Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18674

Search results for: process control

18674 Process Capability Analysis by Using Statistical Process Control of Rice Polished Cylinder Turning Practice

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, T.Boonkang


Quality control helps industries in improvements of its product quality and productivity. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the tools to control the quality of products that turning practice in bringing a department of industrial engineering process under control. In this research, the process control of a turning manufactured at workshops machines. The varying measurements have been recorded for a number of samples of a rice polished cylinder obtained from a number of trials with the turning practice. SPC technique has been adopted by the process is finally brought under control and process capability is improved.

Keywords: rice polished cylinder, statistical process control, control charts, process capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
18673 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata


The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network, process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
18672 A Review of the Run to Run (R to R) Control in the Manufacturing Processes

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin, Mostafa Ranjbar


Run- to- Run (R2 R) control was developed in order to monitor and control different semiconductor manufacturing processes based upon the fundamental engineering frameworks. This technology allows rectification in the optimum direction. This control always had a significant potency in which was appeared in a variety of processes. The term run to run refers to the case where the act of control would take with the aim of getting batches of silicon wafers which produced in a manufacturing process. In the present work, a brief review about run-to-run control investigated which mainly is effective in the manufacturing process.

Keywords: Run-to-Run (R2R) control, manufacturing, process in engineering, manufacturing controls

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
18671 Distribution-Free Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Charts for Monitoring Process Variability

Authors: Chen-Fang Tsai, Shin-Li Lu


Distribution-free control chart is an oncoming area from the statistical process control charts in recent years. Some researchers have developed various nonparametric control charts and investigated the detection capability of these charts. The major advantage of nonparametric control charts is that the underlying process is not specifically considered the assumption of normality or any parametric distribution. In this paper, two nonparametric exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts based on nonparametric tests, namely NE-S and NE-M control charts, are proposed for monitoring process variability. Generally, weighted moving average (GWMA) control charts are extended by utilizing design and adjustment parameters for monitoring the changes in the process variability, namely NG-S and NG-M control charts. Statistical performance is also investigated on NG-S and NG-M control charts with run rules. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is performed to show the effects of design parameters under the nonparametric NG-S and NG-M control charts.

Keywords: Distribution-free control chart, EWMA control charts, GWMA control charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
18670 Pattern Identification in Statistical Process Control Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Pramila Devi, N. V. N. Indra Kiran


Control charts, predominantly in the form of X-bar chart, are important tools in statistical process control (SPC). They are useful in determining whether a process is behaving as intended or there are some unnatural causes of variation. A process is out of control if a point falls outside the control limits or a series of point’s exhibit an unnatural pattern. In this paper, a study is carried out on four training algorithms for CCPs recognition. For those algorithms optimal structure is identified and then they are studied for type I and type II errors for generalization without early stopping and with early stopping and the best one is proposed.

Keywords: control chart pattern recognition, neural network, backpropagation, generalization, early stopping

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
18669 Controlling the Process of a Chicken Dressing Plant through Statistical Process Control

Authors: Jasper Kevin C. Dionisio, Denise Mae M. Unsay


In a manufacturing firm, controlling the process ensures that optimum efficiency, productivity, and quality in an organization are achieved. An operation with no standardized procedure yields a poor productivity, inefficiency, and an out of control process. This study focuses on controlling the small intestine processing of a chicken dressing plant through the use of Statistical Process Control (SPC). Since the operation does not employ a standard procedure and does not have an established standard time, the process through the assessment of the observed time of the overall operation of small intestine processing, through the use of X-Bar R Control Chart, is found to be out of control. In the solution of this problem, the researchers conduct a motion and time study aiming to establish a standard procedure for the operation. The normal operator was picked through the use of Westinghouse Rating System. Instead of utilizing the traditional motion and time study, the researchers used the X-Bar R Control Chart in determining the process average of the process that is used for establishing the standard time. The observed time of the normal operator was noted and plotted to the X-Bar R Control Chart. Out of control points that are due to assignable cause were removed and the process average, or the average time the normal operator conducted the process, which was already in control and free form any outliers, was obtained. The process average was then used in determining the standard time of small intestine processing. As a recommendation, the researchers suggest the implementation of the standard time established which is with consonance to the standard procedure which was adopted from the normal operator. With that recommendation, the whole operation will induce a 45.54 % increase in their productivity.

Keywords: motion and time study, process controlling, statistical process control, X-Bar R Control chart

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
18668 Optimal Bayesian Chart for Controlling Expected Number of Defects in Production Processes

Authors: V. Makis, L. Jafari


In this paper, we develop an optimal Bayesian chart to control the expected number of defects per inspection unit in production processes with long production runs. We formulate this control problem in the optimal stopping framework. The objective is to determine the optimal stopping rule minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time considering partial information obtained from the process sampling at regular epochs. We prove the optimality of the control limit policy, i.e., the process is stopped and the search for assignable causes is initiated when the posterior probability that the process is out of control exceeds a control limit. An algorithm in the semi-Markov decision process framework is developed to calculate the optimal control limit and the corresponding average cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the developed optimal control chart and to compare it with the traditional u-chart.

Keywords: Bayesian u-chart, economic design, optimal stopping, semi-Markov decision process, statistical process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
18667 Object-Oriented Modeling Simulation and Control of Activated Sludge Process

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, P. Del Saz Orozco, I. Garcia-Moral, A. Akhrymenka


Object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation of wastewater treatments plants through the use of the individual components of the process and its relations to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper, we describe the use of the free-software OpenModelica simulation environment for the object-oriented modeling of an activated sludge process under feedback control. The performance of the controlled system was analyzed both under normal conditions and in the presence of disturbances. The object-oriented described approach represents a valuable tool in teaching provides a practical insight in wastewater process control field.

Keywords: object-oriented programming, activated sludge process, OpenModelica, feedback control

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
18666 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Yupaporn Areepong


The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: average run length, optimal parameters, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), control chart

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
18665 EWMA and MEWMA Control Charts for Monitoring Mean and Variance in Industrial Processes

Authors: L. A. Toro, N. Prieto, J. J. Vargas


There are many control charts for monitoring mean and variance. Among these, the X y R, X y S, S2 Hotteling and Shewhart control charts, for mentioning some, are widely used for monitoring mean a variance in industrial processes. In particular, the Shewhart charts are based on the information about the process contained in the current observation only and ignore any information given by the entire sequence of points. Moreover, that the Shewhart chart is a control chart without memory. Consequently, Shewhart control charts are found to be less sensitive in detecting smaller shifts, particularly smaller than 1.5 times of the standard deviation. These kind of small shifts are important in many industrial applications. In this study and effective alternative to Shewhart control chart was implemented. In case of univariate process an Exponentially Moving Average (EWMA) control chart was developed and Multivariate Exponentially Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart in case of multivariate process. Both of these charts were based on memory and perform better that Shewhart chart while detecting smaller shifts. In these charts, information the past sample is cumulated up the current sample and then the decision about the process control is taken. The mentioned characteristic of EWMA and MEWMA charts, are of the paramount importance when it is necessary to control industrial process, because it is possible to correct or predict problems in the processes before they come to a dangerous limit.

Keywords: control charts, multivariate exponentially moving average (MEWMA), exponentially moving average (EWMA), industrial control process

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
18664 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar


The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
18663 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari


In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
18662 Jointly Optimal Statistical Process Control and Maintenance Policy for Deteriorating Processes

Authors: Lucas Paganin, Viliam Makis


With the advent of globalization, the market competition has become a major issue for most companies. One of the main strategies to overcome this situation is the quality improvement of the product at a lower cost to meet customers’ expectations. In order to achieve the desired quality of products, it is important to control the process to meet the specifications, and to implement the optimal maintenance policy for the machines and the production lines. Thus, the overall objective is to reduce process variation and the production and maintenance costs. In this paper, an integrated model involving Statistical Process Control (SPC) and maintenance is developed to achieve this goal. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to develop the jointly optimal maintenance and statistical process control policy minimizing the total long run expected average cost per unit time. In our model, the production process can go out of control due to either the deterioration of equipment or other assignable causes. The equipment is also subject to failures in any of the operating states due to deterioration and aging. Hence, the process mean is controlled by an Xbar control chart using equidistant sampling epochs. We assume that the machine inspection epochs are the times when the control chart signals an out-of-control condition, considering both true and false alarms. At these times, the production process will be stopped, and an investigation will be conducted not only to determine whether it is a true or false alarm, but also to identify the causes of the true alarm, whether it was caused by the change in the machine setting, by other assignable causes, or by both. If the system is out of control, the proper actions will be taken to bring it back to the in-control state. At these epochs, a maintenance action can be taken, which can be no action, or preventive replacement of the unit. When the equipment is in the failure state, a corrective maintenance action is performed, which can be minimal repair or replacement of the machine and the process is brought to the in-control state. SMDP framework is used to formulate and solve the joint control problem. Numerical example is developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control policy.

Keywords: maintenance, semi-Markov decision process, statistical process control, Xbar control chart

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18661 Process Monitoring Based on Parameterless Self-Organizing Map

Authors: Young Jae Choung, Seoung Bum Kim


Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a popular technique for process monitoring. A widely used tool in SPC is a control chart, which is used to detect the abnormal status of a process and maintain the controlled status of the process. Traditional control charts, such as Hotelling’s T2 control chart, are effective techniques to detect abnormal observations and monitor processes. However, many complicated manufacturing systems exhibit nonlinearity because of the different demands of the market. In this case, the unregulated use of a traditional linear modeling approach may not be effective. In reality, many industrial processes contain the nonlinear and time-varying properties because of the fluctuation of process raw materials, slowing shift of the set points, aging of the main process components, seasoning effects, and catalyst deactivation. The use of traditional SPC techniques with time-varying data will degrade the performance of the monitoring scheme. To address these issues, in the present study, we propose a parameterless self-organizing map (PLSOM)-based control chart. The PLSOM-based control chart not only can manage a situation where the distribution or parameter of the target observations changes, but also address the nonlinearity of modern manufacturing systems. The control limits of the proposed PLSOM chart are established by estimating the empirical level of significance on the percentile using a bootstrap method. Experimental results with simulated data and actual process data from a thin-film transistor-liquid crystal display process demonstrated the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed chart.

Keywords: control chart, parameter-less self-organizing map, self-organizing map, time-varying property

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
18660 A Simulated Evaluation of Model Predictive Control

Authors: Ahmed AlNouss, Salim Ahmed


Process control refers to the techniques to control the variables in a process in order to maintain them at their desired values. Advanced process control (APC) is a broad term within the domain of control where it refers to different kinds of process control and control related tools, for example, model predictive control (MPC), statistical process control (SPC), fault detection and classification (FDC) and performance assessment. APC is often used for solving multivariable control problems and model predictive control (MPC) is one of only a few advanced control methods used successfully in industrial control applications. Advanced control is expected to bring many benefits to the plant operation; however, the extent of the benefits is plant specific and the application needs a large investment. This requires an analysis of the expected benefits before the implementation of the control. In a real plant simulation studies are carried out along with some experimentation to determine the improvement in the performance of the plant due to advanced control. In this research, such an exercise is undertaken to realize the needs of APC application. The main objectives of the paper are as follows: (1) To apply MPC to a number of simulations set up to realize the need of MPC by comparing its performance with that of proportional integral derivatives (PID) controllers. (2) To study the effect of controller parameters on control performance. (3) To develop appropriate performance index (PI) to compare the performance of different controller and develop novel idea to present tuning map of a controller. These objectives were achieved by applying PID controller and a special type of MPC which is dynamic matrix control (DMC) on the multi-tanks process simulated in loop-pro. Then the controller performance has been evaluated by changing the controller parameters. This performance was based on special indices related to the difference between set point and process variable in order to compare the both controllers. The same principle was applied for continuous stirred tank heater (CSTH) and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) processes simulated in Matlab. However, in these processes some developed programs were written to evaluate the performance of the PID and MPC controllers. Finally these performance indices along with their controller parameters were plotted using special program called Sigmaplot. As a result, the improvement in the performance of the control loops was quantified using relevant indices to justify the need and importance of advanced process control. Also, it has been approved that, by using appropriate indices, predictive controller can improve the performance of the control loop significantly.

Keywords: advanced process control (APC), control loop, model predictive control (MPC), proportional integral derivatives (PID), performance indices (PI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
18659 On the Bootstrap P-Value Method in Identifying out of Control Signals in Multivariate Control Chart

Authors: O. Ikpotokin


In any production process, every product is aimed to attain a certain standard, but the presence of assignable cause of variability affects our process, thereby leading to low quality of product. The ability to identify and remove this type of variability reduces its overall effect, thereby improving the quality of the product. In case of a univariate control chart signal, it is easy to detect the problem and give a solution since it is related to a single quality characteristic. However, the problems involved in the use of multivariate control chart are the violation of multivariate normal assumption and the difficulty in identifying the quality characteristic(s) that resulted in the out of control signals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of non-parametric control chart (the bootstrap approach) for obtaining control limit to overcome the problem of multivariate distributional assumption and the p-value method for detecting out of control signals. Results from a performance study show that the proposed bootstrap method enables the setting of control limit that can enhance the detection of out of control signals when compared, while the p-value method also enhanced in identifying out of control variables.

Keywords: bootstrap control limit, p-value method, out-of-control signals, p-value, quality characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
18658 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn


The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
18657 Cascade Control for Pressure Calibration by Fieldbus Communication System

Authors: Chatchaval Pornpatkul, Wipawan Suksathid


This paper is to study and control the pressure of the water inside the open tank using a cascade control with the communication in the process by fieldbus system for the pressure calibration. The plant model is to be used in experiments to control the level and flow process of the water by using Syscon program to create functions. We used to control by Intouch runtime program to create the graphic display on the screen. In this case we used PI control the level and the flow process of water in the open tank in the range of 0 – 10 L/m. The output signal of the level and the flow transmitter are the digital standard signal by fieldbus system. And all information displayed on the computer with the communication between the computer and plant model can be communication to each other through just one cable pair. And in this paper, the PI tuning, we used calculate by Ziegler-Nichols reaction curve method to control the plant model by PI controller.

Keywords: cascade control, fieldbus system, pressure calibration, microelectronics systems

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18656 Modelling and Control of Milk Fermentation Process in Biochemical Reactor

Authors: Jožef Ritonja


The biochemical industry is one of the most important modern industries. Biochemical reactors are crucial devices of the biochemical industry. The essential bioprocess carried out in bioreactors is the fermentation process. A thorough insight into the fermentation process and the knowledge how to control it are essential for effective use of bioreactors to produce high quality and quantitatively enough products. The development of the control system starts with the determination of a mathematical model that describes the steady state and dynamic properties of the controlled plant satisfactorily, and is suitable for the development of the control system. The paper analyses the fermentation process in bioreactors thoroughly, using existing mathematical models. Most existing mathematical models do not allow the design of a control system for controlling the fermentation process in batch bioreactors. Due to this, a mathematical model was developed and presented that allows the development of a control system for batch bioreactors. Based on the developed mathematical model, a control system was designed to ensure optimal response of the biochemical quantities in the fermentation process. Due to the time-varying and non-linear nature of the controlled plant, the conventional control system with a proportional-integral-differential controller with constant parameters does not provide the desired transient response. The improved adaptive control system was proposed to improve the dynamics of the fermentation. The use of the adaptive control is suggested because the parameters’ variations of the fermentation process are very slow. The developed control system was tested to produce dairy products in the laboratory bioreactor. A carbon dioxide concentration was chosen as the controlled variable. The carbon dioxide concentration correlates well with the other, for the quality of the fermentation process in significant quantities. The level of the carbon dioxide concentration gives important information about the fermentation process. The obtained results showed that the designed control system provides minimum error between reference and actual values of carbon dioxide concentration during a transient response and in a steady state. The recommended control system makes reference signal tracking much more efficient than the currently used conventional control systems which are based on linear control theory. The proposed control system represents a very effective solution for the improvement of the milk fermentation process.

Keywords: biochemical reactor, fermentation process, modelling, adaptive control

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18655 Optimizing Performance of Tablet's Direct Compression Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie


This paper aims at improving the performance of the tableting process using statistical quality control and fuzzy goal programming. The tableting process was studied. Statistical control tools were used to characterize the existing process for three critical responses including the averages of a tablet’s weight, hardness, and thickness. At initial process factor settings, the estimated process capability index values for the tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were 0.58, 3.36, and 0.88, respectively. The L9 array was utilized to provide experimentation design. Fuzzy goal programming was then employed to find the combination of optimal factor settings. Optimization results showed that the process capability index values for a tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were improved to 1.03, 4.42, and 1.42, respectively. Such improvements resulted in significant savings in quality and production costs.

Keywords: fuzzy goal programming, control charts, process capability, tablet optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
18654 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
18653 Enhancement of MIMO H₂S Gas Sweetening Separator Tower Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Array

Authors: Muhammad M. A. S. Mahmoud


Natural gas sweetening process is a controlled process that must be done at maximum efficiency and with the highest quality. In this work, due to complexity and non-linearity of the process, the H₂S gas separation and the intelligent fuzzy controller, which is used to enhance the process, are simulated in MATLAB – Simulink. The new design of fuzzy control for Gas Separator is discussed in this paper. The design is based on the utilization of linear state-estimation to generate the internal knowledge-base that stores input-output pairs. The obtained input/output pairs are then used to design a feedback fuzzy controller. The proposed closed-loop fuzzy control system maintains the system asymptotically-stability while it enhances the system time response to achieve better control of the concentration of the output gas from the tower. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the Gas Separator system performance.

Keywords: gas separator, gas sweetening, intelligent controller, fuzzy control

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
18652 Trace Logo: A Notation for Representing Control-Flow of Operational Process

Authors: M. V. Manoj Kumar, Likewin Thomas, Annappa


Process mining research discipline bridges the gap between data mining and business process modeling and analysis, it offers the process-centric and end-to-end methods/techniques for analyzing information of real-world process detailed in operational event-logs. In this paper, we have proposed a notation called trace logo for graphically representing control-flow perspective (order of execution of activities) of process. A trace logo consists of a stack of activity names at each position, sizes of the activity name indicates their frequency in the traces and the total height of the activity depicts the information content of the position. A trace logo created from a set of aligned traces generated using Multiple Trace Alignment technique.

Keywords: consensus trace, process mining, multiple trace alignment, trace logo

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
18651 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam


Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
18650 Concept Drifts Detection and Localisation in Process Mining

Authors: M. V. Manoj Kumar, Likewin Thomas, Annappa


Process mining provides methods and techniques for analyzing event logs recorded in modern information systems that support real-world operations. While analyzing an event-log, state-of-the-art techniques available in process mining believe that the operational process as a static entity (stationary). This is not often the case due to the possibility of occurrence of a phenomenon called concept drift. During the period of execution, the process can experience concept drift and can evolve with respect to any of its associated perspectives exhibiting various patterns-of-change with a different pace. Work presented in this paper discusses the main aspects to consider while addressing concept drift phenomenon and proposes a method for detecting and localizing the sudden concept drifts in control-flow perspective of the process by using features extracted by processing the traces in the process log. Our experimental results are promising in the direction of efficiently detecting and localizing concept drift in the context of process mining research discipline.

Keywords: abrupt drift, concept drift, sudden drift, control-flow perspective, detection and localization, process mining

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18649 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon


Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
18648 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
18647 Iterative Design Process for Development and Virtual Commissioning of Plant Control Software

Authors: Thorsten Prante, Robert Schöch, Ruth Fleisch, Vaheh Khachatouri, Alexander Walch


The development of industrial plant control software is a complex and often very expensive task. One of the core problems is that a lot of the implementation and adaptation work can only be done after the plant hardware has been installed. In this paper, we present our approach to virtually developing and validating plant-level control software of production plants. This way, plant control software can be virtually commissioned before actual ramp-up of a plant, reducing actual commissioning costs and time. Technically, this is achieved by linking the actual plant-wide process control software (often called plant server) and an elaborate virtual plant model together to form an emulation system. Method-wise, we are suggesting a four-step iterative process with well-defined increments and time frame. Our work is based on practical experiences from planning to commissioning and start-up of several cut-to-size plants.

Keywords: iterative system design, virtual plant engineering, plant control software, simulation and emulation, virtual commissioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
18646 Introduction of Robust Multivariate Process Capability Indices

Authors: Behrooz Khalilloo, Hamid Shahriari, Emad Roghanian


Process capability indices (PCIs) are important concepts of statistical quality control and measure the capability of processes and how much processes are meeting certain specifications. An important issue in statistical quality control is parameter estimation. Under the assumption of multivariate normality, the distribution parameters, mean vector and variance-covariance matrix must be estimated, when they are unknown. Classic estimation methods like method of moment estimation (MME) or maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) makes good estimation of the population parameters when data are not contaminated. But when outliers exist in the data, MME and MLE make weak estimators of the population parameters. So we need some estimators which have good estimation in the presence of outliers. In this work robust M-estimators for estimating these parameters are used and based on robust parameter estimators, robust process capability indices are introduced. The performances of these robust estimators in the presence of outliers and their effects on process capability indices are evaluated by real and simulated multivariate data. The results indicate that the proposed robust capability indices perform much better than the existing process capability indices.

Keywords: multivariate process capability indices, robust M-estimator, outlier, multivariate quality control, statistical quality control

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18645 Process Data-Driven Representation of Abnormalities for Efficient Process Control

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


Unexpected operational events or abnormalities of industrial processes have a serious impact on the quality of final product of interest. In terms of statistical process control, fault detection and diagnosis of processes is one of the essential tasks needed to run the process safely. In this work, nonlinear representation of process measurement data is presented and evaluated using a simulation process. The effect of using different representation methods on the diagnosis performance is tested in terms of computational efficiency and data handling. The results have shown that the nonlinear representation technique produced more reliable diagnosis results and outperforms linear methods. The use of data filtering step improved computational speed and diagnosis performance for test data sets. The presented scheme is different from existing ones in that it attempts to extract the fault pattern in the reduced space, not in the original process variable space. Thus this scheme helps to reduce the sensitivity of empirical models to noise.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, nonlinear technique, process data, reduced spaces

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