Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5139

Search results for: B. Major

5139 Differential Effect of Technique Majors on Isokinetic Strength in Youth Judoka Athletes

Authors: Yi-Cheng Chen, Chungyu Chen, Po-Hsian Hsu, Hsin-Ying Chen, Yen-Po Hsiao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the muscular strength performance of upper and lower extremity in isokinetic system for the youth judo players, and also to compare the strength difference between major techniques. Sixteen male and 20 female judo players (age: 16.7 ± 1.6 years old, training age: 4.5 ± 0.8 years) were served as the volunteers for this study. There were 21 players major hand techniques and 15 players major foot techniques. The Biodex S4 Pro was used to assess the strength performance of extensor and flexor of concentric action under the load condition of 30 degree/sec, 60 degree/sec, and 120 degree/sec for elbow joints and knee joints. The strength parameters were included the maximal torque, the normalized maximal torque, the average power, and the average maximal torque. A t test for independent groups was used to evaluate whether hand major and foot major differ significantly with an alpha level of .05. The result showed the maximal torque of left knee extensor in foot major players (243.5 ± 36.3 Nm) was higher significantly than hand major (210.7 ± 21.0 Nm) under the load of 30 degree/sec (p < .05). There were no differences in upper extremity strength between the hand and foot techniques major in three loads (ps < .05). It indicated that the judo player is required to develop the upper extremity strength overall to secure the execution of major techniques.

Keywords: Power, Judo, elbow, knee

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5138 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom

Abstract:

Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: Emergency Preparedness, disaster planning, major incident planning, mass casualty event

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5137 Influence of Major Axis on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Elliptical Section

Authors: K. B. Rajasekarababu, J. Karthik, G. Vinayagamurthy

Abstract:

This paper is intended to explain the influence of major axis on aerodynamic characteristics of elliptical section. Many engineering applications such as off shore structures, bridge piers, civil structures and pipelines can be modelled as a circular cylinder but flow over complex bodies like, submarines, Elliptical wing, fuselage, missiles, and rotor blades, in which the parameters such as axis ratio can influence the flow characteristics of the wake and nature of separation. Influence of Major axis in Flow characteristics of elliptical sections are examined both experimentally and computationally in this study. For this research, four elliptical models with varying major axis [*AR=1, 4, 6, 10] are analysed. Experimental works have been conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel. Furthermore, flow characteristics on elliptical model are predicted from k-ε turbulence model using the commercial CFD packages by pressure based transient solver with Standard wall conditions.The analysis can be extended to estimation and comparison of Drag coefficient and Fatigue analysis of elliptical sections.

Keywords: elliptical section, major axis, aerodynamic characteristics, k-ε turbulence model

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5136 Effects of Major and Minor Modes to Emotional Perceptions of 'Happy' and 'Sad' in Piano Music among Students Aged 9-17

Authors: Nurezlin Mohd Azib, Pan Kok Chang

Abstract:

This quantitative study investigates the effects of major and minor modes, and contributing musical parameter of tempo, to the emotional perceptions of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ in piano music among subjects aged 9-17 years old. The study was conducted in two phases; survey-questionnaire, and listening activity. Subjects (N=31) were sampled from piano music students’ population in Bangi, Selangor. In the survey-questionnaire, subjects answered 20 questions on demographic characteristics, music listening and preference, and understanding of emotional perception in music. In the listening activity, subjects listened to 20 untitled piano music excerpts and rated the emotion perceived for each excerpt, whether ‘happy’ or ‘sad’. Results from survey-questionnaire show that most percentage of subjects are 11 years old, in Grade 1, of 3 years of learning piano, prefer classical music, always listen to music, prefer both major and minor modes’ music, and find it easy to understand emotion in music, as well as major and minor modes. Results from listening activity show that 60 % of major mode music are perceived as ‘major-happy’, while 60 % too, of minor mode music are perceived as ‘minor-sad’. However, Chi-square test of independence statistical analysis indicates that there are no association and significant relationship between modes (major and minor) and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 0.80, p = 0.371), at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Contrastingly, there are association and significant relationship between tempo (fast and slow), and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 9.899, p = 0.005). Therefore, it is concluded that tempo plays an important role in effects of major and minor mode to ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ emotional perceptions in piano music among subjects aged 9 to 17 in this study.

Keywords: effects, emotional perceptions, major and minor modes, piano music

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5135 Appropriate Depth of Needle Insertion during Rhomboid Major Trigger Point Block

Authors: Seongho Jang

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate an appropriate depth of needle insertion during trigger point injection into the rhomboid major muscle. Methods: Sixty-two patients who visited our department with shoulder or upper back pain participated in this study. The distance between the skin and the rhomboid major muscle (SM) and the distance between the skin and rib (SB) were measured using ultrasonography. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI: BMI less than 23 kg/m2 (underweight or normal group); 23 kg/m2 or more to less than 25 kg/m2 (overweight group); and 25 kg/m2 or more (obese group). The mean ±standard deviation (SD) of SM and SB of each group were calculated. A range between mean+1 SD of SM and the mean-1 SD of SB was defined as a safe margin. Results: The underweight or normal group’s SM, SB, and the safe margin were 1.2±0.2, 2.1±0.4, and 1.4 to 1.7 cm, respectively. The overweight group’s SM and SB were 1.4±0.2 and 2.4±0.9 cm, respectively. The safe margin could not be calculated for this group. The obese group’s SM, SB, and the safe margin were 1.8±0.3, 2.7±0.5, and 2.1 to 2.2 cm, respectively. Conclusion: This study will help us to set the standard depth of safe needle insertion into the rhomboid major muscle in an effective manner without causing any complications.

Keywords: Ultrasound, pneumothorax, rhomboid major muscle, trigger point injection

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5134 Organization of the Olfactory System and the Mushroom Body of the Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

Authors: Rajashekhar K. Patil, Martin J. Babu

Abstract:

Weaver ants-Oecophylla smaragdina live in colonies that have polymorphic castes. The females which include the queen, major and minor workers are haploid. The individuals of castes are dependent on olfactory cues for carrying out caste-specific behaviour. In an effort to understand whether organizational differences exist to support these behavioural differences, we studied the olfactory system at the level of the sensilla on the antennae, olfactory glomeruli and the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies (MB). The MB differ in major and minor workers in terms of their size, with the major workers having relatively larger calyces and peduncle. The morphology of different types of Kenyon cells as revealed by Golgi-rapid staining was studied and the major workers had more dendritic arbors than minor workers. This suggests a greater degree of olfactory processing in major workers. Differences in caste-specific arrangement of sensilla, olfactory glomeruli and celluar architecture of MB indicate a developmental programme that forms basis of differential behaviour.

Keywords: caste, ant, oecophylla, mushroom body

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5133 Examining the Level of Career Maturity on Cultural Aspect among Undergraduate Foreign Students in A Public University in Malaysia

Authors: Mustafa Tekke, Nurullah Kurt

Abstract:

This study examined the level of career maturity of undergraduate foreign students in a public university in Malaysia by examining on cultural aspect by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine (Male = 106, Female = 123) foreign students studying in various majors completed the Career Maturity Inventory and the scores of the foreign students on the CMI suggested that they had slightly higher levels than the mean level of maturity in career. Result was also supported by testing the feeling about major, consideration of changing major and planning after graduation, which indicated that foreign students had their own career decision making. However, this result should be viewed with caution within ethnic difference.

Keywords: career maturity, foreign students, career decision making, feeling about major, knowledge about major

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5132 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

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5131 Determining Inventory Replenishment Policy for Major Component in Assembly-to-Order of Cooling System Manufacturing

Authors: Tippawan Nasawan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to find the replenishment policy in Assembly-to-Order manufacturing (ATO) which some of the major components have lead-time longer than customer lead-time. The variety of products, independent component demand, and long component lead-time are the difficulty that has resulted in the overstock problem. In addition, the ordering cost is trivial when compared to the cost of material of the major component. A conceptual design of the Decision Supporting System (DSS) has introduced to assist the replenishment policy. Component replenishment by using the variable which calls Available to Promise (ATP) for making the decision is one of the keys. The Poisson distribution is adopted to realize demand patterns in order to calculate Safety Stock (SS) at the specified Customer Service Level (CSL). When distribution cannot identify, nonparametric will be applied instead. The test result after comparing the ending inventory between the new policy and the old policy, the overstock has significantly reduced by 46.9 percent or about 469,891.51 US-Dollars for the cost of the major component (material cost only). Besides, the number of the major component inventory is also reduced by about 41 percent which helps to mitigate the chance of damage and keeping stock.

Keywords: poisson distribution, Assembly-to-Order, Decision Supporting System, Component replenishment

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5130 Ensuring Cyber Security Using Kippo Honeypots

Authors: S. Vivekananda Pandian

Abstract:

A major challenging task in this current scenario is protecting your computer and other electronic gadgets against Cyber-attacks. In this current era Cyber warfare becomes a major threat to the entire world which targets a particular organization or a country spreading the Malwares, Breaching the securities, causing major loss to the organization. Several sectors both public and private are computerized such as Energy sectors, Oil refinery sectors, Defense sectors and Aviation sectors are prone to attacks. Several attacks are unknown while accessing the internet. To study the characteristics and Intention of the Attacker Kippo Honeypots are used. Honeypots are the trap set by us which enables them to monitor the malicious activities and detailed study about attackers which leads to strengthening of the security.

Keywords: Security, Virtual machine, attackers, Kippo Honeypots

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5129 Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan

Authors: Miju Choi, Ava Seo

Abstract:

Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.

Keywords: China, Japan, historical data, Korea, tourist shopping patterns

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5128 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian

Abstract:

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Iran, Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection

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5127 Prevalence of Cognitive Decline in Major Depressive Illness

Authors: U. B. Zubair, A. Kiyani

Abstract:

Introduction: Depressive illness predispose individuals to a lot of physical and mental health issues. Anxiety and substance use disorders have been studied widely as comorbidity. Biological symptoms also now considered part of the depressive spectrum. Cognitive abilities also decline or get affected and need to be looked into in detail in depressed patients. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cognitive decline among patients with major depressive illness and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Methods: 190 patients of major depressive illness were included in our study to determine the presence of cognitive decline among them. Depression was diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist by using the ICD-10 criteria for major depressive disorder. British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI) was the psychometric tool used to determine the cognitive decline. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and the relationship of various factors with cognitive decline was also ascertained. Findings: 70% of the patients suffering from depression included in this study showed the presence of some degree of cognitive decline, while 30% did not show any evidence of cognitive decline when screened through BCCCI. Statistical testing revealed that the female gender was the only socio-demographic parameter linked significantly with the presence of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Decline in cognitive abilities was found in a significant number of patients suffering from major depression in our sample population. Screening for this parameter f mental function should be done in depression clinics to pick it early.

Keywords: Depression, Cognitive Decline, Prevalence, socio-demographic factors

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5126 Strain Softening of Soil under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Suttisak Soralump, Kobid Panthi, Suriyon Prempramote

Abstract:

In June 27, 2014 slope movement was observed in upstream side of Khlong Pa Bon Dam, Thailand. The slide did not have any major catastrophic impact on the dam structure but raised a very important question; why did the slide occur after 10 years of operation? Various site investigations (Bore Hole Test, SASW, Echo Sounding, and Geophysical Survey), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling using SIGMA/W and SLOPE/W were conducted to determine the cause of slope movement. It was observed that the dam had undergone the greatest differential drawdown in its operational history in the year 2014 and was termed as the major cause of movement. From the laboratory tests, it was found that the shear strength of clay had decreased with a period of time and was near its residual value. The cyclic movement of water, i.e., reservoir filling and emptying was coined out to be the major cause for the reduction of shear strength. The numerical analysis was carried out using a modified cam clay (MCC) model to determine the strain softening behavior of the clay. The strain accumulation was observed in the slope with each reservoir cycle triggering the slope failure in 2014. It can be inferred that if there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed but eventually would have failed after a long period of time. If there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed. However, even if there hadn’t been a drawdown, it would have failed eventually in the long run.

Keywords: Slope Movement, residual strength, modified Cam clay, strain softening

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5125 Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major Caused by Isoniazid Hypersensitivity in a Child

Authors: Azwin Lubis, Rika Hapsari, Zahrah Hikmah, Anang Endaryanto, Ariyanto Harsono

Abstract:

Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major (EMEM) is one of the drug allergy diseases. Drug allergies caused by isoniazid rarely causes EMEM. Cutaneous reactions caused by isoniazid were obtained in 0.98% of patients, but the precise occurrence of Steven Johnson’s Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermolisis Necrolisis (TEN) due to isoniazid is not known for certain. We present this case to show hypersensitivity of isoniazid in a child. Based on the history of drug intake, physical diagnostic tests, drug elimination and provocation; we established the diagnosis of isoniazid hypersensitivity. The child showed improvement on skin manifestation after stopped isoniazid therapy.

Keywords: hypersensitivity, erythema multiforme exudativum major, elimination test, provocation test

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5124 To Determine the Effects of Regulatory Food Safety Inspections on the Grades of Different Categories of Retail Food Establishments across the Dubai Region

Authors: Shugufta Mohammad Zubair

Abstract:

This study explores the Effect of the new food System Inspection system also called the new inspection color card scheme on reduction of critical & major food safety violations in Dubai. Data was collected from all retail food service establishments located in two zones in the city. Each establishment was visited twice, once before the launch of the new system and one after the launch of the system. In each visit, the Inspection checklist was used as the evaluation tool for observation of the critical and major violations. The old format of the inspection checklist was concerned with scores based on the violations; but the new format of the checklist for the new inspection color card scheme is divided into administrative, general major and critical which gives a better classification for the inspectors to identify the critical and major violations of concerned. The study found that there has been a better and clear marking of violations after the launch of new inspection system wherein the inspectors are able to mark and categories the violations effectively. There had been a 10% decrease in the number of food establishment that was previously given A grade. The B & C grading were also considerably dropped by 5%.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, violations, food inspection, color card scheme

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5123 Love Is Color-Blind: Perceptions among Sunway University Students toward Interracial Relationship

Authors: Azman Ramlie, Vivian Foo Jing Wen

Abstract:

As the advancement of technology has tremendously changed the way people communicate with each other, it has opened up opportunities for interracial relationships. Interracial relationship is also known as intercultural or interethnic relationships. This research topic aims to study on students’ perceptions toward interracial relationship in terms of their level of acceptance and approval. In addition, the study also focuses on determining and ranking the factors that affects students’ perceptions towards interracial relationship. This study also targets to determine the differences in students’ perceptions from business and communication major. This study uses a sample of university students from Sunway University, particularly on students in business and communication major. The study was conducted through online survey questionnaires. Results revealed that students’ level of acceptance towards interracial relationship was high. In addition, results also further indicated that family members’ support was one of the most important factors in influencing students’ perception towards interracial relationship. No diverse differences of perceptions among students in business and communication major towards interracial relationship were shown in the findings. Most of the result showed that both majors turned out to have similar perceptions towards interracial relationship. It can be said that the students’ perception towards interracial relationship did not differ from which major the students was in but their family background that would shape their perceptions.

Keywords: Relationship, perceptions, interracial relationship, racial

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5122 Acupuncture for Major Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Randomized Clinical Trials

Authors: Derick Shi-Chen Ou, Liang-Yu Chen

Abstract:

Background: Acupuncture, a potential alternative, and complementary therapy revealed insufficient evidence in depression treatment. The efficacy of acupuncture treatment was still uncertainty. To evaluate the effect of acupuncture in treating depression, the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were examined. Methods: RCTs of the acupuncture therapy in treating major depression were searched from MEDLINE from 2007 to 2017. Keywords used for searching strategy included acupuncture, acupoint, and major depressive disorder. Results: Among the nine RCTs, four studies demonstrated great improvement in acupuncture treatment and five studies revealed the effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in medication. General trends suggest that acupuncture treatment is as effective as antidepressants with minimal side effects. Conclusion: Despite the promising results from the RCTs, there are still a variety of limitations, including small sample size, imprecise enrollment criteria, difficulties with blinding, randomization, short duration of study and lack of longitudinal follow-up. Therefore, the evidence that acupuncture as an alternative therapy for depression is inconclusive. More rigorously designed RCTs should be conducted in the future.

Keywords: Acupuncture, Antidepressants, major depressive disorders, randomized clinical trials

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5121 Impact of Climate on Productivity of Major Cereal Crops in Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, L. Tanko, Y. M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The study aimed at examining the impact of climatic factors (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature) on the productivity of major cereals in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Secondary data from 1997-2008 were used in respect of annual yield of Major cereals crops (maize, millet, rice, and sorghum (t ha-1). Data in respect of climate was collected from Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC) for the period under review. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. The result of the research reveals that there is variation in the trend of the climatic factors and also variation in cereals output. The effect of average temperature on yields has a negative effect on crop yields. Similarly, rainfall is not significant in explaining the effect of climate on cereal crops production. The study has revealed to some extend the effect of climatic variables, such as rainfall, relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature on major cereals production in Sokoto State. This will assist in planning ahead in cereals production in the area. Other factors such as soil fertility, correct timing of planting and good cultural practices (such as spacing of strands), protection of crops from weeds, pests and diseases and planting of high yielding varieties should also be taken into consideration for increase yield of cereals.

Keywords: Climate, Productivity, Impact, cereals, major

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5120 Urban Governance in Major Development Projects: Challenges, Issues and Constraints - Case of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Chouabbia Khedidja, Lazri Youcef

Abstract:

In optics and in ambition to break into the ranks of international metropolis cities, Constantine, a regional metropolis of eastern Algeria, is facing multiple challenges shared between the response to the urban crisis plaguing the city and the creation of territorial attractiveness in the metropolisation process. This ambition cannot be achieve in conditions of poor governance and lack of cooperation especially between the actors involved in major development projects, these last qualified by change and hope carriers to make the city more attractive and pleasant. Thus, governance or good governance has become not only a necessity but also a challenge for the city of Constantine. Through this example of Constantine. We will analyze the challenges facing a metropolis amongst other urban governance and the constraints that affect the smooth running of major development projects when governance is missing or inoperative.

Keywords: Metropolis, Urban Governance, actors, Constantine, big development project

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5119 Influence of Leadership Roles on Agricultural Employees’ Job Satisfaction

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, D. O. Alabi

Abstract:

Influence of leadership roles on agricultural employees’ job satisfaction was studied. Data were from 68 randomly selected respondents. Major leadership roles include supervision of employees work (x̄=3.67), leaders were goal oriented (x̄=3.39), dissemination of information among the employees (x̄=3.35). Major employees’ satisfaction was: Employees work together with their colleagues (x̄=3.54) and also interact freely with their colleagues (x̄=3.51). Major challenges affecting employees job satisfaction were inadequate funding (x̄=3.30), irregular leave bonus (x̄=3.29), climate and weather condition (x̄=3.08) and inadequate incentive (x̄=3.02). Regression analysis showed a positive significant coefficient (P<0.05) exist between religion (p<0.05), educational status(p<0.05), year of service(p<0.05), leadership roles (p<0.005), challenges faced by respondents(P<0.05), and employees’ job satisfaction. For adequate leadership role, organization should pay attention to disbursement of training funds, availability of adequate incentive and leadership recognition.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Leadership Roles, Nigeria, institute, agricultural employees’

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5118 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: Lie algebras, Quaternions, fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations

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5117 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Composition, Gas Chromatography, fatty acid, Cyprinus carpio L

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5116 The Relationships among Learning Emotion, Major Satisfaction, Learning Flow, and Academic Achievement in Medical School Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek

Abstract:

This study explored whether academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow are associated with academic achievement in medical school. We know that emotion and affective factors are important factors in students' learning and performance. Emotion has taken the stage in much of contemporary educational psychology literature, no longer relegated to secondary status behind traditionally studied cognitive constructs. Medical school students (n=164) completed academic emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow online survey. Academic performance was operationalized as students' average grade on two semester exams. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and ANOVA were conducted. The results largely confirmed the hypothesized relations among academic emotion, major satisfaction, learning flow and academic achievement. Positive academic emotion had a correlation with academic achievement (β=.191). Positive emotion had 8.5% explanatory power for academic achievement. Especially, sense of accomplishment had a significant impact on learning performance (β=.265). On the other hand, negative emotion, major satisfaction, and learning flow did not affect academic performance. Also, there were differences in sense of great (F=5.446, p=.001) and interest (F=2.78, p=.043) among positive emotion, boredom (F=3.55, p=.016), anger (F=4.346, p=.006), and petulance (F=3.779, p=.012) among negative emotion by grade. This study suggested that medical students' positive emotion was an important contributor to their academic achievement. At the same time, it is important to consider that some negative emotions can act to increase one’s motivation. Of particular importance is the notion that instructors can and should create learning environment that foster positive emotion for students. In doing so, instructors improve their chances of positively impacting students’ achievement emotions, as well as their subsequent motivation, learning, and performance. This result had an implication for medical educators striving to understand the personal emotional factors that influence learning and performance in medical training.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, learning emotion, learning flow, major satisfaction

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5115 Identification, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of the Major Human Metabolite of NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor MCC950

Authors: Matthew A. Cooper, Manohar Salla, Mark S. Butler, Ruby Pelingon, Geraldine Kaeslin, Daniel E. Croker, Janet C. Reid, Jong Min Baek, Paul V. Bernhardt, Elizabeth M. J. Gillam, Avril A. B. Robertson

Abstract:

MCC950 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome that shows early promise for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The identification of major metabolites of lead molecule is an important step during drug development process. It provides an information about the metabolically labile sites in the molecule and thereby helping medicinal chemists to design metabolically stable molecules. To identify major metabolites of MCC950, the compound was incubated with human liver microsomes and subsequent analysis by (+)- and (−)-QTOF-ESI-MS/MS revealed a major metabolite formed due to hydroxylation on 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacene moiety of MCC950. This major metabolite can lose two water molecules and three possible regioisomers were synthesized. Co-elution of major metabolite with each of the synthesized compounds using HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS revealed the structure of the metabolite (±) N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. Subsequent synthesis of individual enantiomers and coelution in HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS using a chiral column revealed the metabolite was R-(+)- N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. To study the possible cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) responsible for the formation of major metabolite, MCC950 was incubated with a panel of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The result indicated that CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2J2 and CYP3A4 are most likely responsible for the formation of the major metabolite. The biological activity of the major metabolite and the other synthesized regioisomers was also investigated by screening for for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. The major metabolite had 170-fold less inhibitory activity (IC50-1238 nM) than MCC950 (IC50-7.5 nM). Interestingly, one regioisomer had shown nanomolar inhibitory activity (IC50-232 nM). However, no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed with any of these synthesized compounds when tested in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma G2 cells (HepG2). These key findings give an insight into the SAR of the hexahydroindacene moiety of MCC950 and reveal a metabolic soft spot which could be blocked by chemical modification.

Keywords: NLRP3, inflammasome, Cytochrome P450, MCC950, metabolite, microsome

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5114 The Association between Malaysian Culture and Ornaments

Authors: Swee Guat Yeoh, Yung Ling Tseng

Abstract:

Malaysia is comprised of three major ethnic groups: The Malay, Chinese and Indian as well as a small number of indigenous peoples. With the influences of the multiple races, Malaysia is a multi-cultural country. In the era of globalization, culture has become an important soft power for a race or a country. At the same time, it provides endless inspirational source of ideas for creative business. Although jewelries are decorative objects, they function and exist as the emblems of power, wealth and contract in certain cultural systems. In the meantime, they also record the lifestyle and ideology of everyday life. Therefore, in a creative cultural industry, jewelry with cultural aspects and cultural contents are deemed to be highly important. With the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia as objects, this research aims to find out the relationships between the cultures and decorations of the three major ethnic groups in the aspects of customs, religions and lifestyles.

Keywords: Ethnicity, multi-cultural, jewelry, craft technique

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5113 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oguzhan Avci, Oya Bulut, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek

Abstract:

Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: Resistance, Disease, Polymorphism, MHC

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5112 Branding Destination for Major Event: A Case Study of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

Abstract:

Destination branding is a popular practice adopted by many cities in the context of intensified tourism competition. However, branding for major event is a relatively new domain in the studies of destination marketing. Based on a case study of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, the aim of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of the key branding campaign - the ‘Look of the City’ programme. This study looks at quantitative data collected from on-street face-to-face survey. 611 questionnaires were distributed to and collected from local residents, visitors from the immediate hinterland, domestic tourists and overseas visitors. The analysis is done, first by investigating respondents’ impression on the Liverpool 08 brand and the branding campaign, and then by exploring the effects of campaign. The positioning of Liverpool compared with other similar cities is addressed in the end. The final section extracts lessons from this empirical investigation.

Keywords: Destination Branding, European capital of culture, Liverpool, major event

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5111 Major Variables Influencing Marketed Surplus of Seed Cotton in District Khanewal, Pakistan

Authors: Manan Aslam, Shafqat Rasool

Abstract:

This paper attempts to examine impact of major factors affecting marketed surplus of seed cotton in district Khanewal (Punjab) using primary source of data. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The impact of major factors on marketed surplus of seed cotton growers was estimated by employing double log form of regression analysis. The value of adjusted R2 was 0.64 whereas the F-value was 10.81. The findings of analysis revealed that experience of farmers, education of farmers, area under cotton crop and distance from wholesale market were the significant variables affecting marketed surplus of cotton whereas the variables (marketing cost and sale price) showed insignificant impact. The study suggests improving prevalent marketing practices to increase volume of marketed surplus of cotton in district Khanewal.

Keywords: seed cotton, marketed surplus, double log regression analysis

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5110 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

Abstract:

Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Tracking, human motion capture, vision-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 194