Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4732

Search results for: metal processing

4732 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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4731 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä

Abstract:

Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAD, CAM

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4730 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells

Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri

Abstract:

Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC 3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Vitellaria paradoxa, lipase, metal ions

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4729 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar

Abstract:

This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: metal spinning, FEM analysis, simulation of metal spinning, mechanical engineering

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4728 Development of Concurrent Engineering through the Application of Software Simulations of Metal Production Processing and Analysis of the Effects of Application

Authors: D. M. Eric, D. Milosevic, F. D. Eric

Abstract:

Concurrent engineering technologies are a modern concept in manufacturing engineering. One of the key goals in designing modern technological processes is further reduction of production costs, both in the prototype and the preparatory part, as well as during the serial production. Thanks to many segments of concurrent engineering, these goals can be accomplished much more easily. In this paper, we give an overview of the advantages of using modern software simulations in relation to the classical aspects of designing technological processes of metal deformation. Significant savings are achieved thanks to the electronic simulation and software detection of all possible irregularities in the functional-working regime of the technological process. In order for the expected results to be optimal, it is necessary that the input parameters are very objective and that they reliably represent the values ​of these parameters in real conditions. Since it is a metal deformation treatment here, the particularly important parameters are the coefficient of internal friction between the working material and the tools, as well as the parameters related to the flow curve of the processing material. The paper will give a presentation for the experimental determination of some of these parameters.

Keywords: production technologies, metal processing, software simulations, effects of application

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4727 Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application

Authors: Juree Hong, Sanggeun Lee, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee

Abstract:

We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, galvanic displacement reaction, graphene, hydrogen sensor

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4726 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

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4725 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

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4724 Cladding Technology for Metal-Hybrid Composites with Network-Structure

Authors: Ha-Guk Jeong, Jong-Beom Lee

Abstract:

Cladding process is very typical technology for manufacturing composite materials by the hydrostatic extrusion. Because there is no friction between the metal and the container, it can be easily obtained in uniform flow during the deformation. The general manufacturing process for a metal-matrix composite in the solid state, mixing metal powders and ceramic powders with a suited volume ratio, prior to be compressed or extruded at the cold or hot condition in a can. Since through a plurality of unit processing steps of dispersing the materials having a large difference in their characteristics and physical mixing, the process is complicated and leads to non-uniform dispersion of ceramics. It is difficult and hard to reach a uniform ideal property in the coherence problems at the interface between the metal and the ceramic reinforcements. Metal hybrid composites, which presented in this report, are manufactured through the traditional plastic deformation processes like hydrostatic extrusion, caliber-rolling, and drawing. By the previous process, the realization of uniform macro and microstructure is surely possible. In this study, as a constituent material, aluminum, copper, and titanium have been used, according to the component ratio, excellent characteristics of each material were possible to produce a metal hybrid composite that appears to maximize. MgB₂ superconductor wire also fabricated via the same process. It will be introduced to their unique artistic and thermal characteristics.

Keywords: cladding process, metal-hybrid composites, hydrostatic extrusion, electronic/thermal characteristics

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4723 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: heavy metal, orchard, pollution and monitoring, sediment

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4722 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

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4721 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

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4720 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, safflower

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4719 Reduction in Hot Metal Silicon through Statistical Analysis at G-Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, Santanu Mallick, Abhiram Jha, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

The quality of hot metal at any blast furnace is judged by the silicon content in it. Lower hot metal silicon not only enhances process efficiency at steel melting shops but also reduces hot metal costs. The Hot metal produced at G-Blast furnace Tata Steel Jamshedpur has a significantly higher Si content than Benchmark Blast furnaces. The higher content of hot metal Si is mainly due to inferior raw material quality than those used in benchmark blast furnaces. With minimum control over raw material quality, the only option left to control hot metal Si is via optimizing the furnace parameters. Therefore, in order to identify the levers to reduce hot metal Si, Data mining was carried out, and multiple regression models were developed. The statistical analysis revealed that Slag B3{(CaO+MgO)/SiO2}, Slag Alumina and Hot metal temperature are key controllable parameters affecting hot metal silicon. Contour Plots were used to determine the optimum range of levels identified through statistical analysis. A trial plan was formulated to operate relevant parameters, at G blast furnace, in the identified range to reduce hot metal silicon. This paper details out the process followed and subsequent reduction in hot metal silicon by 15% at G blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, optimization, silicon, statistical tools

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4718 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li

Abstract:

The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

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4717 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

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4716 Optimization of Catalyst Parameters to Get Chlorine Free Bimetallic Catalysts

Authors: Noreen Sajjad Ghulam Hussain

Abstract:

Catalysts are prepared by simple physical mixing and thermal treatment of support and metal acetate precursors.The effect of metal ratio and metal loading to produce highly active catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol are studied.

Keywords: catalyst, acetates, benzyl alcohols

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4715 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping

Abstract:

Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

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4714 Synthetic Access to Complex Metal Carbonates and Hydroxycarbonates via Sol-Gel Chemistry

Authors: Schirin Hanf, Carlos Lizandara-Pueyo, Timmo P. Emmert, Ivana Jevtovikj, Roger Gläser, Stephan A. Schunk

Abstract:

Metal alkoxides are very versatile precursors for a broad array of complex functional materials. However, metal alkoxides, especially transition metal alkoxides, tend to form oligomeric structures due to the very strong M–O–M binding motif. This fact hinders their facile application in sol-gel-processes and complicates access to complex carbonate or oxidic compounds after hydrolysis of the precursors. Therefore, the development of a synthetic alternative with the aim to grant access to carbonates and hydroxycarbonates from simple metal alkoxide precursors via hydrolysis is key to this project. Our approach involves the reaction of metal alkoxides with unsaturated isoelectronic molecules, such as carbon dioxide. Subsequently, a stoichiometric insertion of the CO₂ into the alkoxide M–O bond takes place and leads to the formation of soluble metal alkyl carbonates. This strategy is a very elegant approach to solubilize metal alkoxide precursors to make them accessible for sol-gel chemistry. After hydrolysis of the metal alkyl carbonates, crystalline metal carbonates, and hydroxycarbonates can be obtained, which were then utilized for the synthesis of Cu/Zn based bulk catalysts for methanol synthesis. Using these catalysts, a comparable catalytic activity to commercially available MeOH catalysts could be reached. Based on these results, a complement for traditional precipitation techniques, which are usually utilized for the synthesis of bulk methanol catalysts, have been found based on an alternative solubilization strategy.

Keywords: metal alkoxides, metal carbonates, metal hydroxycarbonates, CO₂ insertion, solubilization

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4713 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade

Abstract:

A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

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4712 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

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4711 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

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4710 Induction Heating and Electromagnetic Stirring of Bi-Phasic Metal/Glass Molten Bath for Mixed Nuclear Waste Treatment

Authors: P. Charvin, R. Bourrou, F. Lemont, C. Lafon, A. Russello

Abstract:

For nuclear waste treatment and confinement, a specific IN-CAN melting module based on low-frequency induction heating have been designed. The frequency of 50Hz has been chosen to improve penetration length through metal. In this design, the liquid metal, strongly stirred by electromagnetic effects, presents shape of a dome caused by strong Laplace forces developing in the bulk of bath. Because of a lower density, the glass phase is located above the metal phase and is heated and stirred by metal through interface. Electric parameters (Intensity, frequency) give precious information about metal load and composition (resistivity of alloy) through impedance modification. Then, power supply can be adapted to energy transfer efficiency for suitable process supervision. Modeling of this system allows prediction of metal dome shape (in agreement with experimental measurement with a specific device), glass and metal velocity, heat and motion transfer through interface. MHD modeling is achieved with COMSOL and Fluent. First, a simplified model is used to obtain the shape of the metal dome. Then the shape is fixed to calculate the fluid flow and the thermal part.

Keywords: electromagnetic stirring, induction heating, interface modeling, metal load

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4709 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

Abstract:

Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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4708 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Analysis of Rapidly Heat Treated M-42 High Speed Steel

Authors: R. N. Karthik Babu, R. Sarvesh, A. Rajendra Prasad, G. Swaminathan

Abstract:

M42 is a molybdenum-series high-speed alloy steel widely used because of its better hot-hardness and wear resistance. These steels are conventionally heat treated in a salt bath furnace with up to three stages of preheating with predetermined soaking and holding periods. Such methods often involve long periods of processing with a large amount of energy consumed. In this study, the M42 steel samples were heat-treated by rapidly heating the specimens to the austenising temperature of 1260 °C and cooled conventionally by quenching in a neutral salt bath at a temperature of 550 °C with the aid of a hybrid microwave furnace. As metals reflect microwaves, they cannot directly be heated up when placed in a microwave furnace. The technology used herein requires the specimens to be placed in a crucible lined with SiC which is a good absorber of microwaves and the SiC lining heats the metal through radiation which facilitates the volumetric heating of the metal. A sample of similar dimensions was heat treated conventionally and cooled in the same manner. Conventional tempering process was then carried out on both these samples and analysed for various parameters such as micro-hardness, processing time, etc. Microstructure analysis and scanning electron microscopy was also carried out. The objective of the study being that similar or better properties, with substantial time and energy saving and cost cutting are achievable by rapid heat treatment through hybrid microwave furnaces. It is observed that the heat treatment is done with substantial time and energy savings, and also with minute improvement in mechanical properties of the tool steel heat treated.

Keywords: rapid heating, heat treatment, metal processing, microwave heating

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4707 Optimization of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: I Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In this study, we proposed a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, and SUS304 as the material, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution and design of experiment (DOE). Taguchi method was used to analysis the effect of each parameter design and predicts optimal design of new 25A-size three layer corrugated metal gasket. The L18 orthogonal array of Taguchi method was applied to design experiment matrix for eight factors with three levels. Based on elastic mode and plastic mode, optimum design gasket is gasket with core metal SUS304, surface layer aluminum, p1 = 4.5 mm, p2 = 4.5 mm, p3 = 4 mm, Tg = 1.2 mm, R = 3.5 mm, h = 0.4 mm and Ts = 0.3 mm.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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4706 Latest Finding about Copper Sulfide Biomineralization and General Features of Metal Sulfide Biominerals

Authors: Yeseul Park

Abstract:

Biopolymers produced by organisms highly contribute to the production of metal sulfides, both in extracellular and intracellular biomineralization. We discovered a new type of intracellular biomineral composed of copper sulfide in the periplasm of a sulfate-reducing bacterium. We suggest that the structural features of biomineral composed of 1-2 nm subgrains are based on biopolymer-based capping agents and an organic compartment. We further compare with other types of metal sulfide biominerals.

Keywords: biomineralization, copper sulfide, metal sulfide, biopolymer, capping agent

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4705 Electroforming of 3D Digital Light Processing Printed Sculptures Used as a Low Cost Option for Microcasting

Authors: Cecile Meier, Drago Diaz Aleman, Itahisa Perez Conesa, Jose Luis Saorin Perez, Jorge De La Torre Cantero

Abstract:

In this work, two ways of creating small-sized metal sculptures are proposed: the first by means of microcasting and the second by electroforming from models printed in 3D using an FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling‎) printer or using a DLP (Digital Light Processing) printer. It is viable to replace the wax in the processes of the artistic foundry with 3D printed objects. In this technique, the digital models are manufactured with resin using a low-cost 3D FDM printer in polylactic acid (PLA). This material is used, because its properties make it a viable substitute to wax, within the processes of artistic casting with the technique of lost wax through Ceramic Shell casting. This technique consists of covering a sculpture of wax or in this case PLA with several layers of thermoresistant material. This material is heated to melt the PLA, obtaining an empty mold that is later filled with the molten metal. It is verified that the PLA models reduce the cost and time compared with the hand modeling of the wax. In addition, one can manufacture parts with 3D printing that are not possible to create with manual techniques. However, the sculptures created with this technique have a size limit. The problem is that when printed pieces with PLA are very small, they lose detail, and the laminar texture hides the shape of the piece. DLP type printer allows obtaining more detailed and smaller pieces than the FDM. Such small models are quite difficult and complex to melt using the lost wax technique of Ceramic Shell casting. But, as an alternative, there are microcasting and electroforming, which are specialized in creating small metal pieces such as jewelry ones. The microcasting is a variant of the lost wax that consists of introducing the model in a cylinder in which the refractory material is also poured. The molds are heated in an oven to melt the model and cook them. Finally, the metal is poured into the still hot cylinders that rotate in a machine at high speed to properly distribute all the metal. Because microcasting requires expensive material and machinery to melt a piece of metal, electroforming is an alternative for this process. The electroforming uses models in different materials; for this study, micro-sculptures printed in 3D are used. These are subjected to an electroforming bath that covers the pieces with a very thin layer of metal. This work will investigate the recommended size to use 3D printers, both with PLA and resin and first tests are being done to validate use the electroforming process of microsculptures, which are printed in resin using a DLP printer.

Keywords: sculptures, DLP 3D printer, microcasting, electroforming, fused deposition modeling

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4704 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy

Abstract:

Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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4703 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Zhang Hui, Wu Caiqiu, Yuan Xuyin, Qiu Jie, Zhang Hanpei

Abstract:

The heavy metal contaminations were determined with a detailed soil survey in roadside soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway of Liaoning Province (China) and Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in roadside soils was determined to be 43.8, 26.5, 0.119, 32.1, 71.3 mg/kg respectively, and all of the heavy metal contents were higher than the background values. Different heavy metal distribution regularity was found in different land use type of roadside soil, there was an obvious peak of heavy concentration at 25m from road edge in the farmland, while in the forest and orchard soil, all heavy metals gradually decreased with the increase of distance from road edge and conformed to the exponential model. Furthermore, the heavy metal contents of heavy metals except Cd were markedly increased compared with those in 1999 and 2007, and the heavy metals concentrations of Shenyang- Dalian Highway were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities around the world. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils illustrated a common low pollution for all heavy metal and recommended that more attention should be paid to Pb contamination in roadside soils in Shenyang-Dalian Highway.

Keywords: heavy metal contamination, roadside, highway, Nemerow Pollution Index

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