Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 716

Search results for: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman

716 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu

Abstract:

The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

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715 Hidden Critical Risk in the Construction Industry’s Technological Adoption: Cybercrime

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado, Muhammad Ahmad Ibrahim

Abstract:

Construction industry is one of the sectors that are eyeing adoption of ICT for its development due to the advancement in technology. Though, many manufacturing sectors had been using it, but construction industry was left behind, especially in the developing nation like Nigeria. On account of that, the objective of this study is to conceptually and quantitatively synthesise whether the slow adoption of ICT by the construction industries can be attributable to cybercrime threats. The result of the investigation found that, the risk of cybercrime, and lack of adequate cyber security policies that can enforce and punish defaulters are among the things that hinder ICT adoption of the Nigerian construction industries. Therefore, there is need for the nations to educate their citizens on cybercrime risk, and to establish cybercrime police units that can be monitoring and controlling all online communications.

Keywords: construction industry, cybercrime, information and communication technology adoption, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
714 The Use of SD Bioline TB AgMPT64® Detection Assay for Rapid Characterization of Mycobacteria in Nigeria

Authors: S. Ibrahim, U. B. Abubakar, S. Danbirni, A. Usman, F. M. Ballah, C. A. Kudi, L. Lawson, G. H. Abdulrazak, I. A. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Performing culture and characterization of mycobacteria in low resource settings like Nigeria is a very difficult task to undertake because of the very few and limited laboratories carrying out such an experiment; this is a largely due to stringent and laborious nature of the tests. Hence, a rapid, simple and accurate test for characterization is needed. The “SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 Rapid ®” is a simple and rapid immunochromatographic test used in differentiating Mycobacteria into Mycobacterium tuberculosis (NTM). The 100 sputa were obtained from patients suspected to be infected with tuberculosis and presented themselves to hospitals for check-up and treatment were involved in the study. The samples were cultured in a class III Biosafety cabinet and level III biosafety practices were followed. Forty isolates were obtained from the cultured sputa, and there were identified as Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Zeihl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. All the isolates (AFB positive) were then subjected to the SD BIOLINE Analyses. A total of 31 (77.5%) were characterized as MTBC, while nine (22.5%) were NTM. The total turnaround time for the rapid assay was just 30 minutes as compared to a few days of phenotypic and genotypic method. It was simple, rapid and reliable test to differentiate MTBC from NTM.

Keywords: culture, mycobacteria, non tuberculous mycobacterium, SD Bioline

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713 Revisiting Hospital Ward Design Basics for Sustainable Family Integration

Authors: Ibrahim Abubakar Alkali, Abubakar Sarkile Kawuwa, Ibrahim Sani Khalil

Abstract:

The concept of space and function forms the bedrock for spatial configuration in architectural design. Thus, the effectiveness and functionality of an architectural product depends their cordial relationship. This applies to all buildings especially to a hospital ward setting designed to accommodate various complex and diverse functions. Health care facilities design, especially an inpatient setting, is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs, particularly, response to culture and the need to provide for patient families’ presence and participation. The spatial configuration of the hospital ward setting in developing countries has no consideration for the patient’s families despite the significant role they play in promoting recovery. Attempts to integrate facilities for patients’ families have always been challenging, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where accommodation for inpatients is predominantly in an open ward system. In addition, the situation is compounded by culture, which significantly dictates healthcare practices in Africa. Therefore, achieving such a hospital ward setting that is patient and family-centered requires careful assessment of family care actions and transaction spaces so as to arrive at an evidence based solution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify how hospital ward spaces can be reconfigured to provide for sustainable family integration. In achieving this aim, a qualitative approach using the principles of behavioral mapping was employed in male and female medical wards of the Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria. The data obtained was analysed using classical and comparative content analysis. Patients’ families have been found to be a critical component of hospital ward design that cannot be undermined. Accordingly, bedsides, open yards, corridors and foyers have been identified as patient families’ transaction spaces that require design attention. Arriving at sustainable family integration can be achieved by revisiting the design requirements of the family transaction spaces based on the findings in order to avoid the rowdiness of the wards and uncoordinated sprawl.

Keywords: caregiving, design basics, family integration, hospital ward, sustainability

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712 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

Abstract:

Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: communication technology between appliances, demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances, smart grid

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711 Efficient Management of Construction Logistics: A Challenge to Both Conventional and Technological Systems in the Developing Nations

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Ahmad Muhammad Ibrahim

Abstract:

Management of construction logistics at construction sites becomes increasingly complex with rising construction volume, which made it relatively inefficient in the developing nations even with the technological advancement. The objective of this research is to conceptually synthesise the approaches and challenges befall in the course of construction logistic management, with the aim to proffer possible solution to it. Therefore, this study appraised the glitches associated with both conventional and technological methods of construction logistic management that result in its inefficiency. Thus, this investigation found that, both conventional and the technological issues were due to certain obstacles that affect the construction logistic management which resulted into delays, accidents, fraudulent activities, time and cost overrun. Therefore, this study has developed a framework that might bring a lasting solution to the challenges of construction logistic management.

Keywords: construction, conventional, logistic, technological

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710 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata, traditional medicine

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709 Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) for Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, M. Auwal Zakari, Aliyu Usman

Abstract:

Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of pre-casting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction. Merging the two, as a hybrid structure, results in even greater construction speed, value, and the overall economy. Its variety of uses has gained popularity in the United States and in Europe due to its distinctive benefits. However, the increase of its application in some countries (including Nigeria) has been relatively slow. Several researches have shown that hybrid construction offers an ultra-high performance concrete that offers superior strength, durability and aesthetics with design flexibility and within sustainability credentials, based on the available and economically visible technologies. This paper examines and documents the criterion that will help inform the process of deciding whether or not to adopt hybrid concrete construction (HCC) technology rather than more traditional alternatives. It also the present situation of design, construction and research on hybrid structures.

Keywords: hybrid concrete construction, Nigeria, sustainable infrastructure development, design flexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
708 Poor Medical Waste Management (MWM) Practices and Its Risks to Human Health and the Environment

Authors: Babanyara Y. Y., Ibrahim D. B., Garba T., Bogoro A. G., Abubakar, M. Y.

Abstract:

Medical care is vital for our life, health, and well-being. However, the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic, and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The hazardous and toxic parts of waste from healthcare establishments comprising infectious, medical, and radioactive material as well as sharps constitute a grave risks to mankind and the environment, if these are not properly treated/disposed or are allowed to be mixed with other municipal waste. In Nigeria, practical information on this aspect is inadequate and research on the public health implications of poor management of medical wastes is few and limited in scope. Findings drawn from Literature particularly in the third world countries highlights financial problems, lack of awareness of risks involved in MWM, lack of appropriate legislation and lack of specialized MWM staff. The paper recommends how MWM practices can be improved in medical facilities.

Keywords: environmental pollution, infectious, management, medical waste, public health

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707 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100 g, acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, physicochemical, iodine value, peroxide value

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706 Arabic Scholar’s Governance Advocacy and Nigeria’s National Security in Nigeria: Perspective of Al-Shaykh Usman Bin Fodio

Authors: Mohammad Jamiu Abdullahi, Shykh Ahmed Abdussalam

Abstract:

The emergence of Arabic on the shore of West Africa heralded the practise of Islam and advocation for a just and egalitarian society. Islam, it was argued, has been perverted and subverted by the Hausa leadership. This necessitated the call for reforming Islam. Al-Shaykh Usman Bin Fodio grabbed the opportunity and fought the perverts to restore the glory of Islam and establish shari'ah way of life. This was the practice, especially in the northern part of Nigeria until the incursion of colonialism. The conquest of the colonial master halted the rule of jihadi leaderships and subjected them to colonialism under which only some aspects of Islamic system considered potentially beneficial to the British interest were retained. The current socio-political and economic crises in Nigeria has necessitated the need to look inwardly to the bulk of works, in Arabic, left behind by the Muslim scholars to help to salvage the country from its present political crisis, economic paralysis and legal decadence. This paper, therefore, examines the relevance of Arabic literary works that housed political/legal theories to salvaging the country from its present political crises, economic paralysis and legal decadence.

Keywords: Arabic Fodio Nigeria security, advocacy governance scholar Usman, British colonial perspective shaykh, leadership Islam jihad politics

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705 An Assessment of the Factors Affecting Green Building Technology (GBT) Adoption

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado

Abstract:

A construction and post construction activity in buildings contributes to environmental degradation, because of the generation of solid waste during construction to the production of carbon dioxide by the occupants during utilization. These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model. Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology.

Keywords: green building technology, construction, post construction, degradation

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704 Development of a Smart Liquid Level Controller

Authors: Adamu Mudi, Ibrahim Wahab Fawole, Abubakar Abba Kolo

Abstract:

In this research paper, we present a microcontroller-based liquid level controller that identifies the various levels of a liquid, carries out certain actions, and is capable of communicating with the human being and other devices through the GSM network. This project is useful in ensuring that a liquid is not wasted. It also contributes to the internet of things paradigm, which is the future of the internet. The method used in this work includes designing the circuit and simulating it. The circuit is then implemented on a solderless breadboard, after which it is implemented on a strip board. A C++ computer program is developed and uploaded into the microcontroller. This program instructs the microcontroller on how to carry out its actions. In other to determine levels of the liquid, an ultrasonic wave is sent to the surface of the liquid similar to radar or the method for detecting the level of sea bed. Message is sent to the phone of the user similar to the way computers send messages to phones of GSM users. It is concluded that the routine of observing the levels of a liquid in a tank, refilling the tank when the liquid level is too low can be entirely handled by a programmable device without wastage of the liquid or bothering a human being with such tasks.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor, internet of things, IoT, SIM900 GSM module

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703 The Impact of Student-Led Entrepreneurship Education through Skill Acquisition in Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Abubakar Mikugi

Abstract:

Nigerian graduates could only be self-employed and marketable if they acquire relevant skills and knowledge for successful establishment in various occupation and gainful employment. Research has shown that entrepreneurship education will be successful through developing individual entrepreneurial attitudes, raising awareness of career options by integrating and inculcating a positive attitude in the mind of students through skill acquisition. This paper examined the student- led entrepreneurship education through skill acquisition with specific emphasis on analysis of David Kolb experiential learning cycle. This Model allows individual to review their experience through reflection and converting ideas into action by doing. The methodology used was theoretical approach through journal, internet and Textbooks. Challenges to entrepreneurship education through skill acquisition were outlined. The paper concludes that entrepreneurship education is recognised by both policy makers and academics; entrepreneurship is more than mere encouraging business start-ups. Recommendations were given which include the need for authorities to have a clear vision towards entrepreneurship education and skill acquisition. Authorities should also emphasise a periodic and appropriate evaluation of entrepreneurship and to also integrate into schools academic curriculum to encourage practical learning by doing.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, active learning, Cefe methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
702 Comparative Analysis of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Cooled 185 KW High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Air Suspension Blower

Authors: Usman Abubakar, Xiaoyuan Wang, Sayyed Haleem Shah, Sadiq Ur Rahman, Rabiu Saleh Zakariyya

Abstract:

High-speed Permanent magnet synchronous machine (HSPMSM) uses in different industrial applications like blowers, compressors as a result of its superb performance. Nevertheless, the over-temperature rise of both winding and PM is one of their substantial problem for a high-power HSPMSM, which affects its lifespan and performance. According to the literature, HSPMSM with a Hybrid cooling configuration has a much lower temperature rise than non-hybrid cooling. This paper presents the design 185kW, 26K rpm with two different cooling configurations, i.e., hybrid cooling configuration (forced air and housing spiral water jacket) and non-hybrid (forced air cooling assisted with winding’s potting material and sleeve’s material) to enhance the heat dissipation of winding and PM respectively. Firstly, the machine’s electromagnetic design is conducted by the finite element method to accurately account for machine losses. Then machine’s cooling configurations are introduced, and their effectiveness is validated by lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN). Investigation shows that using potting, sleeve materials to assist non-hybrid cooling configuration makes the machine’s winding and PM temperature closer to hybrid cooling configuration. Therefore, the machine with non-hybrid cooling is prototyped and tested due to its simplicity, lower energy consumption and can still maintain the lifespan and performance of the HSPMSM.

Keywords: airflow network, axial ventilation, high-speed PMSM, thermal network

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
701 Comparing the Sequence and Effectiveness of Teaching the Four Basic Operations and Mathematics in Primary Schools

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah, Hassan Usman

Abstract:

The study compared the effectiveness of Audition, Multiplication, subtraction and Division (AMSD) and Addition, subtraction, Multiplication and Division (ASMD), sequence of teaching these four basic operations in mathematics to primary one pupil’s in Katsina Local Government, Katsina State. The study determined the sequence that was more effective and mostly adopted by teachers of the operations. One hundred (100) teachers and sixty pupils (60) from primary one were used for the study. The pupils were divided into two equal groups. The researcher taught these operations to each group separately for four weeks (4 weeks). Group one was taught using the ASMD sequence, while group two was taught using ASMD sequence. In order to generate the needed data for the study, questionnaires and tests were administered on the samples. Data collected were analyzed and major findings were arrived at: (i) Two primary mathematics text books were used in all the primary schools in the area; (ii) Each of the textbooks contained the ASMD sequence; (iii) 73% of the teachers sampled adopted the ASMD sequence of teaching these operations; and (iv) Group one of the pupils (taught using AMSD sequence) performed significantly better than their counter parts in group two (taught using AMSD sequence). On the basis of this, the researcher concluded that the AMSD sequence was more effective in teaching the operations than the ASMD sequence. Consequently, the researcher concluded that primary schools teachers, authors of primary mathematics textbooks, and curriculum planner should adopt the AMSD sequence of teaching these operations.

Keywords: matematic, high school, four basic operations, effectiveness of teaching

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700 A Survey of the Constraints Associated with the Mechanized Tillage of the Fadama Using Animal Drawn Tillage Implements

Authors: L. G. Abubakar, A. M. El-Okene, M. L. Suleiman, Z. Abubakar

Abstract:

Fadama tillage in Northern Nigeria and in Zaria in particular, has relied on manual labour and corresponding implements which are associated with drudgery, loss of human energy due to bending and reduced productivity. A survey was conducted to study the present tillage practices and determine the constraints associated with the use of animal traction for mechanized tillage of the Fadama. The study revealed that Fadama farmers (mostly aged between 36 and 60 years) use manual labour with tools like small hoe, big hoe and rake to till during the dry season (October of one year to March of the next year). Most of the Fadama farmers believe that tillage operations like ploughing, harrowing and basin making are very important tillage activities in the preparation of seedbeds for crops like green maize, sugarcane and vegetables, but are constrained to using animal traction for tillage due to beliefs like unsuitability of the workbulls and corresponding implements, Fadama soil being too heavy for the system and the non-attainment of deep tillage required by crops like sugarcane and potato. These were affirmed by local blacksmiths of animal traction implements and agricultural officers of government establishments.

Keywords: snimal traction, Fadama, tillage implements, workbulls

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699 Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Genotypes, in modern method of Agriculture, using correlation and path coefficient Analyses

Authors: T. S. Bubuche, L. Abubakar, N.D. Ibrahim, A. A. Aliero, H. M. Sama, B. S. Haliru

Abstract:

A two-year study was conducted at the Fadama farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Correlations and path coefficients analysis were used to determine the interrelationship and importance of various characters as components of yield in sugarcane during 20011-012 and 2012-013 growing seasons. Fourteen sugarcane hybrids and a local check were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Significant and positive correlation were recorded between total cane weight/ha and single stalk weight, between single stalk weight and final brix and between stalk girth and stalk length while final brix and number of milliable cane/ha recorded no significant correlation. Traits that had high direct contribution to the final yield were number of stalk/stool, number of milliable cane/ha, single stalk weight and brix content while high indirect positive contributions were observed in growth habit, number of internode per stalk and stalk length..

Keywords: correlation, path analysis, sugarcane, yield components

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698 Assessment of the Administration and Services of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Ahmed Adam, Umar Ibrahim, Ezra S. Gbaje

Abstract:

This study is posed to explore the practice of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the computers and other tools available, their services and challenges of the practices. Three questions were framed to identify number of public computers and tools available, their services and problems faced during the practice. The study used qualitative research design along with semi-constructed interview and observation as tools for data collection. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data. The sample size of the study comprises 52 librarian and IT staff from the seven academic institutions in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that, PACs were provided for access to the Internet, digital resources, library catalogue and training services. The study further explored that, despite the limit number of the computers, users were not allowed to enjoy many services. The study recommends that libraries in Kaduna state should provide more public computers to be able to cover the population of their users; libraries should allow users to use the computers without limitations and restrictions.

Keywords: academic libraries, computers in library, digital libraries, public computers

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
697 Ethnobotanical and Laboratory Investigations of Plants Used for the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Bello Usman, Alhassan Muhammad Gani, Kolo Ibrahim

Abstract:

The use of botanical raw materials to produce pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, special industrial compounds and crude materials constitute an important global resource in terms of healthcare and economy. In Nigeria and other developing countries, the indigenous knowledge on the uses of plants lies with the older generation and the traditional healers. However, these custodians are decreasing in number due to death and other unforeseen occurrences. An Ethno-botanical survey was carried out to obtain information on the ethno medical values of wide range of plants used by the people of Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria, in the practice of healing and cure of typhoid (enteric) fever. Oral interviews were conducted so as to consider those with low literacy level who are involved in the practice of traditional medicine and thirty four (34) informants availed themselves for the interview and were consulted. All relevant information obtained from the respondents was recorded. A recent and valid nomenclature, along with local names, family names, part of the plant(s) used, methods of preparation and administration and fifty four (54) plant species belonging to 27 families as well as 7 unidentified species that are commonly used by the people of the state in ethnomedical treatment of the ailment were tabulated. Those interviewed included traditional practitioners, local herb sellers, traditional rulers, hunters, farmers and patients. Specific questions were asked and information supplied by informants was promptly documented. Results showed that the people of Gombe State are knowledgeable on herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases and ailments. Furthermore, the aqueous leaf extracts of Senna siamea, the plant species with the highest PPK (percentage of people who have knowledge about the use of a species for treating typhoid fever) in this ethnobotanical survey, was tested for its activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi using the agar well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts showed some activity (zones of inhibition 11, 9, 7.5, 3.5, 1.3 mm) at 2000, 1800, 1600, 1400, 1200 µg/ml concentrations respectively. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotany, gombe state, north-eastern Nigeria, phytochemical screening, senna siamea, typhoid fever

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696 A Comparative Performance of Polyaspartic Acid and Sodium Polyacrylate on Silicate Scale Inhibition

Authors: Ismail Bin Mohd Saaid, Abubakar Abubakar Umar

Abstract:

Despite the successes recorded by Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) flooding as an effective chemical EOR technique, the combination CEOR is not unassociated with stern glitches, one of which is the scaling of downhole equipment. One of the major issues inside the oil industry is how to control scale formation, regardless of whether it is in the wellhead equipment, down-hole pipelines or even the actual field formation. The best approach to handle the challenge associated with oilfield scale formation is the application of scale inhibitors to avert the scale formation. Chemical inhibitors have been employed in doing such. But due to environmental regulations, the industry have focused on using green scale inhibitors to mitigate the formation of scales. This paper compares the scale inhibition performance of Polyaspartic acid and sodium polyacrylic acid, both commercial green scale inhibitors, in mitigating silicate scales formed during Alkaline/Surfactant/polymer flooding under static conditions. Both PASP and TH5000 are non-threshold inhibitors, therefore their efficiency was only seeing in delaying the deposition of the silicate scales.

Keywords: alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding (ASP), polyaspartic acid (PASP), sodium polyacrylate (SPA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
695 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.

Keywords: frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation

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694 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo

Abstract:

The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: agricultural waste, bioplastic, characterization, Sorghum Husk

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693 Awareness and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education Courses in Nigeria Universities

Authors: Ibrahim Laro ABUBAKAR

Abstract:

The study examined the Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Nigerian Universities, specifically, Universities in Kwara State. Two purposes were formulated to guide the study from which two research questions and two hypotheses were raised. The descriptive research design was used in the research. Three Hundred respondents (100 Lecturers and 200 Students) made up the population for the study. There was no sampling, as the population of the study was not much. A structured questionnaire tagged ‘Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning Questionnaire’ (AUETTLQ) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validation, and it was equally pilot tested. The validation yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.78. The data collected from the study were statistically analyzed using frequencies and percentage count for personal data of the respondents, mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the independent t-test. One among other findings of this study showed that lecturers and Student are aware of synchronous e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education but often utilize the synchronous e-learning technologies. It was recommended among others that lecturers and Students should be sensitized through seminars and workshops on the need to maximally utilize available e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Universities.

Keywords: awareness, utilization, E-Learning, technologies, human kinetics synchronous

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692 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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691 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area, environmental protection agency, solid waste management, waste disposal

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690 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

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689 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah

Abstract:

The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

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688 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura

Abstract:

This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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687 The Influence of Organic Waste on Vegetable Nutritional Components and Healthy Livelihood, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Abdulkadir, A. A. Okhimamhe, Y. M. Bello, H. Ibrahim, D. H. Makun, M. T. Usman

Abstract:

Household waste form a larger proportion of waste generated across the state, accumulation of organic waste is an apparent problem and the existing dump sites could be overstressed. Niger state has abundant arable land and water resources thus should be one of the highest producers of agricultural crops in the country. However, the major challenge to agricultural sector today is the loss of soil nutrient coupled with high cost of fertilizer. These have continued to increase the use of fertilizer and decomposed solid waste for enhancing agricultural yield, which have varying effects on the soil as well a threat to human livelihood. Consequently, vegetable yield samples from poultry droppings decomposed household waste manure, NPK treatments and control from each replication were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional component as well as heavy metal concentration. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and Randomized complete Block Design means were compared. The result shows that the treatments do not devoid the concentrations of any nutritional components while the anti-nutritional analysis proved that NPK had higher oxalate content than control and organic treats. The concentration of lead and cadmium are within safe permissible level while the mercury level exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permissible limit for the entire treatments depicts the need for urgent intervention to minimize mercury levels in soil and manure in order to mitigate its toxic effect. Thus, eco-agriculture should be widely accepted and promoted by the stakeholders for soil amendment, higher yield, strategies for sustainable environmental protection, food security, poverty eradication, attainment of sustainable development and healthy livelihood.

Keywords: anti-nutritional, healthy livelihood, nutritional waste, organic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 302