Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: web crawler

14 Design of Cylindrical Crawler Robot Inspired by Amoeba Locomotion

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase


Recently, the need of colonoscopy is increasing because of the rise of colonic disorder including cancer of the colon. However, current colonoscopy depends on doctor's skill strongly. Therefore, a large intestine endoscope that does not depend on the techniques of a doctor with high safety is required. In this research, we aim at development a novel large intestine endoscope that can realize safe insertion without specific techniques. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and an earthworm-like robot are all described in the relevant literature as endoscope robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a small cylindrical crawler robot inspired by amoeba locomotion, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. In addition, we developed a prototype of the large intestine endoscope using the proposed crawler mechanism. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, endoscopic robot, narrow path, amoeba locomotion.

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13 Characteristics of Elastic Tracked-Crawler Based on Worm-Rack Mechanism

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase


There are many pipes such as a water pipe and a gas pipe in a chemical plant and house. It is possible to prevent accidents by these inspections. However, many pipes are very narrow and it is difficult for people to inspect directly. Therefore, development of a robot that can move in narrow pipe is necessary. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and a multi-leg robot are all described in the relevant literature as pipe inspection robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a cylindrical crawler robot based on worm-rack mechanism, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. In addition, performance tests show that it can propel itself in confined spaces. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, pipe inspection robot, worm-rack mechanism, amoeba locomotion

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12 Improving Search Engine Performance by Removing Indexes to Malicious URLs

Authors: Durga Toshniwal, Lokesh Agrawal


As the web continues to play an increasing role in information exchange, and conducting daily activities, computer users have become the target of miscreants which infects hosts with malware or adware for financial gains. Unfortunately, even a single visit to compromised web site enables the attacker to detect vulnerabilities in the user’s applications and force the downloading of multitude of malware binaries. We provide an approach to effectively scan the so-called drive-by downloads on the Internet. Drive-by downloads are result of URLs that attempt to exploit their visitors and cause malware to be installed and run automatically. To scan the web for malicious pages, the first step is to use a crawler to collect URLs that live on the Internet, and then to apply fast prefiltering techniques to reduce the amount of pages that are needed to be examined by precise, but slower, analysis tools (such as honey clients or antivirus programs). Although the technique is effective, it requires a substantial amount of resources. A main reason is that the crawler encounters many pages on the web that are legitimate and needs to be filtered. In this paper, to characterize the nature of this rising threat, we present implementation of a web crawler on Python, an approach to search the web more efficiently for pages that are likely to be malicious, filtering benign pages and passing remaining pages to antivirus program for detection of malwares. Our approaches starts from an initial seed of known, malicious web pages. Using these seeds, our system generates search engines queries to identify other malicious pages that are similar to the ones in the initial seed. By doing so, it leverages the crawling infrastructure of search engines to retrieve URLs that are much more likely to be malicious than a random page on the web. The results shows that this guided approach is able to identify malicious web pages more efficiently when compared to random crawling-based approaches.

Keywords: web crawler, malwares, seeds, drive-by-downloads, security

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11 Proxisch: An Optimization Approach of Large-Scale Unstable Proxy Servers Scheduling

Authors: Xiaoming Jiang, Jinqiao Shi, Qingfeng Tan, Wentao Zhang, Xuebin Wang, Muqian Chen


Nowadays, big companies such as Google, Microsoft, which have adequate proxy servers, have perfectly implemented their web crawlers for a certain website in parallel. But due to lack of expensive proxy servers, it is still a puzzle for researchers to crawl large amounts of information from a single website in parallel. In this case, it is a good choice for researchers to use free public proxy servers which are crawled from the Internet. In order to improve efficiency of web crawler, the following two issues should be considered primarily: (1) Tasks may fail owing to the instability of free proxy servers; (2) A proxy server will be blocked if it visits a single website frequently. In this paper, we propose Proxisch, an optimization approach of large-scale unstable proxy servers scheduling, which allow anyone with extremely low cost to run a web crawler efficiently. Proxisch is designed to work efficiently by making maximum use of reliable proxy servers. To solve second problem, it establishes a frequency control mechanism which can ensure the visiting frequency of any chosen proxy server below the website’s limit. The results show that our approach performs better than the other scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: proxy server, priority queue, optimization algorithm, distributed web crawling

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10 A Machine Learning-Assisted Crime and Threat Intelligence Hunter

Authors: Mohammad Shameel, Peter K. K. Loh, James H. Ng


Cybercrime is a new category of crime which poses a different challenge for crime investigators and incident responders. Attackers can mask their identities using a suite of tools and with the help of the deep web, which makes them difficult to track down. Scouring the deep web manually takes time and is inefficient. There is a growing need for a tool to scour the deep web to obtain useful evidence or intel automatically. In this paper, we will explain the background and motivation behind the research, present a survey of existing research on related tools, describe the design of our own crime/threat intelligence hunting tool prototype, demonstrate its capability with some test cases and lastly, conclude with proposals for future enhancements.

Keywords: cybercrime, deep web, threat intelligence, web crawler

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9 A Review on Predictive Sound Recognition System

Authors: Ajay Kadam, Ramesh Kagalkar


The proposed research objective is to add to a framework for programmed recognition of sound. In this framework the real errand is to distinguish any information sound stream investigate it & anticipate the likelihood of diverse sounds show up in it. To create and industrially conveyed an adaptable sound web crawler a flexible sound search engine. The calculation is clamor and contortion safe, computationally productive, and hugely adaptable, equipped for rapidly recognizing a short portion of sound stream caught through a phone microphone in the presence of frontal area voices and other predominant commotion, and through voice codec pressure, out of a database of over accessible tracks. The algorithm utilizes a combinatorial hashed time-recurrence group of stars examination of the sound, yielding ordinary properties, for example, transparency, in which numerous tracks combined may each be distinguished.

Keywords: fingerprinting, pure tone, white noise, hash function

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8 Automated Evaluation Approach for Time-Dependent Question Answering Pairs on Web Crawler Based Question Answering System

Authors: Shraddha Chaudhary, Raksha Agarwal, Niladri Chatterjee


This work demonstrates a web crawler-based generalized end-to-end open domain Question Answering (QA) system. An efficient QA system requires a significant amount of domain knowledge to answer any question with the aim to find an exact and correct answer in the form of a number, a noun, a short phrase, or a brief piece of text for the user's questions. Analysis of the question, searching the relevant document, and choosing an answer are three important steps in a QA system. This work uses a web scraper (Beautiful Soup) to extract K-documents from the web. The value of K can be calibrated on the basis of a trade-off between time and accuracy. This is followed by a passage ranking process using the MS-Marco dataset trained on 500K queries to extract the most relevant text passage, to shorten the lengthy documents. Further, a QA system is used to extract the answers from the shortened documents based on the query and return the top 3 answers. For evaluation of such systems, accuracy is judged by the exact match between predicted answers and gold answers. But automatic evaluation methods fail due to the linguistic ambiguities inherent in the questions. Moreover, reference answers are often not exhaustive or are out of date. Hence correct answers predicted by the system are often judged incorrect according to the automated metrics. One such scenario arises from the original Google Natural Question (GNQ) dataset which was collected and made available in the year 2016. Use of any such dataset proves to be inefficient with respect to any questions that have time-varying answers. For illustration, if the query is where will be the next Olympics? Gold Answer for the above query as given in the GNQ dataset is “Tokyo”. Since the dataset was collected in the year 2016, and the next Olympics after 2016 were in 2020 that was in Tokyo which is absolutely correct. But if the same question is asked in 2022 then the answer is “Paris, 2024”. Consequently, any evaluation based on the GNQ dataset will be incorrect. Such erroneous predictions are usually given to human evaluators for further validation which is quite expensive and time-consuming. To address this erroneous evaluation, the present work proposes an automated approach for evaluating time-dependent question-answer pairs. In particular, it proposes a metric using the current timestamp along with top-n predicted answers from a given QA system. To test the proposed approach GNQ dataset has been used and the system achieved an accuracy of 78% for a test dataset comprising 100 QA pairs. This test data was automatically extracted using an analysis-based approach from 10K QA pairs of the GNQ dataset. The results obtained are encouraging. The proposed technique appears to have the possibility of developing into a useful scheme for gathering precise, reliable, and specific information in a real-time and efficient manner. Our subsequent experiments will be guided towards establishing the efficacy of the above system for a larger set of time-dependent QA pairs.

Keywords: web-based information retrieval, open domain question answering system, time-varying QA, QA evaluation

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7 A Comparative Study between Different Techniques of Off-Page and On-Page Search Engine Optimization

Authors: Ahmed Ishtiaq, Maeeda Khalid, Umair Sajjad


In the fast-moving world, information is the key to success. If information is easily available, then it makes work easy. The Internet is the biggest collection and source of information nowadays, and with every single day, the data on internet increases, and it becomes difficult to find required data. Everyone wants to make his/her website at the top of search results. This can be possible when you have applied some techniques of SEO inside your application or outside your application, which are two types of SEO, onsite and offsite SEO. SEO is an abbreviation of Search Engine Optimization, and it is a set of techniques, methods to increase users of a website on World Wide Web or to rank up your website in search engine indexing. In this paper, we have compared different techniques of Onpage and Offpage SEO, and we have suggested many things that should be changed inside webpage, outside web page and mentioned some most powerful and search engine considerable elements and techniques in both types of SEO in order to gain high ranking on Search Engine.

Keywords: auto-suggestion, search engine optimization, SEO, query, web mining, web crawler

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6 A Framework of Product Information Service System Using Mobile Image Retrieval and Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Mei-Yi Wu, Shang-Ming Huang


The online shoppers nowadays often search the product information on the Internet using some keywords of products. To use this kind of information searching model, shoppers should have a preliminary understanding about their interesting products and choose the correct keywords. However, if the products are first contact (for example, the worn clothes or backpack of passengers which you do not have any idea about the brands), these products cannot be retrieved due to insufficient information. In this paper, we discuss and study the applications in E-commerce using image retrieval and text mining techniques. We design a reasonable E-commerce application system containing three layers in the architecture to provide users product information. The system can automatically search and retrieval similar images and corresponding web pages on Internet according to the target pictures which taken by users. Then text mining techniques are applied to extract important keywords from these retrieval web pages and search the prices on different online shopping stores with these keywords using a web crawler. Finally, the users can obtain the product information including photos and prices of their favorite products. The experiments shows the efficiency of proposed system.

Keywords: mobile image retrieval, text mining, product information service system, online marketing

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5 An in vitro Evaluation of the Anthelmintic Activities of the Decoction and the Hexane-Soluble Extract and Its Fractions of the Aerial Part of Ruellia tuberosa Linn

Authors: Jeanne Phyre Lagare, Kirstin Rhys Pueblos


This study was conducted to evaluate the possible anthelmintic activities of the decoction and the nonpolar constituents of the aerial part of Ruellia tuberosa Linn. against Eudrilus eugeniae or African Night Crawler earthworms as test organism which are of anatomic and physiological resemblance to the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. The in vitro anthelmintic assay of each extract was done by determining the time of paralysis and death of the test organisms at three concentrations (3, 25, 50 mg/mL). The hexane-soluble extract (RTH) showed better results compared to the decoction (RTD) at all concentrations employed. All the fractions of RTH showed significantly higher anthelmintic activities (111.43, 48.19, and 62.3 minutes, respectively) compared to their mother extract (164.56 minutes) at 3-mg/mL concentration. Moreover, RTH5 showed a comparable activity with the positive control mebendazole at 3-mg/mL concentration. Remarkably, fraction RTH4 exhibited the best anthelmintic activity at 3-mg/mL concentration for it showed the strongest anthelmintic activity than the rest of the test solutions tested. The study demonstrated the promising anthelmintic activity of the nonpolar constituent of the ethanolic extract of R. tuberosa Linn.

Keywords: anthelmintic activity, Eudrillus eugenia, mebendazole, Ruellia tuberosa Linn

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4 The Development of Chinese-English Homophonic Word Pairs Databases for English Teaching and Learning

Authors: Yuh-Jen Wu, Chun-Min Lin


Homophonic words are common in Mandarin Chinese which belongs to the tonal language family. Using homophonic cues to study foreign languages is one of the learning techniques of mnemonics that can aid the retention and retrieval of information in the human memory. When learning difficult foreign words, some learners transpose them with words in a language they are familiar with to build an association and strengthen working memory. These phonological clues are beneficial means for novice language learners. In the classroom, if mnemonic skills are used at the appropriate time in the instructional sequence, it may achieve their maximum effectiveness. For Chinese-speaking students, proper use of Chinese-English homophonic word pairs may help them learn difficult vocabulary. In this study, a database program is developed by employing Visual Basic. The database contains two corpora, one with Chinese lexical items and the other with English ones. The Chinese corpus contains 59,053 Chinese words that were collected by a web crawler. The pronunciations of this group of words are compared with words in an English corpus based on WordNet, a lexical database for the English language. Words in both databases with similar pronunciation chunks and batches are detected. A total of approximately 1,000 Chinese lexical items are located in the preliminary comparison. These homophonic word pairs can serve as a valuable tool to assist Chinese-speaking students in learning and memorizing new English vocabulary.

Keywords: Chinese, corpus, English, homophonic words, vocabulary

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3 Effective Nutrition Label Use on Smartphones

Authors: Vladimir Kulyukin, Tanwir Zaman, Sarat Kiran Andhavarapu


Research on nutrition label use identifies four factors that impede comprehension and retention of nutrition information by consumers: label’s location on the package, presentation of information within the label, label’s surface size, and surrounding visual clutter. In this paper, a system is presented that makes nutrition label use more effective for nutrition information comprehension and retention. The system’s front end is a smartphone application. The system’s back end is a four node Linux cluster for image recognition and data storage. Image frames captured on the smartphone are sent to the back end for skewed or aligned barcode recognition. When barcodes are recognized, corresponding nutrition labels are retrieved from a cloud database and presented to the user on the smartphone’s touchscreen. Each displayed nutrition label is positioned centrally on the touchscreen with no surrounding visual clutter. Wikipedia links to important nutrition terms are embedded to improve comprehension and retention of nutrition information. Standard touch gestures (e.g., zoom in/out) available on mainstream smartphones are used to manipulate the label’s surface size. The nutrition label database currently includes 200,000 nutrition labels compiled from public web sites by a custom crawler. Stress test experiments with the node cluster are presented. Implications for proactive nutrition management and food policy are discussed.

Keywords: mobile computing, cloud computing, nutrition label use, nutrition management, barcode scanning

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2 Utilizing Topic Modelling for Assessing Mhealth App’s Risks to Users’ Health before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Pedro Augusto Da Silva E Souza Miranda, Niloofar Jalali, Shweta Mistry


BACKGROUND: Software developers utilize automated solutions to scrape users’ reviews to extract meaningful knowledge to identify problems (e.g., bugs, compatibility issues) and possible enhancements (e.g., users’ requests) to their solutions. However, most of these solutions do not consider the health risk aspects to users. Recent works have shed light on the importance of including health risk considerations in the development cycle of mHealth apps to prevent harm to its users. PROBLEM: The COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada (and World) is currently forcing physical distancing upon the general population. This new lifestyle made the usage of mHealth applications more essential than ever, with a projected market forecast of 332 billion dollars by 2025. However, this new insurgency in mHealth usage comes with possible risks to users’ health due to mHealth apps problems (e.g., wrong insulin dosage indication due to a UI error). OBJECTIVE: These works aim to raise awareness amongst mHealth developers of the importance of considering risks to users’ health within their development lifecycle. Moreover, this work also aims to help mHealth developers with a Proof-of-Concept (POC) solution to understand, process, and identify possible health risks to users of mHealth apps based on users’ reviews. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-method study design. We developed a crawler to mine the negative reviews from two samples of mHealth apps (my fitness, medisafe) from the Google Play store users. For each mHealth app, we performed the following steps: • The reviews are divided into two groups, before starting the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date before 15 Feb 2019) and during the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date starts from 16 Feb 2019 till Dec 2020). For each period, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model was used to identify the different clusters of reviews based on similar topics of review The topics before and during COVID-19 are compared, and the significant difference in frequency and severity of similar topics are identified. RESULTS: We successfully scraped, filtered, processed, and identified health-related topics in both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The results demonstrated the similarity between topics before and during the COVID-19.

Keywords: natural language processing (NLP), topic modeling, mHealth, COVID-19, software engineering, telemedicine, health risks

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1 Exploring the Correlation between Population Distribution and Urban Heat Island under Urban Data: Taking Shenzhen Urban Heat Island as an Example

Authors: Wang Yang


Shenzhen is a modern city of China's reform and opening-up policy, the development of urban morphology has been established on the administration of the Chinese government. This city`s planning paradigm is primarily affected by the spatial structure and human behavior. The subjective urban agglomeration center is divided into several groups and centers. In comparisons of this effect, the city development law has better to be neglected. With the continuous development of the internet, extensive data technology has been introduced in China. Data mining and data analysis has become important tools in municipal research. Data mining has been utilized to improve data cleaning such as receiving business data, traffic data and population data. Prior to data mining, government data were collected by traditional means, then were analyzed using city-relationship research, delaying the timeliness of urban development, especially for the contemporary city. Data update speed is very fast and based on the Internet. The city's point of interest (POI) in the excavation serves as data source affecting the city design, while satellite remote sensing is used as a reference object, city analysis is conducted in both directions, the administrative paradigm of government is broken and urban research is restored. Therefore, the use of data mining in urban analysis is very important. The satellite remote sensing data of the Shenzhen city in July 2018 were measured by the satellite Modis sensor and can be utilized to perform land surface temperature inversion, and analyze city heat island distribution of Shenzhen. This article acquired and classified the data from Shenzhen by using Data crawler technology. Data of Shenzhen heat island and interest points were simulated and analyzed in the GIS platform to discover the main features of functional equivalent distribution influence. Shenzhen is located in the east-west area of China. The city’s main streets are also determined according to the direction of city development. Therefore, it is determined that the functional area of the city is also distributed in the east-west direction. The urban heat island can express the heat map according to the functional urban area. Regional POI has correspondence. The research result clearly explains that the distribution of the urban heat island and the distribution of urban POIs are one-to-one correspondence. Urban heat island is primarily influenced by the properties of the underlying surface, avoiding the impact of urban climate. Using urban POIs as analysis object, the distribution of municipal POIs and population aggregation are closely connected, so that the distribution of the population corresponded with the distribution of the urban heat island.

Keywords: POI, satellite remote sensing, the population distribution, urban heat island thermal map

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