant sources of environmental pollution, harming wildlife when they are disposed in nature. The disposal of non degradable plastic bags adversely affects human and wild life. Moreover incineration of plastic waste presents environmental issues as well, since it yields toxic emissions. Material incineration is also limited due to the difficulties to find accurate and economically viable outlets. In addition plastic recycling shows a negative eco balance due to the necessity in nearly all cases to wash the plastic waste as well as the energy consumption during the recycling process phases. As plastics represent a large part of the waste collection at the local regional and national levels institutions are aware of the significant savings that compostable or biodegradable materials would generate. Polylactic acid (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and wheat, has attracted much attention for automotive parts and also can be applied in agro textiles. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the stereo complex PLA, we developed by the four unit processes, fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. Then the polymer is converted into mulching film and applied in agriculture field. PLA agro textiles have better tensile strength, tearing strength and with stand from UV rays than polyester agro textile and polypropylene-based products.

Keywords: biodegradation, environment, mulching film, PLA, technical textiles

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299 Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium

Authors: Minjung Park, Jimin Park, Youngwoon Kim, Hyungseop Han, Myoungryul Ok, Hojeong Jeon, Hyunkwang Seok, Yuchan Kim

Abstract:

Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.

Keywords: biodegradable magnesium, biomaterials, coenzyme, corrosion

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298 Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Elastomeric Polyester Amide for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Abdulrahman T. Essa, Ahmed Aied, Omar Hamid, Felicity R. A. J. Rose, Kevin M. Shakesheff

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Biodegradable poly(ester amide)s are promising polymers for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering because of their optimized chemical and physical properties. In this study, we developed a biodegradable polyester amide elastomer poly(serinol sebacate) (PSS) composed of crosslinked networks based on serinol and sebacic acid. The synthesized polymers were characterized to evaluate their chemical structures, mechanical properties, degradation behaviors and in vitro cytocompatibility. Analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the structure of the polymer. The PSS exhibit excellent solubility in a variety of solvents such as methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide. More importantly, the mechanical properties of PSS could be tuned by changing the curing conditions. In addition, the 3T3 fibroblast cells cultured on the PSS demonstrated good cell attachment and high viability.

Keywords: biodegradable, biomaterial, elastomer, mechanical properties, poly(serinol sebacate)

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297 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

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Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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296 PLA Plastic as Biodegradable Material for 3D Printers

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš

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Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials which are biodegradable and also available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.

Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping

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295 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge

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Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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294 Study of the Influence of the Different Treatments in Almond Shell-Based Masterbatches

Authors: A. Ibáñez, A. Martínez, A. Sánchez, M. A. León

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This article is focused on the development of a series of biodegradable and eco-friendly masterbatches based on polylactic acid (PLA) filled with almond shell to study the influence of almond shell in the properties of injected biodegradable parts. These innovative masterbatches have 20 wt % of the almond shell. Different treatments were carried out with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and maleic anhydride (MA) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix. The masterbatches were produced by varying the fibre treatments (type of treatment, concentration and temperature). The masterbatches have been injected to obtain standardised test samples in order to study mechanical properties. The results show that, the some of the treated fibres present slightly higher flexural modulus and impact strength than untreated fibres. This study is part of a LIFE project (MASTALMOND) aimed to create and test at preindustrial level new coloured masterbatches based on biodegradable polymers and containing in its formulation a high percentage of almond shell, a natural waste material, which firstly will permit to cover technical requirements of two traditional industrial sectors: toy and furniture, although the results achieved could be extended to other industrial sectors.

Keywords: additivation, almond shell, biodegradable, masterbatch, PLA, injection moulding

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293 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen

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Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: biocompatibility, magnesium, mechanical and biodegrade properties, rare earth elements

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292 Process Optimization of Electrospun Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein Based Nanofibers

Authors: Sena Su, Burak Ozbek, Yesim M. Sahin, Sevil Yucel, Dilek Kazan, Faik N. Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

In recent years, protein, lipid or polysaccharide-based polymers have been used in order to develop biodegradable materials and their chemical nature determines the physical properties of the resulting films. Among these polymers, proteins from different sources have been extensively employed because of their relative abundance, film forming ability, and nutritional qualities. In this study, the biodegradable composite nanofiber films based on fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) were prepared via electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with the FSP to obtain hybrid FSP/PCL nanofiber mats with desirable physical properties. Mixture solutions of FSP and PCL were produced at different concentrations and their density, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension were measured. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibers were evaluated. Morphology of composite nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) studies were used for analysis chemical composition of composite nanofibers. This study revealed that the FSP based nanofibers have the potential to be used for different applications such as biodegradable packaging, drug delivery, and wound dressing, etc.

Keywords: edible film, electrospinning, fish sarcoplasmic protein, nanofiber

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291 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George

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The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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290 Study of Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on Polylactic Acid and Vegetal Reinforcements

Authors: Manel Hannachi, Mustapha Nechiche, Said Azem

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This study focuses on biodegradable materials made from Poly-lactic acid (PLA) and vegetal reinforcements. Three materials are developed from PLA, as a matrix, and : (i) olive kernels (OK); (ii) alfa (α) short fibers and (iii) OK+ α mixture, as reinforcements. After processing of PLA pellets and olive kernels in powder and alfa stems in short fibers, three mixtures, namely PLA-OK, PLA-α, and PLA-OK-α are prepared and homogenized in Turbula®. These mixtures are then compacted at 180°C under 10 MPa during 15 mn. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations show that PLA matrix adheres at surface of all reinforcements and the dispersion of these ones in matrix is good. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses highlight an increase of PLA inter-reticular distances, especially for the PLA-OK case. These results are explained by the dissociation of some molecules derived from reinforcements followed by diffusion of the released atoms in the structure of PLA. This is consistent with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis results.

Keywords: alfa short fibers, biodegradable composite, olive kernels, poly-lactic acid

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289 The Potential of Tempo-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers to Replace EthylenE-propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber

Authors: Sibel Dikmen Kucuk, Yusuf Guner

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In recent years, petroleum-based polymers began to be limited due to the effects on the human and environmental point of view in many countries. Thus, organic-based biodegradable materials have attracted much interest in the composite industry because of environmental concerns. As a result of this, it has been asked that inorganic and petroleum-based materials should be reduced and altered with biodegradable materials. In this point, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of the use of TEMPO (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose instead of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber, which is a petroleum-based material. Thus, the exchange of petroleum-based EPDM rubber with organic-based cellulose nanofibers, which are environmentally friendly (green) and biodegradable, will be realized. The effect of tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TCNF) instead of EPDM rubber was analyzed by rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and aging analyses. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinized, and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that TEMPO oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose could be used at an amount of 1.0 and 2.2 phr resulting the values stay within tolerance according to customer standard and without any chemical degradation, crack, color change or staining.

Keywords: EPDM, lignin, green materials, biodegradable fillers

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288 Development of R³ UV Exposure for the UV Dose-Insensitive and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Biodegradable Polymer Microneedles

Authors: Sungmin Park, Gyungmok Nam, Seungpyo Woo, Young Choi, Sangheon Park, Sang-Hee Yoon

Abstract:

Puncturing human skin with microneedles is critically important for microneedle-mediate drug delivery. Despite of extensive efforts in the past decades, the scale-up fabrication of sharp-tipped and high-aspect-ratio microneedles, especially made of biodegradable polymers, is still a long way off. Here, we present a UV dose insensitive and cost-effective microfabrication method for the biodegradable polymer microneedles with sharp tips and long lengths which can pierce human skin with low insertion force. The biodegradable polymer microneedles are fabricated with the polymer solution casting where a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50) solution is coated onto a SU-8 mold prepared with a reverse, ramped, and rotational (R3) UV exposure. The R3 UV exposure is modified from the multidirectional UV exposure both to suppress UV reflection from the bottom surface without anti-reflection layers and to optimize solvent concentration in the SU-8 photoresist, therefore achieving robust (i.e., highly insensitive to UV dose) and cost-effective fabrication of biodegradable polymer microneedles. An optical model for describing the spatial distribution of UV irradiation dose of the R3 UV exposure is also developed to theoretically predict the microneedle geometry fabricated with the R3 UV exposure and also to demonstrate the insensitiveness of microneedle geometry to UV dose. In the experimental characterization, the microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure are compared with those fabricated with a conventional method (i.e., multidirectional UV exposure). The R3 UV exposure-based microfabrication reduces the end-tip radius by a factor of 5.8 and the deviation from ideal aspect ratio by 74.8%, compared with conventional method-based microfabrication. The PLGA microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure pierce full-thickness porcine skins successfully and are demonstrated to completely dissolve in PBS (phosphate-buffered saline). The findings of this study will lead to an explosive growth of the microneedle-mediated drug delivery market.

Keywords: R³ UV exposure, optical model, UV dose, reflection, solvent concentration, biodegradable polymer microneedle

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287 Characterization of Domestic Sewage Mixed with Baker's Yeast Factory Effluent of Beja Wastewater Treatment Plant by Respirometry

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker

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In this work, a comprehensive study of respirometric method was performed to assess the biodegradable COD fractions of domestic sewage mixed with baker’s yeast factory effluent treated by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja. Three respirometric runs were performed in a closed tank reactor to characterize this mixed raw effluent. Respirometric result indicated that the readily biodegradable fraction (SS) was in range of 6-22%, the slowly biodegradable fraction (Xs) was in range of 33-42%, heterotrophic biomass (XH) was in range of 9-40% and the inert fractions: XI and SI were in range of 2-40% and 6-12% respectively which were high due to the presence of baker’s yeast factory effluent compared to domestic effluent alone. The fractions of the total nitrogen showed that SNO fraction is between 6 and 9% of TKN, the fraction of nitrogen ammonia SNH was ranging from 5 to 68%. The organic fraction divided into two compartments SND (11-85%) and XND (5-20%) the inert particulate nitrogen fraction XNI was between 0.4 and 1% and the inert soluble fraction of nitrogen SNI was ranged from 0.4 to 3%.

Keywords: wastewater characterization, COD fractions, respirometry, domestic sewage

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286 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application

Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem

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Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.

Keywords: Biodegradable metal, Biomedical application, Mechanical properties, Powder Metallurgy, Zinc

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285 Liquid Tin(II) Alkoxide Initiators for Use in the Ring-Opening Polymerisation of Cyclic Ester Monomers

Authors: Sujitra Ruengdechawiwat, Robert Molloy, Jintana Siripitayananon, Runglawan Somsunan, Paul D. Topham, Brian J. Tighe

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The main aim of this research has been to design and synthesize some completely soluble liquid tin(II) alkoxide initiators for use in the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of cyclic ester monomers. This is in contrast to conventional tin(II) alkoxides in solid form which tend to be molecular aggregates and difficult to dissolve. The liquid initiators prepared were bis(tin(II) monooctoate) diethylene glycol ([Sn(Oct)]2DEG) and bis(tin(II) monooctoate) ethylene glycol ([Sn(Oct)]2EG). Their efficiencies as initiators in the bulk ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL) at 130oC were studied kinetically by dilatometry. Kinetic data over the 20-70% conversion range was used to construct both first-order and zero-order rate plots. It was found that the rate data fitted more closely to first-order kinetics with respect to the monomer concentration and gave higher first-order rate constants than the corresponding tin(II) octoate/diol initiating systems normally used to generate the tin(II) alkoxide in situ. Since the ultimate objective of this work is to produce copolymers suitable for biomedical use as absorbable monofilament surgical sutures, poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) 75:25 mol %, P(LL-co-CL), copolymers were synthesized using both solid and liquid tin(II) alkoxide initiators at 130°C for 48 hrs. The statistical copolymers were obtained in near-quantitative yields with compositions (from 1H-NMR) close to the initial comonomer feed ratios. The monomer sequencing (from 13C-NMR) was partly random and partly blocky (gradient-type) due to the much differing monomer reactivity ratios (rLL >> rCL). From GPC, the copolymers obtained using the soluble liquid tin(II) alkoxides were found to have higher molecular weights (Mn = 40,000-100,000) than those from the only partially soluble solid initiators (Mn = 30,000-52,000).

Keywords: biodegradable polyesters, poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone), ring-opening polymerisation, tin(II) alkoxide

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284 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

Abstract:

Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: biodegradable, bioplastics, morphology, solution casting, poly(lactic acid)

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283 Biodegradability Evaluation of Polylactic Acid Composite with Natural Fiber (Sisal)

Authors: A. Bárbara Cattozatto Fortunato, D. de Lucca Soave, E. Pinheiro de Mello, M. Piasentini Oliva, V. Tavares de Moraes, G. Wolf Lebrão, D. Fernandes Parra, S. Marraccini Giampietri Lebrão

Abstract:

Due to increasing environmental pressure for biodegradable products, especially in polymeric materials, in order to meet the demands of the biological cycles of the circular economy, new materials have been developed as a sustainability strategy. This study proposes a composite material developed from the biodegradable polymer PLA Ecovio® (polylactic acid - PLA) with natural sisal fibers, where the soybean ester was used as a plasticizer, which can aid in adhesion between the materials and fibers, making the most attractive final composite from an environmental point of view. The composites were obtained by extrusion. The materials tests were produced and submitted to biodegradation tests. Through the biodegradation tests, it can be seen that the biodegradable polymer composition with 5% sisal fiber presented about 12.4% more biodegradability compared to the polymer without fiber addition. It has also been found that the plasticizer was not a compatible with fibers and the polymer. Finally, fibers help to anticipate the decomposition process of the material when subjected to conditions of a landfill. Therefore, its intrinsic properties are not affected during its use, only the biodegradation process begins after its exposure to landfill conditions.

Keywords: biocomposites, sisal, polilactic acid, Polylactic Acid (PLA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 135