Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3321

Search results for: hybrid insulator metal insulator

3321 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

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3320 Development and Sound Absorption and Insulation Performance Evaluation of Nonwoven Fabric Material including Paper Honeycomb Structure for Insulator Covering Shelf Trim

Authors: In-Sung Lee, Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, Dae-Gyu Park

Abstract:

Insulator Covering Shelf Trim is one of the automotive interior parts located in the rear seat of a car, and it is a component that is the most strongly demanded for impact resistance, strength, and heat resistance. Such an Insulator Covering Shelf Trim is composed of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabric which is a surface material appearing externally and a substrate layer which exerts shape and mechanical strength. In this paper, we develop a lightweight Insulator Covering Shelf Trim using the nonwoven fabric material with a high strength honeycomb structure and evaluate sound absorption and insulation performance by using acoustic impedance tubes.

Keywords: sound absorption and insulation, insulator covering shelf trim, nonwoven fabric, honeycomb

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3319 The Influence of Structural Disorder and Phonon on Metal-To-Insulator Transition of VO₂

Authors: Sang-Wook Han, In-Hui Hwang, Zhenlan Jin, Chang-In Park

Abstract:

We used temperature-dependent X-Ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements to examine the local structural properties around vanadium atoms at the V K edge from VO₂ films. A direct comparison of simultaneously-measured resistance and XAFS from the VO₂ films showed that the thermally-driven structural phase transition (SPT) occurred prior to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) during heating, whereas these changed simultaneously during cooling. XAFS revealed a significant increase in the Debye-Waller factors of the V-O and V-V pairs in the {111} direction of the R-phase VO₂ due to the phonons of the V-V arrays along the direction in a metallic phase. A substantial amount of structural disorder existing on the V-V pairs along the c-axis in both M₁ and R phases indicates the structural instability of V-V arrays in the axis. The anomalous structural disorder observed on all atomic sites at the SPT prevents the migration of the V 3d¹ electrons, resulting in a Mott insulator in the M₂-phase VO₂. The anomalous structural disorder, particularly, at vanadium sites, effectively affects the migration of metallic electrons, resulting in the Mott insulating properties in M₂ phase and a non-congruence of the SPT, MIT, and local density of state. The thermally-induced phonons in the {111} direction assist the delocalization of the V 3d¹ electrons in the R phase VO₂ and the electrons likely migrate via the V-V array in the {111} direction as well as the V-V dimerization along the c-axis. This study clarifies that the tetragonal symmetry is essentially important for the metallic phase in VO₂.

Keywords: metal-insulator transition, XAFS, VO₂, structural-phase transition

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3318 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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3317 Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum

Authors: Li Li, Lei Wang, Chenglin Du, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Wei Cai, Jingjun Xu

Abstract:

Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.

Keywords: breathing mode, plasmonics, quantum dot, strong coupling, ultraviolet

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3316 Effect of Coronary Insulators in Increasing the Lifespan of Electrolytic Cells: Short-circuit and Heat Resistance

Authors: Robert P. Dufresne, Hamid Arabzadeh

Abstract:

The current study investigates the effectiveness of a new form of permanent baseboard insulators with an umbrella action, hereinafter referred to as Coronary Insulator, in supporting and protecting the assembly of electrodes immersed in an electrolytic cell and in increasing the lifespan of the lateral sides of the electrolytic cell, in both electro-winning and electro-refinery method. The advantages of using a coronary insulator in addition to the top capping board (equipotential insulator) were studied compared to the conventional assembly of an electrolytic cell. Then, a thermal imaging technique was utilized during high-temperature thermal (heat transfer) tests for sample cell walls with and without coronary insulators in their assembly to show the effectiveness of coronary insulators in protecting the cell wall under extreme conditions. It was shown that, unlike the conventional assembly, which is highly prone to damages to the cell wall under thermal shocks, the presence of coronary insulator can significantly increase the level of protection of the cell due to their ultra-high thermal and chemical resistance, as well as decreasing the replacement frequency of insulators to almost zero. Besides, the results of the study showed that the test assembly with the coronary insulator provides better consistency in positioning and, subsequently, better contact, compared to the conventional method, which reduces the chance of electric short-circuit in the system.

Keywords: capping board, coronary insulator, electrolytic cell, thermal shock.

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3315 Analysis of 3 dB Directional Coupler Based On Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Large Cross-Section Rib Waveguide

Authors: Nurdiani Zamhari, Abang Annuar Ehsan

Abstract:

The 3 dB directional coupler is designed by using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) large cross-section and simulate by Beam Propagation Method at the communication wavelength of 1.55 µm and 1.48 µm. The geometry is shaped with rib height (H) of 6 µm and varied in step factor (r) which is 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8. The wave guide spacing is also fixed to 5 µm and the slab width is symmetrical. In general, the 3 dB coupling lengths for four different cross-sections are several millimetre long. The 1.48 of wavelength give the longer coupling length if compare to 1.55 at the same step factor (r). Besides, the low loss propagation is achieved with less than 2 % of propagation loss.

Keywords: 3 dB directional couplers, silicon-on-insulator, symmetrical rib waveguide, OptiBPM 9

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3314 Theoretical Investigation of the Origin of Interfacial Ferromagnetism of (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m Superlattices

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Iogann Tolbatov, Mousumi U. Kahaly

Abstract:

Metal to insulator transition and interfacial magnetism of the LaNiO₃ based superlattice are main interest due to thickness dependent electronic response and tunable magnetic behavior. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of recently experimentally synthesized (LaNiO₃)n/(CaMnO₃)m superlattices with varying LaNiO₃ thickness using density functional theory. The effect of the on-site Coulomb interaction is discussed. In switching from zero to finite U value for Ni atoms, LaNiO₃ shows transitions from half-metallic to metallic character, while spinning ordering changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM). For CaMnO₃, U < 3 eV on Mn atoms results in G-type anti-FM spin ordering whereas increasing U value yields FM ordering. In superlattices, metal to insulator transition was achieved with a reduction of LaNiO₃ thickness. The system with one layer of LaNiO₃ yields insulating character. Increasing LaNiO₃ to two layers and above results in the onset of the metallic character with a major contribution from Ni and Mn 3d eg states. Our results for interfacial ferromagnetism, induced Ni magnetic moments and novel antiferromagnetically coupled Ni atoms are consistent with the recent experimental findings. The possible origin of the emergent magnetism is proposed in terms of the exchange interaction and Anderson localization.

Keywords: density functional theory, interfacial magnetism, metal-insulator transition, Ni magnetism.

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3313 Investigation of the Effect of Impulse Voltage to Flashover by Using Water Jet

Authors: Harun Gülan, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu, Mehmet Cebeci

Abstract:

The main function of the insulators used in high voltage (HV) transmission lines is to insulate the energized conductor from the pole and hence from the ground. However, when the insulators fail to perform this insulation function due to various effects, failures occur. The deterioration of the insulation results either from breakdown or surface flashover. The surface flashover is caused by the layer of pollution that forms conductivity on the surface of the insulator, such as salt, carbonaceous compounds, rain, moisture, fog, dew, industrial pollution and desert dust. The source of the majority of failures and interruptions in HV lines is surface flashover. This threatens the continuity of supply and causes significant economic losses. Pollution flashover in HV insulators is still a serious problem that has not been fully resolved. In this study, a water jet test system has been established in order to investigate the behavior of insulators under dirty conditions and to determine their flashover performance. Flashover behavior of the insulators is examined by applying impulse voltages in the test system. This study aims to investigate the insulator behaviour under high impulse voltages. For this purpose, a water jet test system was installed and experimental results were obtained over a real system and analyzed. By using the water jet test system instead of the actual insulator, the damage to the insulator as a result of the flashover that would occur under impulse voltage was prevented. The results of the test system performed an important role in determining the insulator behavior and provided predictability.

Keywords: insulator, pollution flashover, high impulse voltage, water jet model

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3312 Nonlinear Pollution Modelling for Polymeric Outdoor Insulator

Authors: Rahisham Abd Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear pollution model has been proposed to compute electric field distribution over the polymeric insulator surface under wet contaminated conditions. A 2D axial-symmetric insulator geometry, energized with 11kV was developed and analysed using Finite Element Method (FEM). A field-dependent conductivity with simplified assumptions was established to characterize the electrical properties of the pollution layer. Comparative field studies showed that simulation of dynamic pollution model results in a more realistic field profile, offering better understanding on how the electric field behaves under wet polluted conditions.

Keywords: electric field distributions, pollution layer, dynamic model, polymeric outdoor insulators, finite element method (FEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3311 Study of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics in a Polystyrene/ZnO-Nanorods Stack Layer

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Yi-Hsing Sung, Shih-Hung Lin, Jing-Jenn Lin

Abstract:

Performance improvement in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and photodetectors has been reported when a polymer/ZnO nanorods stack is used. Resistance switching of polymer/ZnO nanocrystals (or nanorods) hybrid has also gained a lot of research interests recently. It has been reported that high- and low-resistance states of a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure diode with a polystyrene (PS) and ZnO hybrid as the insulator layer can be switched by applied bias after a high-voltage forming process, while the same device structure merely with a PS layer does not show any forming behavior. In this work, we investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an MIM device with a PS/ZnO nanorods stack deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method using a mixture of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and DI water. Following that, a PS layer was deposited by spin coating. Finally, the device with a structure of Ti/ PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO was completed by e-gun evaporated Ti layer on top of the PS layer. Semiconductor parameters analyzer Agilent 4156C was then used to measure the I-V characteristics of the device by applying linear ramp sweep voltage with sweep sequence of 0V → 4V → 0V → 3V → 0V → 2V → 0V → 1V → 0V in both positive and negative directions. It is interesting to find that the I-V characteristics are bias dependent and hysteretic, indicating that the device Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure has ferroelectricity. Our results also show that the maximum hysteresis loop height of the I-V characteristics as well as the voltage at which the maximum hysteresis loop height of each scan occurs increase with increasing maximum sweep voltage. It should be noticed that, although ferroelectricity has been found in ZnO at its melting temperature (1975℃) and in Li- or Co-doped ZnO, neither PS nor ZnO has ferroelectricity at room temperature. Using the same structure but with a PS or ZnO layer only as the insulator does not give and hysteretic I-V characteristics. It is believed that a charge polarization layer is induced near the PS/ZnO nanorods stack interface and thus causes the ferroelectricity in the device with Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure. Our results show that the PS/ZnO stack can find a potential application in a resistive switching memory device with MIM structure.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, hysteresis, polystyrene, resistance switching, ZnO nanorods

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3310 Graphene Transistor Employing Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride as Substrate and Gate Insulator

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Bin Yu

Abstract:

We explore the potential of using ultra-thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as both supporting substrate and gate dielectric for graphene-channel field effect transistors (GFETs). Different from commonly used oxide-based dielectric materials which are typically amorphous, very rough in surface, and rich with surface traps, h-BN is layered insulator free of dangling bonds and surface states, featuring atomically smooth surface. In a graphene-channel-last device structure with local buried metal gate electrode (TiN), thin h-BN multilayer is employed as both supporting “substrate” and gate dielectric for graphene active channel. We observed superior carrier mobility and electrical conduction, significantly improved from that in GFETs with SiO2 as substrate/gate insulator. In addition, we report excellent dielectric behavior of layered h-BN, including ultra-low leakage current and high critical electric field for breakdown.

Keywords: graphene, field-effect transistors, hexagonal boron nitride, dielectric strength, tunneling

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3309 Simulation of High Performance Nanoscale Partially Depleted SOI n-MOSFET Transistors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza

Abstract:

Invention of transistor is the foundation of electronics industry. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been the key for the development of nanoelectronics technology. In the first part of this manuscript, we present a new generation of MOSFET transistors based on SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology. It is a partially depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (PD SOI MOSFET) transistor simulated by using SILVACO software. This work was completed by the presentation of some results concerning the influence of parameters variation (channel length L and gate oxide thickness Tox) on our PDSOI n-MOSFET structure on its drain current and kink effect.

Keywords: SOI technology, PDSOI MOSFET, FDSOI MOSFET, kink effect

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3308 Characterization of Leakage Current on the Surface of Porcelain Insulator under Contaminated Conditions

Authors: Hocine Terrab , Abdelhafid Bayadi, Adel Kara, Ayman El-Hag

Abstract:

Insulator flashover under polluted conditions has been a serious threat on the reliability of power systems. It is known that the flashover process is mainly affected by the environmental conditions such as; the pollution level and humidity. Those are the essential parameters influencing the wetting process. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of leakage current (LC) developed on the surface of porcelain insulator at contaminated conditions under AC voltage. The study is done in an artificial fog chamber and the LC is characterized for different stages; dry, wetted and presence of discharge activities. Time-frequency and spectral analysis are adopted to calculate the evolution of LC characteristics with various stages prior to flashover occurrence. The preliminary results could be used in analysing the LC to develop more effective diagnosis of early signs of dry band arcing as an indication for insulation washing.

Keywords: flashover, harmonic components, leakage current, phase angle, statistical analysis

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3307 Characterization of Thermal Images Due to Aging of H.V Glass Insulators Using Thermographic Scanning

Authors: Nasir A. Al-Geelani, Zulkurnain Abdul-Malek, M. Afendi M. Piah

Abstract:

This research paper investigation is carried out in the laboratory on single units of transmission line glass insulator characterized by different thermal images, which aimed to find out the age of the insulators. The tests were carried out on virgin and aged insulators using the thermography scan. Various samples having different periods of aging 20, 15, and 5 years from a 132 kV transmission line which have exhibited a different degree of corrosion. The second group of insulator samples was relatively mild aged insulators, while the third group was lightly aged; finally, the fourth group was the brand new insulators. The results revealed a strong correlation between the aging and the thermal images captured by the infrared camera. This technique can be used to monitor the aging of high voltage insulators as a precaution to avoid disaster.

Keywords: glass insulator, infrared camera, corona diacharge, transmission lines, thermograpy, surface discharge

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3306 Electric Field Analysis of XLPE, Cross-Linked Polyethylene Covered Aerial Line and Insulator Lashing

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Dai-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

Both sparse lashing and dense lashing are applied to secure overhead XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) covered power lines on ceramic insulators or HDPE polymer insulators. The distribution of electric field in and among the lashing wires, the XLPE power lines and insulators in normal clean condition and when conducting materials such as salt, metal particles, dust, smoke or acidic smog are present is studied in this paper. The ANSYS Maxwell commercial software is used in this study for electric field analysis. Although the simulation analysis is performed assuming ideal conditions due to the constraints of the simulation software, the result may not be the same as in real situation but still be of sufficient practical values.

Keywords: electric field intensity, insulator, XLPE covered aerial line, empty

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3305 Structural and Electrical Properties of VO₂/ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Sang-Wook Han, Zhenlan Jin, In-Hui Hwang, Chang-In Park

Abstract:

We examined structural and electrical properties of uniformly-oriented VO₂/ZnO nanostructures. VO₂ was deposited on ZnO templates by using a direct current-sputtering deposition. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements indicated that b-oriented VO₂ were uniformly crystallized on ZnO templates with different lengths. VO₂/ZnO formed nanorods on ZnO nanorods with length longer than 250 nm. X-ray absorption fine structure at V K edge of VO₂/ZnO showed M1 and R phases of VO₂ at 30 and 100 ℃, respectively, suggesting structural phase transition between temperatures. Temperature-dependent resistance measurements of VO₂/ZnO nanostructures revealed metal-to-insulator transition at 65 ℃ and 55 ℃ during heating and cooling, respectively, regardless of ZnO length. The bond lengths of V-O and V-V pairs in VO₂/ZnO nanorods were somewhat distorted, and a substantial amount of structural disorder existed in the atomic pairs, compared to those of VO₂ films without ZnO. Resistance from VO₂/ZnO nanorods revealed a sharp MIT near 65 ℃ during heating and a hysteresis behavior. The resistance results suggest that microchannel for charge carriers exist nearly room temperature during cooling. VO₂/ZnO nanorods are quite stable and reproducible so that they can be widely used for practical applications to electronic devices, gas sensors, and ultra-fast switches, as examples.

Keywords: metal-to-insulator transition, VO₂, ZnO, XAFS, structural-phase transition

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3304 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani

Abstract:

A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

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3303 Behavior of Epoxy Insulator with Surface Defect under HVDC Stress

Authors: Qingying Liu, S. Liu, L. Hao, B. Zhang, J. D. Yan

Abstract:

HVDC technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its simplicity in topology and less power loss over long distance of power transmission, in comparison with HVAC technology. However, the dielectric behavior of insulators in the long term under HVDC stress is completely different from that under HVAC stress as a result of charge accumulation in a constant electric field. Insulators used in practical systems are never perfect in their structural conditions. Over time shallow cracks may develop on their surface. The presence of defects can lead to drastic change in their dielectric behaviour and thus increase the probability of surface flashover. In this contribution, experimental investigations have been carried out on the charge accumulation phenomenon on the surface of a rod insulator made of epoxy that is placed between two disk shaped electrodes at different voltage levels and in different gases (SF6, CO2 and N2). Many results obtained, such as, the two-dimensional electrostatic potential distribution along the insulator surface after the removal of the power source following a pre-defined period of application. The probe has been carefully calibrated before each test. Results show that surface charge distribution near the two disk shaped electrodes is not uniform in the circumferential direction, possibly due to the imperfect electrical connections between the embeded conductor in the insulator and the disk shaped electrodes. The axial length of this non-uniform region is experimentally determined, which provides useful information for shielding design. A charge transport model is also used to explain the formation of the long term electrostatic potential distribution under a constant applied voltage.

Keywords: HVDC, power systems, dielectric behavior, insulation, charge accumulation

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3302 Manufacturing of Vacuum Glazing with Metal Edge Seal

Authors: Won Kyeong Kang, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing (VG) is a super insulator, which is able to greatly improve the energy efficiency of building. However, a significant amount of heat loss occurs through the welded edge of conventional VG. The joining method should be improved for further application and commercialization. For this purpose VG with metal edge seal is conceived. In this paper, the feasibility of joining stainless steel and soda lime glass using glass solder is assessed numerically and experimentally. In the case of very thin stainless steel, partial joining with glass is identified, which need further improvement for practical application.

Keywords: VG, metal edge seal, vacuum glazing, manufacturing,

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3301 Bulk Transport in Strongly Correlated Topological Insulator Samarium Hexaboride Using Hall Effect and Inverted Resistance Methods

Authors: Alexa Rakoski, Yun Suk Eo, Cagliyan Kurdak, Priscila F. S. Rosa, Zachary Fisk, Monica Ciomaga Hatnean, Geetha Balakrishnan, Boyoun Kang, Myungsuk Song, Byungki Cho

Abstract:

Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a strongly correlated mixed valence material and Kondo insulator. In the resistance-temperature curve, SmB6 exhibits activated behavior from 4-40 K after the Kondo gap forms. However, below 4 K, the resistivity is temperature independent or weakly temperature dependent due to the appearance of a topologically protected surface state. Current research suggests that the surface of SmB6 is conductive while the bulk is truly insulating, different from conventional 3D TIs (Topological Insulators) like Bi₂Se₃ which are plagued by bulk conduction due to impurities. To better understand why the bulk of SmB6 is so different from conventional TIs, this study employed a new method, called inverted resistance, to explore the lowest temperatures, as well as standard Hall measurements for the rest of the temperature range. In the inverted resistance method, current flows from an inner contact to an outer ring, and voltage is measured outside of this outer ring. This geometry confines the surface current and allows for measurement of the bulk resistivity even when the conductive surface dominates transport (below 4 K). The results confirm that the bulk of SmB6 is truly insulating down to 2 K. Hall measurements on a number of samples show consistent bulk behavior from 4-40 K, but widely varying behavior among samples above 40 K. This is attributed to a combination of the growth process and purity of the starting material, and the relationship between the high and low temperature behaviors is still being explored.

Keywords: bulk transport, Hall effect, inverted resistance, Kondo insulator, samarium hexaboride, topological insulator

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3300 Opto-Thermal Frequency Modulation of Phase Change Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems

Authors: Syed A. Bukhari, Ankur Goswmai, Dale Hume, Thomas Thundat

Abstract:

Here we demonstrate mechanical detection of photo-induced Insulator to metal transition (MIT) in ultra-thin vanadium dioxide (VO₂) micro strings by using < 100 µW of optical power. Highly focused laser beam heated the string locally resulting in through plane and along axial heat diffusion. Localized temperature increase can cause temperature rise > 60 ºC. The heated region of VO₂ can transform from insulating (monoclinic) to conducting (rutile) phase leading to lattice compressions and stiffness increase in the resonator. The mechanical frequency of the resonator can be tuned by changing optical power and wavelength. The first mode resonance frequency was tuned in three different ways. A decrease in frequency below a critical optical power, a large increase between 50-120 µW followed by a large decrease in frequency for optical powers greater than 120 µW. The dynamic mechanical response was studied as a function of incident optical power and gas pressure. The resonance frequency and amplitude of vibration were found to be decreased with increasing laser power from 25-38 µW and increased by1-2 % when the laser power was further increased to 52 µW. The transition in films was induced and detected by a single pump and probe source and by employing external optical sources of different wavelengths. This trend in dynamic parameters of the strings can be co-related with reversible Insulator to metal transition in VO₂ films which creates change in density of the material and hence the overall stiffness of the strings leading to changes in string dynamics. The increase in frequency at a particular optical power manifests a transition to a more ordered metallic phase which tensile stress onto the string. The decrease in frequency at higher optical powers can be correlated with poor phonon thermal conductivity of VO₂ in conducting phase. Poor thermal conductivity of VO₂ can force in-plane penetration of heat causing the underneath SiN supporting VO₂ which can result as a decrease in resonance frequency. This noninvasive, non-contact laser-based excitation and detection of Insulator to metal transition using micro strings resonators at room temperature and with laser power in few µWs is important for low power electronics, and optical switching applications.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, vanadium dioxide, MEMS, frequency tuning

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3299 Potential Distribution and Electric Field Analysis around a Polluted Outdoor Polymeric Insulator with Broken Sheds

Authors: Adel Kara, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Hocine Terrab

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of electric field distribution along of 72 kV polymeric outdoor insulators with broken sheds. Different cases of damaged insulators are modeled and both of clean and polluted cases. By 3D finite element analysis using the software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. The obtained results of potential and the electrical field distribution around insulators by 3D simulation proved that finite element computations is useful tool for studying insulation electrical field distribution.

Keywords: electric field distributions, insulator, broken sheds, potential distributions

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3298 Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions

Authors: Henry Navarro, Martin Sirena, Nestor Haberkorn

Abstract:

We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.

Keywords: thin film, sputtering, conductive atomic force microscopy, tunnel junctions

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3297 Die Design for Flashless Forging of a Polymer Insulator Fitting

Authors: Pedram Khazaie, Sajjad Moein

Abstract:

In the conventional hot forging of Tongue, which is a fitting for polymer insulator, the material wasted to flash accounts for 20-30% of workpiece. In order to reduce the cost of forged products, this waste material must be minimized. In this study, a flashless forging die is designed and simulated using the finite element method (FEM). A solution to avoid overloading the die with a simple preform is also presented. Moreover, since in flashless forging, burr is formed on the edge of workpiece, a controlled flash forging method is proposed to solve this problem. The simulation results have been validated by experiments; achieving close agreement between simulated and experimental data. It was shown that numerical modeling is helpful in reducing cost and time in the manufacturing process.

Keywords: burr formation, die design, finite element method, flashless forging

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3296 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: capacitance, mobility, organic, thin film transistor

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3295 Flashover Detection Algorithm Based on Mother Function

Authors: John A. Morales, Guillermo Guidi, B. M. Keune

Abstract:

Electric Power supply is a crucial topic for economic and social development. Power outages statistics show that discharges atmospherics are imperative phenomena to produce those outages. In this context, it is necessary to correctly detect when overhead line insulators are faulted. In this paper, an algorithm to detect if a lightning stroke generates or not permanent fault on insulator strings is proposed. On top of that, lightning stroke simulations developed by using the Alternative Transients Program, are used. Based on these insights, a novel approach is designed that depends on mother functions analysis corresponding to the given variance-covariance matrix. Signals registered at the insulator string are projected on corresponding axes by the means of Principal Component Analysis. By exploiting these new axes, it is possible to determine a flashover characteristic zone useful to a good insulation design. The proposed methodology for flashover detection extends the existing approaches for the analysis and study of lightning performance on transmission lines.

Keywords: mother function, outages, lightning, sensitivity analysis

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3294 The Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as Materials for Storage Clean Energy: Ab initio Investigations

Authors: S. Meziane, H. I. Faraoun, C. Esling

Abstract:

Transition metal dichalcogenides have potential applications in power generation devices that convert waste heat into electric current by the so-called Seebeck and Hall effects thus providing an alternative energy technology to reduce the dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of 1T and 2HTaX2 (X= S or Se) dichalcogenide superconductors have been computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Technologically, the task is to fabricate suitable materials with high efficiency. It is found that 2HTaS2 possesses the largest value of figure of merit ZT= 1.27 at 175 K. From a scientific point of view, we aim to model the underlying materials properties and in particular the transport phenomena as mediated by electrons and lattice vibrations responsible for superconductivity, Charge Density Waves (CDW) and metal/insulator transitions as function of temperature. The goal of the present work is to develop an understanding of the superconductivity of these selected materials using the transport properties at the fundamental level.

Keywords: Ab initio, High efficiency, Power generation devices, Transition metal dichalcogenides

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3293 Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Omar Concepcion, Osvaldo De Melo, Arturo Escobosa

Abstract:

Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.

Keywords: Bismuth telluride, molecular beam epitaxy, physical vapor transport, topological insulator

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3292 Engineering the Topological Insulator Structures for Terahertz Detectors

Authors: M. Marchewka

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the possible optical transitions in double quantum wells system based on HgTe/HgCd(Mn)Te heterostructures. Such structures can find applications as detectors and sources of radiation in the terahertz range. The Double Quantum Wells (DQW) systems consist of two QWs separated by the transparent for electrons barrier. Such systems look promising from the point of view of the additional degrees of freedom. In the case of the topological insulator in about 6.4nm wide HgTe QW or strained 3D HgTe films at the interfaces, the topologically protected surface states appear at the interfaces/surfaces. Electrons in those edge states move along the interfaces/surfaces without backscattering due to time-reversal symmetry. Combination of the topological properties, which was already verified by the experimental way, together with the very well know properties of the DQWs, can be very interesting from the applications point of view, especially in the THz area. It is important that at the present stage, the technology makes it possible to create high-quality structures of this type, and intensive experimental and theoretical studies of their properties are already underway. The idea presented in this paper is based on the eight-band KP model, including the additional terms related to the structural inversion asymmetry, interfaces inversion asymmetry, the influence of the magnetically content, and the uniaxial strain describe the full pictures of the possible real structure. All of this term, together with the external electric field, can be sources of breaking symmetry in investigated materials. Using the 8 band KP model, we investigated the electronic shape structure with and without magnetic field from the application point of view as a THz detector in a small magnetic field (below 2T). We believe that such structures are the way to get the tunable topological insulators and the multilayer topological insulator. Using the one-dimensional electrons at the topologically protected interface states as fast and collision-free signal carriers as charge and signal carriers, the detection of the optical signal should be fast, which is very important in the high-resolution detection of signals in the THz range. The proposed engineering of the investigated structures is now one of the important steps on the way to get the proper structures with predicted properties.

Keywords: topological insulator, THz spectroscopy, KP model, II-VI compounds

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