Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 618

Search results for: lamb waves

618 Lamb Waves in Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: Munawwar Mohabuth, Andrei Kotousov, Ching-Tai Ng

Abstract:

On the basis of the finite deformation theory, the effect of homogeneous stress on the propagation of Lamb waves in an initially isotropic hyperelastic plate is analysed. The equations governing the propagation of small amplitude waves in the prestressed plate are derived using the theory of small deformations superimposed on large deformations. By enforcing traction free boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces of the plate, acoustoelastic dispersion equations for Lamb wave propagation are obtained, which are solved numerically. Results are given for an aluminum plate subjected to a range of applied stresses.

Keywords: acoustoelasticity, dispersion, finite deformation, lamb waves

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617 Study of Ultrasonic Waves in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composite Plates for the Aerospace Applications

Authors: DucTho Le, Duy Kien Dao, Quoc Tinh Bui, Haidang Phan

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The article is concerned with the motion of ultrasonic guided waves in a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate under acoustic sources. Such unidirectional composite material has orthotropic elastic properties as it is very stiff along the fibers and rather compliant across the fibers. The dispersion equations of free Lamb waves propagating in an orthotropic layer are derived that results in the dispersion curves. The connection of these equations to the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency relations of isotropic plates is discussed. By the use of reciprocity in elastodynamics, closed-form solutions of elastic wave motions subjected to time-harmonic loads in the layer are computed in a simple manner. We also consider the problem of Lamb waves generated by a set of time-harmonic sources. The obtained computations can be very useful for developing ultrasound-based methods for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures.

Keywords: lamb waves, fiber-reinforced composite plates, dispersion equations, nondestructive evaluation, reciprocity theorems

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616 Discussion on Dispersion Curves of Non-penetrable Soils from in-Situ Seismic Dilatometer Measurements

Authors: Angelo Aloisio Dag, Pasquale Pasca, Massimo Fragiacomo, Ferdinando Totani, Gianfranco Totani

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The estimate of the velocity of shear waves (Vs) is essential in seismic engineering to characterize the dynamic response of soils. There are various direct methods to estimate the Vs. The authors report the results of site characterization in Macerata, where they measured the Vs using the seismic dilatometer in a 100m deep borehole. The standard Vs estimation originates from the cross-correlation between the signals acquired by two geophones at increasing depths. This paper focuses on the estimate of the dependence of Vs on the wavenumber. The dispersion curves reveal an unexpected hyperbolic dispersion curve typical of Lamb waves. Interestingly, the contribution of Lamb waves may be notable up to 100m depth. The amplitude of surface waves decrease rapidly with depth: still, their influence may be essential up to depths considered unusual for standard geotechnical investigations, where their effect is generally neglected. Accordingly, these waves may bias the outcomes of the standard Vs estimations, which ignore frequency-dependent phenomena. The paper proposes an enhancement of the accepted procedure to estimate Vs and addresses the importance of Lamb waves in soil characterization.

Keywords: dispersion curve, seismic dilatometer, shear wave, soil mechanics

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615 Non Linear Lamb Waves for the Detection of Localized Defects Using the Cumulative Second and Third Harmonics: Experimental Study

Authors: Sarah Taleb, Fouad Boubenider

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Recent studies have proved the usability of the non linear S0 Lamb mode without satisfying the phase velocity matching criteria, and the possibility to extend its application to varying thickness plates. Based on that, this work proposes an experimental study of the inspection of macro scale localized defects with a size smaller than the used wavelength, via the second and third harmonics generation. Results were obtained on verifying their cumulative effect with varying the defect's width and also on finding that the third harmonic is better suited for larger scale inspection using the non linear Lamb waves, and identifying the propagating modes in the plates using the wavelet transform.

Keywords: non linear S0, harmonics, localized defects, cumulative, wavelet

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614 Lamb Waves Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

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Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average Bit Error Rate. Results have shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: lamb waves communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error rate

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613 Lamb Waves Propagation in Elastic-Viscoelastic Three-Layer Adhesive Joints

Authors: Pezhman Taghipour Birgani, Mehdi Shekarzadeh

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In this paper, the propagation of lamb waves in three-layer joints is investigated using global matrix method. Theoretical boundary value problem in three-layer adhesive joints with perfect bond and traction free boundary conditions on their outer surfaces is solved to find a combination of frequencies and modes with the lowest attenuation. The characteristic equation is derived by applying continuity and boundary conditions in three-layer joints using global matrix method. Attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained with numerical solution of this equation by a computer code for a three-layer joint, including an aluminum repair patch bonded to the aircraft aluminum skin by a layer of viscoelastic epoxy adhesive. To validate the numerical solution results of the characteristic equation, wave structure curves are plotted for a special mode in two different frequencies in the adhesive joint. The purpose of present paper is to find a combination of frequencies and modes with minimum attenuation in high and low frequencies. These frequencies and modes are recognizable by transducers in inspections with Lamb waves because of low attenuation level.

Keywords: three-layer adhesive joints, viscoelastic, lamb waves, global matrix method

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612 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander

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In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: lamb waves, industry 4.0, process control, elasticity, acoustoelasticity, microstructure

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611 Numerical Study of Nonlinear Guided Waves in Composite Laminates with Delaminations

Authors: Reza Soleimanpour, Ching Tai Ng

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Fibre-composites are widely used in various structures due to their attractive properties such as higher stiffness to mass ratio and better corrosion resistance compared to metallic materials. However, one serious weakness of this composite material is delamination, which is a subsurface separation of laminae. A low level of this barely visible damage can cause a significant reduction in residual compressive strength. In the last decade, the application of guided waves for damage detection has been a topic of significant interest for many researches. Among all guided wave techniques, nonlinear guided wave has shown outstanding sensitivity and capability for detecting different types of damages, e.g. cracks and delaminations. So far, most of researches on applications of nonlinear guided wave have been dedicated to isotropic material, such as aluminium and steel, while only a few works have been done on applications of nonlinear characteristics of guided waves in anisotropic materials. This study investigates the nonlinear interactions of the fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave (A0) with delamination in composite laminates using three-dimensional (3D) explicit finite element (FE) simulations. The nonlinearity considered in this study arises from interactions of two interfaces of sub-laminates at the delamination region, which generates contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN). The aim of this research is to investigate the phenomena of CAN in composite laminated beams by a series of numerical case studies. In this study interaction of fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave with delamination of different sizes are studied in detail. The results show that the A0 lamb wave interacts with the delaminations generating CAN in the form of higher harmonics, which is a good indicator for determining the existence of delaminations in composite laminates.

Keywords: contact acoustic nonlinearity, delamination, fibre reinforced composite beam, finite element, nonlinear guided waves

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610 Interaction of the Circumferential Lamb Wave with Delamination in the Middle of Pipe Wall

Authors: Li Ziming, He Cunfu, Liu Zenghua

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With aim for delamination type defects detection in manufacturing process of seamless pipe,this paper studies the interaction of the circumferential lamb wave with delamination in aluminum pipe.The delamination is located in the middle of pipe wall.A numerical study is carried out,the circumferential lamb wave used here is CL0 mode,which is generated with a finite element method code.Wave structures from the simulation are compared with theoretical results to verify the model’s accuracy.Delamination along the circumferential direction is established by demerging nodes of the same coordinates.When CL0 mode is incident at the entrance and exit of a delamination,it generates new mode-CL1,undergoes multiple reverberation and mode conversions between the two ends of the delamination. Signals of different receptions are obtained to provide insight in using CL0 mode for locating the delamination.

Keywords: circumferential lamb wave, delamination, FEM, seamless pipe

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609 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong

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Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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608 Linear and Nonlinear Resonance of Flat Bottom Hole in an Aluminum Plate

Authors: Biaou Jean-Baptiste Kouchoro, Anissa Meziane, Philippe Micheau, Mathieu Renier, Nicolas Quaegebeur

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Numerous experimental and numerical studies have shown the interest of the local defects resonance (LDR) for the Non-Destructive Testing of metallic and composite plates. Indeed, guided ultrasonic waves such as Lamb waves, which are increasingly used for the inspection of these flat structures, enable the generation of local resonance phenomena by their interaction with a damaged area, allowing the detection of defects. When subjected to a large amplitude motion, a nonlinear behavior can predominate in the damaged area. This work presents a 2D Finite Element Model of the local resonance of a 12 mm long and 5 mm deep Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in a 6 mm thick aluminum plate under the excitation induced by an incident A0 Lamb mode. The analysis of the transient response of the FBH enables the precise determination of its resonance frequencies and the associate modal deformations. Then, a linear parametric study varying the geometrical properties of the FBH highlights the sensitivity of the resonance frequency with respect to the plate thickness. It is demonstrated that the resonance effect disappears when the ratio of thicknesses between the FBH and the plate is below 0.1. Finally, the nonlinear behavior of the FBH is considered and studied introducing geometrical (taken into account the nonlinear component of the strain tensor) nonlinearities that occur at large vibration amplitudes. Experimental analysis allows observation of the resonance effects and nonlinear response of the FBH. The differences between these experimental results and the numerical results will be commented on. The results of this study are promising and allow to consider more realistic defects such as delamination in composite materials.

Keywords: guided waves, non-destructive testing, dynamic field testing, non-linear ultrasound/vibration

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607 Lamb Wave-Based Blood Coagulation Measurement System Using Citrated Plasma

Authors: Hyunjoo Choi, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim

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Acoustomicrofluidics has gained much attention due to the advantages, such as noninvasiveness and easy integration with other miniaturized systems, for clinical and biological applications. However, a limitation of acoustomicrofluidics is the complicated and costly fabrication process of electrodes. In this study, we propose a low-cost and lithography-free device using Lamb wave for blood analysis. Using a Lamb wave, calcium ion-removed blood plasma and coagulation reagents can be rapidly mixed for blood coagulation test. Due to the coagulation process, the viscosity of the sample increases and the viscosity change can be monitored by internal acoustic streaming of microparticles suspended in the sample droplet. When the acoustic streaming of particles stops by the viscosity increase is defined as the coagulation time. With the addition of calcium ion at 0-25 mM, the coagulation time was measured and compared with the conventional index for blood coagulation analysis, prothrombin time, which showed highly correlated with the correlation coefficient as 0.94. Therefore, our simple and cost-effective Lamb wave-based blood analysis device has the powerful potential to be utilized in clinical settings.

Keywords: acoustomicrofluidics, blood analysis, coagulation, lamb wave

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606 A Numerical Investigation of Lamb Wave Damage Diagnosis for Composite Delamination Using Instantaneous Phase

Authors: Haode Huo, Jingjing He, Rui Kang, Xuefei Guan

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This paper presents a study of Lamb wave damage diagnosis of composite delamination using instantaneous phase data. Numerical experiments are performed using the finite element method. Different sizes of delamination damages are modeled using finite element package ABAQUS. Lamb wave excitation and responses data are obtained using a pitch-catch configuration. Empirical mode decomposition is employed to extract the intrinsic mode functions (IMF). Hilbert–Huang Transform is applied to each of the resulting IMFs to obtain the instantaneous phase information. The baseline data for healthy plates are also generated using the same procedure. The size of delamination is correlated with the instantaneous phase change for damage diagnosis. It is observed that the unwrapped instantaneous phase of shows a consistent behavior with the increasing delamination size.

Keywords: delamination, lamb wave, finite element method, EMD, instantaneous phase

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605 Propagation of Weak Non-Linear Waves in Non-Equilibrium Flow

Authors: J. Jena, Monica Saxena

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In this paper, the propagation of weak nonlinear waves in non-equilibrium flow has been studied in detail using the perturbation method. The expansive action of receding piston undergoing infinite acceleration has been discussed. Central expansion fan, compression waves and shock fronts have been discussed and the solutions up to the first order in the characteristic plane and physical plane have been obtained.

Keywords: Characteristic wave front, weak non-linear waves, central expansion fan, compression waves

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604 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang

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The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

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603 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid

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One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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602 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

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Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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601 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan

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We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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600 Red Meat Price Volatility and Its' Relationship with Crude Oil and Exchange Rate

Authors: Melek Akay

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Turkey's agricultural commodity prices are prone to fluctuation but have gradually over time. A considerable amount of literature examines the changes in these prices by dealing with other commodities such as energy. Links between agricultural and energy markets have therefore been extensively investigated. Since red meat prices are becoming increasingly volatile in Turkey, this paper analyses the price volatility of veal, lamb and the relationship between red meat and crude oil, exchange rates by applying the generalize all period unconstraint volatility model, which generalises the GARCH (p, q) model for analysing weekly data covering a period of May 2006 to February 2017. Empirical results show that veal and lamb prices present volatility during the last decade, but particularly between 2009 and 2012. Moreover, oil prices have a significant effect on veal and lamb prices as well as their previous periods. Consequently, our research can lead policy makers to evaluate policy implementation in the appropriate way and reduce the impacts of oil prices by supporting producers.

Keywords: red meat price, volatility, crude oil, exchange rates, GARCH models, Turkey

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599 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya

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Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

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598 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

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The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

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597 Lamb Fleece Quality as an Indicator of Endoparasitism

Authors: Maria Christine Rizzon Cintra, Tâmara Duarte Borges, Cristina Santos Sotomaior

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Lamb’s fleece quality can be influenced by many factors, including welfare, stress, nutritional imbalance and presence of ectoparasites. The association of fleece quality and endoparasitism, until now, was not well solved. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if a fleece visual score could predict lamb parasitosis with the focus on gastrointestinal parasites. Fleece quality was scored based on a combination of cleanliness and wool cover, using a three-point scale (1-3). Score 1: fleece shows no sign of dirt or contamination, and had sufficient fleece for the breed and time of year with whole body coverage; Score 2: fleece was little damp or wet, with coat contaminated by small patches of mud or dung and some areas of fleece loose, but no shed or bald patches of no more than 10cm in diameter; Score 3: fleece filthy, very wet with coated in mud or dug, and loose fleece with shed areas of pulls with bald patches greater than 10cm, some areas may be trailing. All fleece quality scores (FQS) were assessed with lamb restrained to ensure close inspection and were done along lamb back and considered just one side of the body. To confirm the gastrointestinal parasites and animal’s anemia, faecal egg counts (FEC) and hematocrit were done for each animal. Lambs were also weighed. All these measurements were done every 15-days, beginning at 60-days until 150-days of life, using 48 animals crossed Texel x Ile de France. For statistics analysis, it was used Stratigraphic Program (4.1. version), and all significant differences between FQS, weight gain, age, hematocrit, and FEC were assessed using analysis of variance following by Duncan test, and the correlation was done by Pearson test at P<0.05. Results showed that animals scored as ‘3’ in FQS had a lower hematocrit and a higher FEC (p<0.05) than animals scored as ‘1’ (hematocrit: 26, 24, 23 and FEC 2107, 2962, 4626 respectively for 1, 2 and 3 FQS). There were correlations between FQS and FEC (r = 0.16), FQS and hematocrit (r = -0.33) an FQS and weight gain (r = -0.20) indicating that worst FQS animals (score 3) had greater gastrointestinal parasites’ infection, were more anemic and had lower weight gain than animals scored as ‘1’ or ‘2’ for FQS. Concerning the lamb´s age, animals that received score ‘3’ in FQS, maintained gastrointestinal parasites’ infection over the time (P<0.05). It was concluded that FQS could be an important indicator to be included in the selective treatment for control verminosis in lambs.

Keywords: fleece, gastrointestinal parasites, sheep, welfare

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596 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

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Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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595 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene

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The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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594 Analysis of Seismic Waves Generated by Blasting Operations and their Response on Buildings

Authors: S. Ziaran, M. Musil, M. Cekan, O. Chlebo

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The paper analyzes the response of buildings and industrially structures on seismic waves (low frequency mechanical vibration) generated by blasting operations. The principles of seismic analysis can be applied for different kinds of excitation such as: earthquakes, wind, explosions, random excitation from local transportation, periodic excitation from large rotating and/or machines with reciprocating motion, metal forming processes such as forging, shearing and stamping, chemical reactions, construction and earth moving work, and other strong deterministic and random energy sources caused by human activities. The article deals with the response of seismic, low frequency, mechanical vibrations generated by nearby blasting operations on a residential home. The goal was to determine the fundamental natural frequencies of the measured structure; therefore it is important to determine the resonant frequencies to design a suitable modal damping. The article also analyzes the package of seismic waves generated by blasting (Primary waves – P-waves and Secondary waves S-waves) and investigated the transfer regions. For the detection of seismic waves resulting from an explosion, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and modal analysis, in the frequency domain, is used and the signal was acquired and analyzed also in the time domain. In the conclusions the measured results of seismic waves caused by blasting in a nearby quarry and its effect on a nearby structure (house) is analyzed. The response on the house, including the fundamental natural frequency and possible fatigue damage is also assessed.

Keywords: building structure, seismic waves, spectral analysis, structural response

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593 Observations of Magnetospheric Ulf Waves in Connection to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at Mercury

Authors: Elisabet Liljeblad, Tomas Karlsson, Torbjorn Sundberg, Anita Kullen

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The magnetospheric magnetic field data from the MESSENGER spacecraft is investigated to establish the presence of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in connection to 131 previously observed nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHWs) at Mercury. Distinct ULF signatures are detected in 44 out of the 131 magnetospheric traversals prior to or after observing a KHW. In particular, 39 of these 44 ULF events are highly coherent at the frequency of maximum power spectral density. The waves observed at the dayside, which appears mainly at the duskside and naturally following the KHW occurrence asymmetry, are significantly different to the events behind the dawn-dusk terminator and have the following distinct wave characteristics: they oscillate clearly in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction to the mean magnetic field with a wave normal angle more in the parallel than the perpendicular direction, increase in absolute ellipticity with distance from noon, are almost exclusively right-hand polarized, and are observed mainly for frequencies in the range 0.02-0.04 Hz. These results indicate that the dayside ULF waves are likely to shear Alfvén waves driven by KHWs at the magnetopause, which in turn manifests the importance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in terms of mass transport throughout the Mercury magnetosphere.

Keywords: ultra-low frequency waves, kelvin-Helmholtz instability, magnetospheric processes, mercury, messenger, energy and momentum transfer in planetary environments

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592 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel

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In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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591 A Review on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram, V. Sundar

Abstract:

Caisson breakwaters are gravity structures resting on the seabed and piercing the free surface sunk in coastal waters to break the energy in the waves and protect the water area behind them by creating tranquil conditions on its lee side for the purpose of berthing of vessels. A number of formula and methodologies have been proposed for calculating the forces on caissons due to waves, most of which being evolved through intensive laboratory and field measurements. The reflection of waves from such breakwaters often generates clapotis, leading to an amplification of waves in its vicinity. This result in increased pressures and forces, forcing researchers to modify its seaside shape as well as placing dissipaters in the form of screens. Apart from the above aspects, this paper also discusses the other important phenomena, like overtopping that dictates the stability of caisson breakwaters.

Keywords: caisson breakwater, Jarlan type breakwater, screens, circular breakwater

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590 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian

Abstract:

Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

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589 Using Peer Instruction in Physics of Waves for Pre-Service Science Teacher

Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to investigate Physics achievement of the pre-service science teacher studying in general science program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. The program has provided the new curriculum that focuses on 21st-century skills development. Active learning approaches are used to teach in all subjects. One of the active learning approaches Peer Instruction, or PI was used in this study to teach physics of waves as a compulsory course. It was conducted in the second semester from January to May of 2017. The concept test was given to evaluate pre-service science teachers’ understanding in concept of waves. Problem-solving assessment form was used to evaluate their problem-solving skill. The results indicated that after they had learned through Peer Instruction in physics of waves course, their concepts in physics of waves was significantly higher at 0.05 confident levels. Their problem-solving skill from the whole class was at the highest level. Based on the group interview on the opinions of using Peer Instruction in Physics class, they mostly felt that it was very useful and helping them understand more about physics, especially for female students.

Keywords: peer instruction, physics of waves, pre-service science teacher, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat university

Procedia PDF Downloads 275