Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: sculptures

16 Retrieving Iconometric Proportions of South Indian Sculptures Based on Statistical Analysis

Authors: M. Bagavandas

Abstract:

Introduction: South Indian stone sculptures are known for their elegance and history. They are available in large numbers in different monuments situated different parts of South India. These art pieces have been studied using iconography details, but this pioneering study introduces a novel method known as iconometry which is a quantitative study that deals with measurements of different parts of icons to find answers for important unanswered questions. The main aim of this paper is to compare iconometric measurements of the sculptures with canonical proportion to determine whether the sculptors of the past had followed any of the canonical proportions prescribed in the ancient text. If not, this study recovers the proportions used for carving sculptures which is not available to us now. Also, it will be interesting to see how these sculptural proportions of different monuments belonging to different dynasties differ from one another in terms these proportions. Methods and Materials: As Indian sculptures are depicted in different postures, one way of making measurements independent of size, is to decode on a suitable measurement and convert the other measurements as proportions with respect to the chosen measurement. Since in all canonical texts of Indian art, all different measurements are given in terms of face length, it is chosen as the required measurement for standardizing the measurements. In order to compare these facial measurements with measurements prescribed in Indian canons of Iconography, the ten facial measurements like face length, morphological face length, nose length, nose-to-chin length, eye length, lip length, face breadth, nose breadth, eye breadth and lip breadth were standardized using the face length and the number of measurements reduced to nine. Each measurement was divided by the corresponding face length and multiplied by twelve and given in angula unit used in the canonical texts. The reason for multiplying by twelve is that the face length is given as twelve angulas in the canonical texts for all figures. Clustering techniques were used to determine whether the sculptors of the past had followed any of the proportions prescribed in the canonical texts of the past to carve sculptures and also to compare the proportions of sculptures of different monuments. About one hundred twenty-seven stone sculptures from four monuments belonging to the Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya and the Vijayanagar dynasties were taken up for this study. These art pieces belong to a period ranging from the eighth to the sixteenth century A.D. and all of them adorning different monuments situated in different parts of Tamil Nadu State, South India. Anthropometric instruments were used for taking measurements and the author himself had measured all the sample pieces of this study. Result: Statistical analysis of sculptures of different centers of art from different dynasties shows a considerable difference in facial proportions and many of these proportions differ widely from the canonical proportions. The retrieved different facial proportions indicate that the definition of beauty has been changing from period to period and region to region.

Keywords: iconometry, proportions, sculptures, statistics

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15 Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology of Haryana, India

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

The present research paper is based on the explorations and excavations of Buddhist sites of the Indian state Haryana. It is a small state in north India. Earlier it was part of greater Punjab. Haryana has a very rich ancient history right from the Stone Age. It is known as the cradle of civilization. During the Buddha period, Haryana was very prosperous. Buddha also visited this region during the travel of the northwest province of British India. In this research work, the authors describe the Buddhist trail in Haryana and the tangible heritage of Buddhism, which were built in the respect and memory of the Buddha's journey like Stupa, Monasteries, Pillar, sculptures, etc. Several stupas like Chaneti Stupa, Thanesar Stupa, Agroha stupa, Adibadri, Katrawali, Assandh Stupa, and many monasteries were come into light during the excavation and exploration in Haryana as well as a lot of Buddhist sculptures also found.

Keywords: archaeology, Buddhism, exploration, excavations, stupa

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14 A New Assessment of the Chronology of the Vouni Palace

Authors: Seren Sevim Öğmen, Ömer Özyiğit

Abstract:

Vouni Palace is a Persian palace built on a rocky hill in the Lefke district of Cyprus. The palace is one of the limited number of architectures identified, which prove the existence of a Persian period on the island. Since the excavations on the palace were held a very long time ago, there is a need to re-date the cultural layers within the palace using new archaeological evidence and recent studies. The existing chronology has been reviewed and a new chronology has been created according to its architectural structure, floor findings such as ceramics and sculptures and the stratigraphic layer of Room 59 where the Vouni Treasure was found. This work dates the palace in Vouni between the periods of c. 520 BC, deduced from the early period sculptures, and c. 330 BC by the late period floor ceramics. Some earlier dated archaic sculptures are identified in Room 122 – which takes part in the temenos area of the palace, and correspondingly the construction of the palace is dated c. 520 BC. The comparison between Vouni Palace and Persian palaces built in Iran, shows similarities with palaces built during the rule of Darius. It is evident that two main building periods of the palace which are previously identified, represent Persian influence according to its architectural structure and findings. Several floor potteries show that there must be other layer or layers after Vouni Treasure dated 390/380 BC, which was considered as the destruction date of the palace. At this point the forenamed date can indicate the end of a stage, not the end of the period because the palace was still in use until c. 330 BC. The results of the study, in addition to dating the layers of Vouni Palace, enlightens the administrative function of the Palace within the Persian rule in Cyprus.

Keywords: administrative, chronology, cyprus, persian rule, vouni palace

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13 Electroforming of 3D Digital Light Processing Printed Sculptures Used as a Low Cost Option for Microcasting

Authors: Cecile Meier, Drago Diaz Aleman, Itahisa Perez Conesa, Jose Luis Saorin Perez, Jorge De La Torre Cantero

Abstract:

In this work, two ways of creating small-sized metal sculptures are proposed: the first by means of microcasting and the second by electroforming from models printed in 3D using an FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling‎) printer or using a DLP (Digital Light Processing) printer. It is viable to replace the wax in the processes of the artistic foundry with 3D printed objects. In this technique, the digital models are manufactured with resin using a low-cost 3D FDM printer in polylactic acid (PLA). This material is used, because its properties make it a viable substitute to wax, within the processes of artistic casting with the technique of lost wax through Ceramic Shell casting. This technique consists of covering a sculpture of wax or in this case PLA with several layers of thermoresistant material. This material is heated to melt the PLA, obtaining an empty mold that is later filled with the molten metal. It is verified that the PLA models reduce the cost and time compared with the hand modeling of the wax. In addition, one can manufacture parts with 3D printing that are not possible to create with manual techniques. However, the sculptures created with this technique have a size limit. The problem is that when printed pieces with PLA are very small, they lose detail, and the laminar texture hides the shape of the piece. DLP type printer allows obtaining more detailed and smaller pieces than the FDM. Such small models are quite difficult and complex to melt using the lost wax technique of Ceramic Shell casting. But, as an alternative, there are microcasting and electroforming, which are specialized in creating small metal pieces such as jewelry ones. The microcasting is a variant of the lost wax that consists of introducing the model in a cylinder in which the refractory material is also poured. The molds are heated in an oven to melt the model and cook them. Finally, the metal is poured into the still hot cylinders that rotate in a machine at high speed to properly distribute all the metal. Because microcasting requires expensive material and machinery to melt a piece of metal, electroforming is an alternative for this process. The electroforming uses models in different materials; for this study, micro-sculptures printed in 3D are used. These are subjected to an electroforming bath that covers the pieces with a very thin layer of metal. This work will investigate the recommended size to use 3D printers, both with PLA and resin and first tests are being done to validate use the electroforming process of microsculptures, which are printed in resin using a DLP printer.

Keywords: sculptures, DLP 3D printer, microcasting, electroforming, fused deposition modeling

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12 Encounter, Dialogue and Presence in Doris Salcedo's Works

Authors: Wen-Shu Lai, Yi-Ting Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify what are the essences of Colombian-born sculptor Doris Salcedo’s works. Under the frameworks of Buber’s dialogical philosophy of the “I-Thou relation” and Zurmuehlen’s philosophy of “Art as Presence” within the context of art praxis, Salcedo’s selected works are analyzed and interpreted. Salcedo’s sculptures and installations have expressed her concerns of the collective and personal memories within the context of Colombia’s violent, historical and political conflicts, especially the trauma inscribed onto her fellow people. Salcedo tried to rescue that memory though her work does not directly represent the violent incidents happened in Colombia. They are indirect portraits of the disappeared, the victims, and the lack of identity. What the viewers see is something in between vanishing and emergence, personal and collective. The work, the artist and the viewer are witnesses and also survivors of Columbia’s violent incidents. On the site, the work, the disappeared and the witness-survivors encounter each other, then mourning, memory and dialogue are unfolded, brought to present. Firstly, it is the power of encounter that allows the viewer-witness to recognize the effaced victims, repressive violence, and the profound mourning for the loss, then restore their existence through dialogues and bring them to present. In her sculptures and installations, the displacement of the fragments and the incoherent sites make these daily household objects become unfamiliar, arose feelings of uncanniness of the viewer. The feelings of alienation, confusion, displacement bring the viewer to here and now. The more one studies these objects and sites, the more hidden details begin to appear. And the more one looks at the details, the more absent memories or stories reveals themselves and becomes present. Salcedo’s work is about loss, displacement and alienation caused by violence. She expressed that words are no longer possible when one deals with violence. However, her installation translates the violence, memory, and loss of beloved ones into a place of dialogue, in which the visitors can immerse themselves in a twilight zone between knowing and not knowing, remembering and forgetting. The spaces are the sites or non-sites inhabited by the remains or traces of the victims, the wonders of the survivor-witnesses where they join together through encounter, remain present to others through genuine dialogue. In the moment, the past memory and the ongoing life merge, accept each other, and reconcile. Salcedo reconfigures the silent violence and repressive history in Colombia and transforms them into sites and installations. The victims, the viewer and the artist join together while contemplating and sharing the human situation of silent repression. In the moment of contemplating, a dialogue, spoken or not, occurs in the specific sites. People have become aware and present, and mutual understanding has achieved. This research concludes that encounter, presence and dialogue are the three essences embedded in Salcedo’s works.

Keywords: dialogue, Doris Salcedo, encounter, presence

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11 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Mousa Bani Baker, Raed Abendeh, Zaidoon Abu Salem, Hesham Ahmad

Abstract:

This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, compressive strength, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness, abrasion, absorption, modulus of rupture, porosity

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10 Doris Salcedo: Parameters of Political Commitment in Colombia

Authors: Diana Isabel Torres Silva

Abstract:

Doris Salcedo is the most prominent sculptor from Colombia ever and currently, one of the most prestigious Latin-American artists in the world. Her artwork, intended as political art, has war as a background, in particular the Colombian civil conflict, and it addresses the way that its violence affects victims’ lives irreparably. While Salcedo is internationally recognized as a talented and a politically committed artist, some Colombian critics consider her artwork as the propagandist and influenced by the interest of multinational companies and the organizations that fund it. This paper, as part of a more extended research project, attempts to demonstrate that Doris Salcedo’s artwork makes visible the victims suffering and mourning and compels the viewers’ sympathy, although its approach is superficial. It does not achieve a complete or complex understanding of the social and historical causes underneath the war and maybe because of that has become a successful commodity for the international arts market. The paper considers, firstly, the influence that Colombian Nuevo Teatro, from the sixties, had on Salcedo’s early political perspective and, secondly, analyzes in detail the first series of her artwork (1992-1998) and how those works address grieving. The focus point of this analysis will be the domestic furniture sculptures, which are the main symbolic element of Salcedo’s oeuvre.

Keywords: Arts and politics, Doris Salcedo, Colombian art, Political Art

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9 Understanding the Architecture of Hindu Temples: A Philosophical Interpretation

Authors: A. Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Vedic philosophy is one of the oldest existing philosophies of the world. Started around 6500 BC, in Western Indian subcontinent, the Indus valley Civilizations developed a theology which, gradually developed into a well-established philosophy of beliefs, popularly known as ‘Hindu religion’. In Vedic theology, the abstract concept of God was formulated mostly by close observation of the dynamicity and the recurrence of natural and universal phenomena. Through the ages, the philosophy of this theology went through various discursions, debates, and questionings and the abstract concept of God was, in time, formalized into more representational forms by the means of various signs and symbols. Often, these symbols were used in more subtle ways in the construction of “sacred” sculptures and structures. Apparently, two different philosophies were developed from the Vedic philosophy and these two philosophies are mostly seen in the northern part and southern part of the Indian subcontinent. This paper tries to summarize the complex philosophical treaties of Hinduism of northern and southern India and seeks to understand the meanings of the various signs and symbolisms that were incorporated in the architecture of Hindu temples, including the names given to various parts of the temples. The Hindu temples are not only places of worship or ‘houses of Gods’ like the Greek and Roman temples but are also structures that symbolize the dynamicity and also spiritual upliftment of human beings.

Keywords: Hindu, philosophy, temple, Vedic

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8 An Investigation of the Influence of the Iranian 1979 Revolution on Tehran’s Public Art

Authors: M. Sohrabi Narciss

Abstract:

Urban spaces of Tehran, the capital of Iran, have witnessed many revolts, movements, and protests during the past few decades. After the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, the 1979 Revolution has had a profound impact on Tehran’s urban space. In 1979, the world watched as Iranians demonstrated en masse against the Pahlavi dynastdy which eventually led to its overthrow. Tehran’s public space is replete with images and artwork that depict the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iran. The public artworks related to the 1979 Islamic Revolution reflect the riots, protests, and strikes that the Iranians underwent during the revolution. Many of these artworks try to revitalize the events that occurred in the 1970s by means of collective memory. Almost 4 decades have passed since the revolution and ever since the public artwork has been affected either directly or indirectly by the Iran-Iraq War, the Green Movement, and the rise and fall of various political forces. The present study is an attempt to investigate Tehran’s urban artwork such as urban sculptures and mural paintings organized and supervised by the government and the graffiti drawn by the critics or the opposition groups. To this end, in addition to the available documents, field research and questionnaires were used to qulaitatively analyze the data. This paper tries to address the following questions: 1) what changes have occurred in Tehran’s urban art? 2) Does the public, revolution-related artwork have an effect on people’s vitality? 3) do Iranians find these artworks appealing or not?

Keywords: public space, Tehran, public art, movement, Islamic revolution

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7 Public Art and Public Space in an Emerging Knowledge Economy: The Case of Doha

Authors: Grichting Anna, Al Sada Sara, Caccayam Angelica, Khan Urshi

Abstract:

The Qatar Museums Authority recently announced a series of public art initiatives in Doha with the purpose of 'bringing art out of the walls of the museum' to make it accessible to the public on a daily basis and to encourage discussion and debate. While the installation of sculptures in public spaces is not new in Doha, the practice of integrating art in public spaces and architectural projects is reaching a new dimension as internationally renowned artists – such as Damien Hirst and Richard Serra - are being commissioned to install their works in the public spaces and buildings of the city of Doha as well as in more remote desert locations. This research discusses the changing presence, role and context of public art in Doha, both from a historical and cultural overview, and the different forms and media as well as the typologies of urban and public spaces in which the art is installed. It examines the process of implementing site-specific artworks, looking at questions of scale, history, social meaning and formal aesthetics. The methodologies combine theoretical research on the understanding of public art and its role and placement in public space, as well as empirical research on contemporary public art projects in Doha, based on documentation and interviews and as well as site and context analysis of the urban or architectural spaces within which the art is situated. Surveys and interviews – using social media - in different segments of the contemporary Qatari society, including all nationalities and social groups, are used to measure and qualify the impacts and effects on the population.

Keywords: public space, public art, urban design, knowledge economy

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6 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: evolution, history, origin, textiles

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5 Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Cenomanian Oysters (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Egypt

Authors: Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Heba Mansour, Magdy El-Hedeny

Abstract:

This study provided a taphonomic alteration and paleoecology of Cenomanian oysters from the Musabaa Salama area, south western Sinai, Egypt. Three oyster zones can be recognized in the studied area, a lower one of Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) flabellatum (lower-middle Cenomanian), a middle zone of Ilymatogyra (Afrogyra) africana (upper Cenomanian) and an upper one of Exogyra (Costagyra) olisiponensis (upper Cenomanian). Taphonomic features including disarticulation, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. The analyses showed that the distributions of the identified ichnospecies were greatly similar within the identified oyster zones in the Musabaa Salama section. With rare exceptions, Entobia cretacea, Gastrochaenolites torpedo and Maeandropolydora decipiens are considered as common to abundant ichnospecies within the three recorded oyster zones. In contrast, and with some exceptions, E. ovula, E. retiformis and Rogerella pattei are considered as frequent to common ichnospecies within the identified oyster zones. Other ichnospecies, including Caulostrepsis cretacea, G. orbicularis, Trypanites solitarius, E. geometrica and C. taeniola, are mostly recorded in rare to frequent occurrences. Careful investigation of these host shells and the preserved encrusters and/or bioerosion sculptures provided data concerning: 1) the substrate characteristics, 2) time of encrustation and bioerosion, 3) rate of sedimentation, 4) the planktonic productivity level, and 5) the general bathymetry and the rate of transgression across the substrate.

Keywords: oysters, Cenomanian, taphonomy, palaeoecology, Sinai, Egypt

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4 Evolution of Rock-Cut Caves of Dhamnar at Dhamnar, MP

Authors: Abhishek Ranka

Abstract:

Rock-cut Architecture is a manifestation of human endurance in constructing magnificent structures by sculpting and cutting entire hills. Cave Architecture in India form an important part of rock-cut development and is among the most prolific examples of rock-cut architecture in the world. There are more than 1500 rock-cut caves in various regions of India. Among them mostly are located in western India, more particularly in the state of Maharashtra. Some of the rock-cut caves are located in the central region of India, which is presently known as Malawa (Madhya Pradesh). The region is dominated by the vidhyachal hill ranges toward the west, dotted with the coarse laterite rock. Dhamnar Caves have been excavated in the central region of Mandsaur Dist. With a combination of shared sacred faiths. The earliest rock-cut activity began in the north, in Bihar, where caves were excavated in the Barabar and the Nagarjuni hills during the Mauryan period (3rd century BCE). The rock-cut activity then shifts to the central part of India in Madhya Pradesh, where the caves at Dhamnar, Bagh, Udayagiri, Poldungar, etc. excavated between 3rdto 9ᵗʰ CE. The rock-cut excavation continued to flourish in Madhya Pradesh till 10ᵗʰ century CE, simultaneously with monolithic Hindu temples. Dhamnar caves fall into four architectural typologies: the Lena caves, Chaitya caves, Viharas & Lena-Chaityagriha caves. The Buddhist rock-cutting activity in central India is divisible into two phases. In the first phase (2ndBCE-3rd CE), the Buddha image is conspicuously absent. After a lapse of about three centuries, activity begins again, and the Buddha images this time are carved. The former group belongs to the Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle) phase and the latter to the Mahayana (Greater Vehicle). Dhamnar caves has an elaborate facades, pillar capitals, and many more creative sculptures in various postures. These caves were excavated against the background of invigorating trade activities and varied socio-religious or Socio Cultural contexts. These caves also highlights the wealthy and varied patronage provided by the dynasties of the past. This paper speaks about the appraisal of the rock cut mechanisms, design strategies, and approaches while promoting a scope for further research in conservation practices. Rock-cut sites, with their physical setting and various functional spaces as a sustainable habitat for centuries, has a heritage footprint with a researchquotient.

Keywords: rock-cut architecture, buddhism, hinduism, Iconography, and architectural typologies, Jainism

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3 Nanomaterials for Archaeological Stone Conservation: Re-Assembly of Archaeological Heavy Stones Using Epoxy Resin Modified with Clay Nanoparticles

Authors: Sayed Mansour, Mohammad Aldoasri, Nagib Elmarzugi, Nadia A. Al-Mouallimi

Abstract:

The archaeological large stone used in construction of ancient Pharaonic tombs, temples, obelisks and other sculptures, always subject to physicomechanical deterioration and destructive forces, leading to their partial or total broken. The task of reassembling this type of artifact represent a big challenge for the conservators. Recently, the researchers are turning to new technologies to improve the properties of traditional adhesive materials and techniques used in re-assembly of broken large stone. The epoxy resins are used extensively in stone conservation and re-assembly of broken stone because of their outstanding mechanical properties. The introduction of nanoparticles to polymeric adhesives at low percentages may lead to substantial improvements of their mechanical performances in structural joints and large objects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of clay nanoparticles in enhancing the performances of epoxy adhesives used in re-assembly of archaeological massive stone by adding proper amounts of those nanoparticles. The nanoparticles reinforced epoxy nanocomposite was prepared by direct melt mixing with a nanoparticles content of 3% (w/v), and then mould forming in the form of rectangular samples, and used as adhesive for experimental stone samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate the morphology of the prepared nanocomposites, and the distribution of nanoparticles inside the composites. The stability and efficiency of the prepared epoxy-nanocomposites and stone block assemblies with new formulated adhesives were tested by aging artificially the samples under different environmental conditions. The effect of incorporating clay nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives was evaluated comparatively before and after aging by measuring the tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength tests. The morphological studies revealed that the mixture process between epoxy and nanoparticles has succeeded with a relatively homogeneous morphology and good dispersion in low nano-particles loadings in epoxy matrix was obtained. The results show that the epoxy-clay nanocomposites exhibited superior tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength. Moreover, a marked improvement of the mechanical properties of stone joints increased in all states by adding nano-clay to epoxy in comparison with pure epoxy resin.

Keywords: epoxy resins, nanocomposites, clay nanoparticles, re-assembly, archaeological massive stones, mechanical properties

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2 Fields of Power, Visual Culture, and the Artistic Practice of Two 'Unseen' Women of Central Brazil

Authors: Carolina Brandão Piva

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In our visual culture, images play a newly significant role in the basis of a complex dialogue between imagination, creativity, and social practice. Insofar as imagination has broken out of the 'special expressive space of art' to become a part of the quotidian mental work of ordinary people, it is pertinent to recognize that visual representation can no longer be assumed as if in a domain detached from everyday life or exclusively 'centered' within the limited frame of 'art history.' The approach of Visual Culture as a field of study is, in this sense, indispensable to comprehend that not only 'the image,' but also 'the imagined' and 'the imaginary' are produced in the plurality of social interactions; crucial enough, this assertion directs us to something new in contemporary cultural processes, namely both imagination and image production constitute a social practice. This paper starts off with this approach and seeks to examine the artistic practice of two women from the State of Goiás, Brazil, who are ordinary citizens with their daily activities and narratives but also dedicated to visuality production. With no formal training from art schools, branded or otherwise, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires deploys 'waste disposal' of daily life—from car tires to old work clothes—as a trampoline for art; also adept at sourcing raw materials collected from her surroundings, she manipulates raw hewn wood, tree trunks, plant life, and various other pieces she collects from nature giving them new meaning and possibility. Hilda Freire works with sculptures in clay using different scales and styles; her art focuses on representations of women and pays homage to unprivileged groups such as the practitioners of African-Brazilian religions, blue-collar workers, poor live-in housekeepers, and so forth. Although they have never been acknowledged by any mainstream art institution in Brazil, whose 'criterion of value' still favors formally trained artists, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires, and Hilda Freire have produced visualities that instigate 'new ways of seeing,' meriting cultural significance in many ways. Their artworks neither descend from a 'traditional' medium nor depend on 'canonical viewing settings' of visual representation; rather, they consist in producing relationships with the world which do not result in 'seeing more,' but 'at least differently.' From this perspective, the paper finally demonstrates that grouping this kind of artistic production under the label of 'mere craft' has much more to do with who is privileged within the fields of power in art system, who we see and who we do not see, and whose imagination of what is fed by which visual images in Brazilian contemporary society.

Keywords: visual culture, artistic practice, women's art in the Brazilian State of Goiás, Maria Aparecida de Souza Pires, Hilda Freire

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1 Semantic Differential Technique as a Kansei Engineering Tool to Enquire Public Space Design Requirements: The Case of Parks in Tehran

Authors: Nasser Koleini Mamaghani, Sara Mostowfi

Abstract:

The complexity of public space design makes it difficult for designers to simultaneously consider all issues for thorough decision-making. Among public spaces, the public space around people’s house is the most prominent space that affects and impacts people’s daily life. Considering recreational public spaces in cities, their main purpose would be to design for experiences that enable a deep feeling of peace and a moment of being away from the hectic daily life. Respecting human emotions and restoring natural environments, although difficult and to some extent out of reach, are key issues for designing such spaces. In this paper we propose to analyse the structure of recreational public spaces and the related emotional impressions. Furthermore, we suggest investigating how these structures influence people’s choice for public spaces by using differential semantics. According to Kansei methodology, in order to evaluate a situation appropriately, the assessment variables must be adapted to the user’s mental scheme. This means that the first step would have to be the identification of a space’s conceptual scheme. In our case study, 32 Kansei words and 4 different locations, each with a different sensual experience, were selected. The 4 locations were all parks in the city of Tehran (Iran), each with a unique structure and artifacts such as a fountain, lighting, sculptures, and music. It should be noted that each of these parks has different combination and structure of environmental and artificial elements like: fountain, lightning, sculpture, music (sound) and so forth. The first one was park No.1, a park with natural environment, the selected space was a fountain with motion light and sculpture. The second park was park No.2, in which there are different styles of park construction: ways from different countries, the selected space was traditional Iranian architecture with a fountain and trees. The third one was park No.3, the park with modern environment and spaces, and included a fountain that moved according to music and lighting. The fourth park was park No.4, the park with combination of four elements: water, fire, earth, wind, the selected space was fountains squirting water from the ground up. 80 participant (55 males and 25 females) aged from 20-60 years participated in this experiment. Each person filled the questionnaire in the park he/she was in. Five-point semantic differential scale was considered to determine the relation between space details and adjectives (kansei words). Received data were analyzed by multivariate statistical technique (factor analysis using SPSS statics). Finally the results of this analysis are criteria as inspiration which can be used in future space designing for creating pleasant feeling in users.

Keywords: environmental design, differential semantics, Kansei engineering, subjective preferences, space

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