Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: chips

120 Study the Influence of the Type of Cast Iron Chips on the Quality of Briquettes Obtained with Controlled Impact

Authors: Dimitar N. Karastoianov, Stanislav D. Gyoshev, Todor N. Penchev


Preparation of briquettes of metal chips with good density and quality is of great importance for the efficiency of this process. In this paper are presented the results of impact briquetting of grey cast iron chips with rectangular shape and dimensions 15x25x1 mm. Density and quality of briquettes of these chips are compared with those obtained in another work of the authors using cast iron chips with smaller sizes. It has been found that by using a rectangular chips with a large size are produced briquettes with a very low density and poor quality. From the photographs taken by X-ray tomography, it is clear that the reason for this is the orientation of the chip in the peripheral wall of the briquettes, which does not allow of the air to escape from it. It was concluded that in order to obtain briquettes of cast iron chips with a large size, these chips must first be ground, for example in a small ball mill.

Keywords: briquetting, chips, impact, rocket engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
119 Increasing Value Added and Competitive Advantage by Technology Adoption

Authors: Fidiana Suwitho


Research and community service is one of important lecturer assignment in Indonesia. This article was made to meet those needs by assisting home industry entrepreneurs of various chips in Banyuwangi. Community service in this scheme are intended to increase the revenue of craftsmen of chips by improving value added of chips through food engineering technology. Ibu Anisa has produced various kinds of chips that are breadfruit chips, banana chips, yam chips, and cassava chips. In business development, Ibu Anisa facing various problems both in terms of production and management aspects. The process of production and management and marketing are still conventional so that increased demand cannot be offset by production capacity. A researcher team of STIESIA has assist partners in the processing stage, from manually to the technologically. This activity has a positive impact to However, this process has not been reached on sustainable marketing aspect, which is where the partners are still difficult to reach a wider market because of limited access.

Keywords: food engineering technology, value added of chips, community service

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
118 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study

Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov


For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.

Keywords: briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting, controlled impact

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117 Petai Chips as an Antioxidant Chips from Indonesia

Authors: R. S. Fisca, Y. R. Elox, L. Umi, U. Z. Luttfia, Kun Harismah


Petai (Parkia speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. Petai contains a lot of chemical compounds that are beneficial for health, including antioxidants, Vitamin B6 0,9mg, energy 142 g. cal, 10.4 g protein. 2 g fat, 22 g carbohydrates, 95 mg calcium, phosphorus 115 mg, 1 mg iron, 200 IU of vitamin A, vitamin B1 0.17 mg, 36 mg of vitamin C that can resolve various health problems. These chips are the result of innovation from petai packaged in such a way becomes a tasty snack chips and can be enjoyed by many people to relax and also nutritious for health. In the manufacture of petai chips require several steps of them start by boiling, flating, drying and the last frying. In introducing the products widely we sell petai chips with several methods. Some of these methods include direct sales, delivery order, online/social media, and open some booth at a few places and the car free day in Solo every sunday. Opportunity in selling petai chips is very wide because there is no competitors with similar business. With the innovation of petai chips become healthy snacks can be introduced to the public and can even be exported out of the country as one of the extraordinary snacks from Indonesia.

Keywords: antioxidants, chips, healty, petai

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116 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh


The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.

Keywords: improvement, shear strength, internal friction angle, sandy soil, rubber chip

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115 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani


Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, silt, soil improvement, triaxial test, waste bottle chips

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
114 Influence of Cooking on the Functional Properties of Dioscorea Schimperiana During Chips Production

Authors: Djeukeu Asongni William, Leng Marlyse, Gouado Inocent


Background: Process for obtaining D. schimperiana chips involves a long period of cooking followed by drying of obtained products in the sun. Such a process could induce the modification of the functional properties of the chips, thus reducing the technological uses of these products. This study was conducted with a view to assessing the impact of this process on the chips of D. schimperiana. Methods: The chips used were purchased in Baham, Bamendjou and Bagangté markets during the month of February 2013. A representative sample of each market chips was formed by mixing the chips of several sellers. The control sample consisted of fresh yams that have been sliced to the average size of local chips then dried in the oven at 45 ° C for 36 h. On each sample was performed the analysis of the physico-chemical properties (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, iron , phosphorus, reducing sugars, ash and total starch) and gelling properties both with and without inhibitor alpha-amylases (0.018 and 0.146 mol / l). Results: Results show that the levels of ash 2.99 g / 100gms, iron 1.01 g / 100gms and phosphorus 532.06 mg / 100gms fresh sample were significantly higher than those of the products obtained in the traditional process. The functional properties of the chips obtained from different methods shows that the peak viscosity of the fresh sample is larger than the other samples with or without inhibitor. In addition, the fresh sample has the lowest breakdown under the same conditions. Conclusion: These results show that traditional process reduces technological potential of chips, thus limiting the value of D. schimperiana.

Keywords: Dioscorea schimperiana, chips, functional properties, technological properties, valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
113 Decreasing of Oil Absorption in Vacuum Fried Mango Chips by Using Hydrocolloids

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit


Objective of this study was to investigate hydrocolloids (pectin, carboxyl methylcellulose, and alginate) for their influences on the oil absorption in vacuum fried mango chips. Usage of hydrocolloids significantly (p≤0.05) affected fried mango oil uptake. Control samples (without hydrocolloids) had high fat content at 24.57g/100g whereas other samples, treated with 0.5g pectin/100ml water exhibited the highest decrease of oil absorption. Fat content of chips, treated with 0.5 g pectin /100ml was 14.01g/100g. With this concentration of pectin at 0.5 g /100ml, fat content could be reduced by 43%. Moreover, chips treated with 0.5 g pectin/100ml water had the highest sensory scores (color, appearance, crispiness and overall acceptability). These results showed that pectin was the most effective hydrocolloid for low fat vacuum fried mango chips production.

Keywords: alginate, carboxyl methylcellulose, hydrocolloids, oil absorption, pectin, vacuum fried mango chips

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
112 Investigation of Chip Formation Characteristics during Surface Finishing of HDPE Samples

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed


Chip formation characteristics are investigated during surface finishing of high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples using a shaper machine. Both the cutting speed and depth of cut are varied continually to enable observations under various machining conditions. The generated chips are analyzed in terms of their shape, size, and deformation. Their physical appearances are also observed using digital camera and optical microscope. The investigation shows that continuous chips are obtained for all the cutting conditions. It is observed that cutting speed is more influential than depth of cut to cause dimensional changes of chips. Chips curl radius is also found to increase gradually with the increase of cutting speed. The length of continuous chips remains always smaller than the job length, and the corresponding discrepancies are found to be more prominent at lower cutting speed. Microstructures of the chips reveal that cracks are formed at higher cutting speeds and depth of cuts, which is not that significant at low depth of cut.

Keywords: HDPE, surface-finishing, chip formation, deformation, roughness

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111 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku


Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: bamboo chips, permeability, mechanical properties, triaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
110 Characterization of Structural Elements Concrete Metal Fibre

Authors: Benaouda Hemza


This work on the characterization of structural elements in metal fiber concrete is devoted to the study of recyclability, as reinforcement for concrete, of chips resulting from the machining of steel parts. We are interested in this study to the rheological behavior of fresh chips reinforced concrete and its mechanical behavior at a young age. The evaluation of the workability with the LCL workabilimeter shows that optimal sand gravel ratios (S/G) are S/G=0.8, and S/G=1. The study of the content chips (W%) influence on the workability of the concrete shows that the flow time and the S/G optimum increase with W%. For S/G=1.4, the flow time is practically insensitive to the variation of W%, the concrete behavior is similar to that of self-compacting concrete. Mechanical characterization tests (direct tension, compression, bending, and splitting) show that the mechanical properties of chips concrete are comparable to those of the two selected reference concretes (concrete reinforced with conventional fibers: EUROSTEEL fibers corrugated and DRAMIX fibers). Chips provide a significant increase in strength and some ductility in the post-failure behavior of the concrete. Recycling chips as reinforcement for concrete can be favorably considered.

Keywords: fiber concrete, chips, workability, direct tensile test, compression test, bending test, splitting test

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
109 Characterization of Structural Elements in Metal Fiber Concrete

Authors: Ammari Abdelhammid


This work on the characterization of structural elements in metal fiber concrete is devoted to the study of recyclability, as reinforcement for concrete, of chips resulting from the machining of steel parts. We're interested in this study to the Rheological behavior of fresh chips reinforced concrete and its mechanical behavior at a young age. The evaluation of the workability with the LCL workabilimeter shows that optimal sand gravel ratios ( S/G) are S/G = 0.8 and S/G = 1. The study of the content chips (W%) influence on the workability of the concrete shows that the flow time and the S/G optimum increase with W%. For S/G = 1.4, the flow time is practically insensitive to the variation of W%, the concrete behavior is similar to that of self-compacting concrete. Mechanical characterization tests (direct tension, compression, bending, and splitting) show that the mechanical properties of chips concrete are comparable to those of the two selected reference concretes (concrete reinforced with conventional fibers: Eurosteel fibers corrugated and Dramix fibers). Chips provide a significant increase in strength and some ductility in the post-failure behavior of the concrete. Recycling chips as reinforcement for concrete can be favorably considered.

Keywords: fiber concrete, chips, workability, direct tensile test, compression test, bending test, splitting test

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
108 Experimental Set-up for the Thermo-Hydric Study of a Wood Chips Bed Crossed by an Air Flow

Authors: Dimitri Bigot, Bruno Malet-Damour, Jérôme Vigneron


Many studies have been made about using bio-based materials in buildings. The goal is to reduce its environmental footprint by analyzing its life cycle. This can lead to minimize the carbon emissions or energy consumption. A previous work proposed to numerically study the feasibility of using wood chips to regulate relative humidity inside a building. This has shown the capability of a wood chips bed to regulate humidity inside the building, to improve thermal comfort, and so potentially reduce building energy consumption. However, it also shown that some physical parameters of the wood chips must be identified to validate the proposed model and the associated results. This paper presents an experimental setup able to study such a wood chips bed with different solicitations. It consists of a simple duct filled with wood chips and crossed by an air flow with variable temperature and relative humidity. Its main objective is to study the thermal behavior of the wood chips bed by controlling temperature and relative humidity of the air that enters into it and by observing the same parameters at the output. First, the experimental set up is described according to previous results. A focus is made on the particular properties that have to be characterized. Then some case studies are presented in relation to the previous results in order to identify the key physical properties. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed technology is discussed, and some model validation paths are given.

Keywords: wood chips bed, experimental set-up, bio-based material, desiccant, relative humidity, water content, thermal behaviour, air treatment

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107 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

Authors: Djamal Atlaoui, Youcef Bouafia


This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions 10 x 20 x 120 cm3. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%) of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a sand-to-gravel ratio (S/G) of concrete matrix equal to 1. The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

Keywords: characterization, chips fibers, cracking mode, ductility, undulation, shear

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106 The Dose to Organs in Lumbar-Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Using TLD

Authors: M. Zehtabian, Z. Molaiemanesh, Z. Shafahi, M. Papie, M. Zahraie Moghaddam, M. Mehralizadeh, M. R. Vahidi, S. Sina


The introduction of CT scans has been a great improvement in diagnosis of different diseases. However, this imaging modality can expose the patients to cumulative radiation doses which may increase the risks of some health problems like cancer. In this study, the dose delivered to different organs in lumbar-abdominal imaging was measured by putting the TLD-100, and TLD-100H chips inside the Alderson Rando phantom. The lumbar-abdominal image of the phantom was obtained, while TLD chips were inside the holes of the phantom. According to the results obtained in this study using TLD-100 chips, the average dose received by liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.9 mSv, 8.9 mSv, 10.1 mSv, 11.0 mSv, 11.2 mSv, and 10.5 mSv respectively, while the measurements performed by TLD-100H show that the average dose to liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.4 mSv, 9.2 mSv, 9.5 mSv, 10.5 mSv, 10.7 mSv, and 9.9 mSv respectively. The results of this study indicates that the dose measured by the TLD-100H chips are in close agreement with those obtained by TLD-100.

Keywords: CT scan, dose, TLD-100, diagnosis

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105 Study of Heat Conduction in Multicore Chips

Authors: K. N. Seetharamu, Naveen Teggi, Kiranakumar Dhavalagi, Narayana Kamath


A method of temperature calculations is developed to study the conditions leading to hot spot occurrence on multicore chips. A physical model which has salient features of multicore chips is incorporated for the analysis. The model consists of active and background cell laid out in a checkered pattern, and this pattern repeats itself in each fine grain active cells. The die has three layers i) body ii) buried oxide layer iii) wiring layer, stacked one above the other with heat source placed at the interface between wiring and buried oxide layer. With this model we propose analytical method to calculate the target hotspot temperature, heat flow to top and bottom layers of the die and thermal resistance components at each granularity level, assuming appropriate values of die dimensions and parameters. Finally we attempt to find an easier method for the calculation of the target hotspot temperature using graph.

Keywords: checkered pattern, granularity level, heat conduction, multicore chips, target hotspot temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
104 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir


Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
103 Dynamic Simulation of Disintegration of Wood Chips Caused by Impact and Collisions during the Steam Explosion Pre-Treatment

Authors: Muhammad Muzamal, Anders Rasmuson


Wood material is extensively considered as a raw material for the production of bio-polymers, bio-fuels and value-added chemicals. However, the shortcoming in using wood as raw material is that the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood material is difficult because the accessibility of enzymes to hemicelluloses and cellulose is hindered by complex chemical and physical structure of the wood. The steam explosion (SE) pre-treatment improves the digestion of wood material by creating both chemical and physical modifications in wood. In this process, first, wood chips are treated with steam at high pressure and temperature for a certain time in a steam treatment vessel. During this time, the chemical linkages between lignin and polysaccharides are cleaved and stiffness of material decreases. Then the steam discharge valve is rapidly opened and the steam and wood chips exit the vessel at very high speed. These fast moving wood chips collide with each other and with walls of the equipment and disintegrate to small pieces. More damaged and disintegrated wood have larger surface area and increased accessibility to hemicelluloses and cellulose. The energy required for an increase in specific surface area by same value is 70 % more in conventional mechanical technique, i.e. attrition mill as compared to steam explosion process. The mechanism of wood disintegration during the SE pre-treatment is very little studied. In this study, we have simulated collision and impact of wood chips (dimension 20 mm x 20 mm x 4 mm) with each other and with walls of the vessel. The wood chips are simulated as a 3D orthotropic material. Damage and fracture in the wood material have been modelled using 3D Hashin’s damage model. This has been accomplished by developing a user-defined subroutine and implementing it in the FE software ABAQUS. The elastic and strength properties used for simulation are of spruce wood at 12% and 30 % moisture content and at 20 and 160 OC because the impacted wood chips are pre-treated with steam at high temperature and pressure. We have simulated several cases to study the effects of elastic and strength properties of wood, velocity of moving chip and orientation of wood chip at the time of impact on the damage in the wood chips. The disintegration patterns captured by simulations are very similar to those observed in experimentally obtained steam exploded wood. Simulation results show that the wood chips moving with higher velocity disintegrate more. Moisture contents and temperature decreases elastic properties and increases damage. Impact and collision in specific directions cause easy disintegration. This model can be used to efficiently design the steam explosion equipment.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, disintegration of wood, impact, steam explosion pretreatment

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102 Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça


The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, iron-aluminum alloys, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy, recycling ferrous alloy, SAE 1020 steel recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
101 A Local Invariant Generalized Hough Transform Method for Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning

Authors: Wei Feilong


In this study, an local invariant generalized Houghtransform (LI-GHT) method is proposed for integrated circuit (IC) visual positioning. The original generalized Hough transform (GHT) is robust to external noise; however, it is not suitable for visual positioning of IC chips due to the four-dimensionality (4D) of parameter space which leads to the substantial storage requirement and high computational complexity. The proposed LI-GHT method can reduce the dimensionality of parameter space to 2D thanks to the rotational invariance of local invariant geometric feature and it can estimate the accuracy position and rotation angle of IC chips in real-time under noise and blur influence. The experiment results show that the proposed LI-GHT can estimate position and rotation angle of IC chips with high accuracy and fast speed. The proposed LI-GHT algorithm was implemented in IC visual positioning system of radio frequency identification (RFID) packaging equipment.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning, Generalized Hough Transform, Local invariant Generalized Hough Transform, ICpacking equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
100 High Aspect Ratio Micropillar Array Based Microfluidic Viscometer

Authors: Ahmet Erten, Adil Mustafa, Ayşenur Eser, Özlem Yalçın


We present a new viscometer based on a microfluidic chip with elastic high aspect ratio micropillar arrays. The displacement of pillar tips in flow direction can be used to analyze viscosity of liquid. In our work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze pillar displacement of various micropillar array configurations in flow direction at different viscosities. Following CFD optimization, micro-CNC based rapid prototyping is used to fabricate molds for microfluidic chips. Microfluidic chips are fabricated out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography methods with molds machined out of aluminum. Tip displacements of micropillar array (300 µm in diameter and 1400 µm in height) in flow direction are recorded using a microscope mounted camera, and the displacements are analyzed using image processing with an algorithm written in MATLAB. Experiments are performed with water-glycerol solutions mixed at 4 different ratios to attain 1 cP, 5 cP, 10 cP and 15 cP viscosities at room temperature. The prepared solutions are injected into the microfluidic chips using a syringe pump at flow rates from 10-100 mL / hr and the displacement versus flow rate is plotted for different viscosities. A displacement of around 1.5 µm was observed for 15 cP solution at 60 mL / hr while only a 1 µm displacement was observed for 10 cP solution. The presented viscometer design optimization is still in progress for better sensitivity and accuracy. Our microfluidic viscometer platform has potential for tailor made microfluidic chips to enable real time observation and control of viscosity changes in biological or chemical reactions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), high aspect ratio, micropillar array, viscometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
99 Physical, Microstructural and Functional Quality Improvements of Cassava-Sorghum Composite Snacks

Authors: Adil Basuki Ahza, Michael Liong, Subarna Suryatman


Healthy chips now dominating the snack market shelves. More than 80% processed snack foods in the market are chips. This research takes the advantages of twin extrusion technology to produce two types of product, i.e. directly expanded and intermediate ready-to-fry or microwavable chips. To improve the functional quality, the cereal-tuber based mix was enriched with antioxidant rich mix of temurui, celery, carrot and isolated soy protein (ISP) powder. Objectives of this research were to find best composite cassava-sorghum ratio, i.e. 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20, to optimize processing conditions of extrusion and study the microstructural, physical and sensorial characteristics of the final products. Optimization was firstly done by applying metering section of extruder barrel temperatures of 120, 130 and 140 °C with screw speeds of 150, 160 and 170 rpm to produce direct expanded product. The intermediate product was extruded in 100 °C and 100 rpm screw speed with feed moisture content of 35, 40 and 45%. The directly expanded products were analyzed for color, hardness, density, microstructure, and organoleptic properties. The results showed that interaction of ratio of cassava-sorghum and cooking methods affected the product's color, hardness, and bulk density (p<0.05). Extrusion processing conditions also significantly affected product's microstructure (p<0.05). The direct expanded snacks of 80:20 cassava-sorghum ratio and fried expanded one 70:30 and 80:20 ratio shown the best organoleptic score (slightly liked) while baking the intermediate product with microwave were resulted sensorial not acceptable quality chips.

Keywords: cassava-sorghum composite, extrusion, microstructure, physical characteristics

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98 Optimizing the Performance of Thermoelectric for Cooling Computer Chips Using Different Types of Electrical Pulses

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Thermoelectric technology is currently being used in many industrial applications for cooling, heating and generating electricity. This research mainly focuses on using thermoelectric to cool down high-speed computer chips at different operating conditions. A previously developed and validated three-dimensional model for optimizing and assessing the performance of cascaded thermoelectric and non-cascaded thermoelectric is used in this study to investigate the possibility of decreasing the hotspot temperature of computer chip. Additionally, a test assembly is built and tested at steady-state and transient conditions. The obtained optimum thermoelectric current at steady-state condition is used to conduct a number of pulsed tests (i.e. transient tests) with different shapes to cool the computer chips hotspots. The results of the steady-state tests showed that at hotspot heat rate of 15.58 W (5.97 W/cm2), using thermoelectric current of 4.5 A has resulted in decreasing the hotspot temperature at open circuit condition (89.3 °C) by 50.1 °C. Maximum and minimum hotspot temperatures have been affected by ON and OFF duration of the electrical current pulse. Maximum hotspot temperature was resulted by longer OFF pulse period. In addition, longer ON pulse period has generated the minimum hotspot temperature.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, TEG, thermoelectric cooler, TEC, chip hotspots, electronic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
97 Investigation of Wood Chips as Internal Carbon Source Supporting Denitrification Process in Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lorivi, Jianzheng Li, John J. Ambuchi, Kaiwen Deng


Nitrogen removal from wastewater is accomplished by nitrification and denitrification processes. Successful denitrification requires carbon, therefore, if placed after biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrification process, a carbon source has to be re-introduced into the water. To avoid adding a carbon source, denitrification is usually placed before BOD and nitrification processes. This process however involves recycling the nitrified effluent. In this study wood chips were used as internal carbon source which enabled placement of denitrification after BOD and nitrification process without effluent recycling. To investigate the efficiency of a wood packed aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor on carbon and nutrients removal from domestic wastewater, a three compartment baffled reactor was presented. Each of the three compartments was packed with 329 g wood chips 1x1cm acting as an internal carbon source for denitrification. The proposed mode of operation was aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic (OAA) with no effluent recycling. The operating temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 24 ± 2 , 24 h, less than 4 mg/L and 7 ± 1 respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) attained was 99, 87 and 83% respectively. TN removal rate was limited by nitrification as 97% of ammonia converted into nitrate and nitrite was denitrified. These results show that application of wood chips in wastewater treatment processes is an efficient internal carbon source. 

Keywords: aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor, denitrification, nitrification, wood chip

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96 Experimental Device for Fluorescence Measurement by Optical Fiber Combined with Dielectrophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Chips

Authors: Jan Jezek, Zdenek Pilat, Filip Smatlo, Pavel Zemanek


We present a device that combines fluorescence spectroscopy with fiber optics and dielectrophoretic micromanipulation in PDMS (poly-(dimethylsiloxane)) microfluidic chips. The device allows high speed detection (in the order of kHz) of the fluorescence signal, which is coming from the sample by an inserted optical fiber, e.g. from a micro-droplet flow in a microfluidic chip, or even from the liquid flowing in the transparent capillary, etc. The device uses a laser diode at a wavelength suitable for excitation of fluorescence, excitation and emission filters, optics for focusing the laser radiation into the optical fiber, and a highly sensitive fast photodiode for detection of fluorescence. The device is combined with dielectrophoretic sorting on a chip for sorting of micro-droplets according to their fluorescence intensity. The electrodes are created by lift-off technology on a glass substrate, or by using channels filled with a soft metal alloy or an electrolyte. This device found its use in screening of enzymatic reactions and sorting of individual fluorescently labelled microorganisms. The authors acknowledge the support from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA16-07965S) and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LO1212) together with the European Commission (ALISI No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0017).

Keywords: dielectrophoretic sorting, fiber optics, laser, microfluidic chips, microdroplets, spectroscopy

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95 Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Armands Gravelsins, Haralds Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga


The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood, and therefore, the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets and so on. The main aim for this research study was to build a framework to analyse development perspectives for wood pellet production. To reach the goal, a system dynamics model of energy wood supplies, processing, and consumption is built. Production capacity, energy consumption, changes in energy and technology efficiency, required labour source, prices of wood, energy and labour are taken into account. Validation and verification tests with available data and information have been carried out and indicate that the model constitutes the dynamic hypothesis. It is found that the more is invested into pellets production, the higher the specific profit per production unit compared to wood logs and wood chips. As a result, wood chips production is decreasing dramatically and is replaced by wood pellets. The limiting factor for pellet industry growth is availability of wood sources. This is governed by felling limit set by the government based on sustainable forestry principles.

Keywords: bioenergy, biotechonomy, system dynamics modelling, wood pellets

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94 Improving Utilization of Sugarcane by Replacing Ordinary Propagation Material with Small Chips of Sugarcane Planted in Paper Pots

Authors: C. Garcia, C. Andreasen


Sugarcane is an important resource for bioenergy. Fields are usually established by using 15-20 cm pieces of sugarcane stalks as propagation material. An alternative method is to use small chips with nodes from sugarcane stalks. Plants from nodes are often established in plastic pots, but plastic pots could be replaced with biodegradable paper pots. This would be a more sustainable solution, reducing labor costs and avoiding pollution with plastic. We compared the establishment of plants from nodes taken from three different part of the sugarcane plant. The nodes were planted in plastic and paper pots. There was no significant difference between plants established in the two pot types. Nodes from different part of the stalk had different sprouting capacity. Nodes from the top parts sprouted significantly better than nodes taken from the middle or nodes taken closed to the ground in two experiments. Nodes with a length of 3 cm performed better than nodes with a length of 2 cm.

Keywords: nodes, paper pots, propagation material, sugarcane

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93 Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Carménère Wines during Aging with Oak Wood (Staves, Chips and Barrels)

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, J. Laqui-Estaña, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí


Wine is an important source of polyphenols. Red wines show important concentrations of nonflavonoid (gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid) and flavonoid compounds [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin]. However, a significant variability in the quantitative and qualitative distribution of chemical constituents in wine has to be expected depending on an array of important factors, such as the varietal differences of Vitis vinifera and cultural practices. It has observed that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to other varieties and specifically with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Likewise, among the cultural practices, the aging in contact with oak wood is a high relevance factor. Then, the extraction of different polyphenolic compounds from oak wood into wine during its ageing process produces both qualitative and quantitative changes. Recently, many new techniques have been introduced in winemaking. One of these involves putting new pieces of wood (oak chips or inner staves) into inert containers. It offers some distinct and previously unavailable flavour advantages, as well as new options in wine handling. To our best knowledge, there is not information about the behaviour of Carménère wines (Chilean emblematic cultivar) in contact with oak wood. In addition, the effect of aging time and wood product (barrels, chips or staves) on the phenolic composition in Carménère wines has not been studied. This study aims at characterizing the condensed and hydrolyzable tannins from Carménère wines during the aging with staves, chips and barrels from French oak wood. The experimental design was completely randomized with two independent assays: aging time (0-12 month) and different formats of wood (barrel, chips and staves). The wines were characterized by spectrophotometric (total tannins and fractionation of proanthocyanidins into monomers, oligomers and polymers) and HPLC-DAD (ellagitannins) analysis. The wines in contact with different products of oak wood showed a similar content of total tannins during the study, while the control wine (without oak wood) presented a lower content of these compounds. In addition, it was observed that the polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction was the most abundant, while the monomeric fraction was the less abundant fraction in all treatments in two sample. However, significative differences in each fractions were observed between wines in contact from barrel, chips, and staves in two sample dates. Finally, the wine from barrels presented the highest content of the ellagitannins from the fourth to the last sample date. In conclusion, the use of alternative formats of oak wood affects the chemical composition of wines during aging, and these enological products are an interesting alternative to contribute with tannins to wine.

Keywords: enological inputs, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

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92 Commissioning, Test and Characterization of Low-Tar Biomass Gasifier for Rural Applications and Small-Scale Plant

Authors: M. Mashiur Rahman, Ulrik Birk Henriksen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Maria Puig Arnavat


Using biomass gasification to make producer gas is one of the promising sustainable energy options available for small scale plant and rural applications for power and electricity. Tar content in producer gas is the main problem if it is used directly as a fuel. A low-tar biomass (LTB) gasifier of approximately 30 kW capacity has been developed to solve this. Moving bed gasifier with internal recirculation of pyrolysis gas has been the basic principle of the LTB gasifier. The gasifier focuses on the concept of mixing the pyrolysis gases with gasifying air and burning the mixture in separate combustion chamber. Five tests were carried out with the use of wood pellets and wood chips separately, with moisture content of 9-34%. The LTB gasifier offers excellent opportunities for handling extremely low-tar in the producer gas. The gasifiers producer gas had an extremely low tar content of 21.2 mg/Nm³ (avg.) and an average lower heating value (LHV) of 4.69 MJ/Nm³. Tar content found in different tests in the ranges of 10.6-29.8 mg/Nm³. This low tar content makes the producer gas suitable for direct use in internal combustion engine. Using mass and energy balances, the average gasifier capacity and cold gas efficiency (CGE) observed 23.1 kW and 82.7% for wood chips, and 33.1 kW and 60.5% for wood pellets, respectively. Average heat loss in term of higher heating value (HHV) observed 3.2% of thermal input for wood chips and 1% for wood pellets, where heat loss was found 1% of thermal input in term of enthalpy. Thus, the LTB gasifier performs better compared to typical gasifiers in term of heat loss. Equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.29 to 0.41 gives better performance in terms of heating value and CGE. The specific gas production yields at the above ER range were in the range of 2.1-3.2 Nm³/kg. Heating value and CGE changes proportionally with the producer gas yield. The average gas compositions (H₂-19%, CO-19%, CO₂-10%, CH₄-0.7% and N₂-51%) obtained for wood chips are higher than the typical producer gas composition. Again, the temperature profile of the LTB gasifier observed relatively low temperature compared to typical moving bed gasifier. The average partial oxidation zone temperature of 970°C observed for wood chips. The use of separate combustor in the partial oxidation zone substantially lowers the bed temperature to 750°C. During the test, the engine was started and operated completely with the producer gas. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. Part of the producer gas flow was used for engine operation, and corresponding electrical power was found to be 1.5 kW continuously, and maximum power of 2.5 kW was also observed, while maximum generator capacity is 3 kW. A thermodynamic equilibrium model is good agreement with the experimental results and correctly predicts the equilibrium bed temperature, gas composition, LHV of the producer gas and ER with the experimental data, when the heat loss of 4% of the energy input is considered.

Keywords: biomass gasification, low-tar biomass gasifier, tar elimination, engine, deposits, condensate

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91 In-vitro Metabolic Fingerprinting Using Plasmonic Chips by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Vadanasundari Vedarethinam, Kun Qian


The metabolic analysis is more distal over proteomics and genomics engaging in clinics and needs rationally distinct techniques, designed materials, and device for clinical diagnosis. Conventional techniques such as spectroscopic techniques, biochemical analyzers, and electrochemical have been used for metabolic diagnosis. Currently, there are four major challenges including (I) long-term process in sample pretreatment; (II) difficulties in direct metabolic analysis of biosamples due to complexity (III) low molecular weight metabolite detection with accuracy and (IV) construction of diagnostic tools by materials and device-based platforms for real case application in biomedical applications. Development of chips with nanomaterial is promising to address these critical issues. Mass spectroscopy (MS) has displayed high sensitivity and accuracy, throughput, reproducibility, and resolution for molecular analysis. Particularly laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) combined with devices affords desirable speed for mass measurement in seconds and high sensitivity with low cost towards large scale uses. We developed a plasmonic chip for clinical metabolic fingerprinting as a hot carrier in LDI MS by series of chips with gold nanoshells on the surface through controlled particle synthesis, dip-coating, and gold sputtering for mass production. We integrated the optimized chip with microarrays for laboratory automation and nanoscaled experiments, which afforded direct high-performance metabolic fingerprinting by LDI MS using 500 nL of serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) and exosomes. Further, we demonstrated on-chip direct in-vitro metabolic diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer patients using serum and exosomes without any pretreatment or purifications. To our best knowledge, this work initiates a bionanotechnology based platform for advanced metabolic analysis toward large-scale diagnostic use.

Keywords: plasmonic chip, metabolic fingerprinting, LDI MS, in-vitro diagnostics

Procedia PDF Downloads 96