Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Bathiya Bandara

14 Application of Federated Learning in the Health Care Sector for Malware Detection and Mitigation Using Software-Defined Networking Approach

Authors: A. Dinelka Panagoda, Bathiya Bandara, Chamod Wijetunga, Chathura Malinda, Lakmal Rupasinghe, Chethana Liyanapathirana


This research takes us forward with the concepts of Federated Learning and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to introduce an efficient malware detection technique and provide a mitigation mechanism to give birth to a resilient and automated healthcare sector network system by also adding the feature of extended privacy preservation. Due to the daily transformation of new malware attacks on hospital Integrated Clinical Environment (ICEs), the healthcare industry is at an undefinable peak of never knowing its continuity direction. The state of blindness by the array of indispensable opportunities that new medical device inventions and their connected coordination offer daily, a factor that should be focused driven is not yet entirely understood by most healthcare operators and patients. This solution has the involvement of four clients in the form of hospital networks to build up the federated learning experimentation architectural structure with different geographical participation to reach the most reasonable accuracy rate with privacy preservation. While the logistic regression with cross-entropy conveys the detection, SDN comes in handy in the second half of the research to stack up the initial development phases of the system with malware mitigation based on policy implementation. The overall evaluation sums up with a system that proves the accuracy with the added privacy. It is no longer needed to continue with traditional centralized systems that offer almost everything but not privacy.

Keywords: software-defined network, federated learning, privacy, integrated clinical environment, decentralized learning, malware detection, malware mitigation

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13 Measuring the Academic Self-Efficacy of Undergraduates: The Role of Gender and Academic Year Experience

Authors: Vilani Sachitra, Udari Bandara


Self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation, well-being, and personal accomplishment. This study measured the levels of academic self-efficacy of undergraduates and also examined whether there any differences in academic self-efficacy with respect to gender and academic year. A structured questionnaire was employed to collect data from undergraduates who enrolled the Bachelor of Commerce degree programme at the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. The outcome of the study revealed that undergraduates lacked the confidence to ask and answer questions, seek help from lecturers, have a study plan and engage in academic discussion and note-taking. However, the findings also demonstrated that undergraduates were not hesitant about seeking help from friends, had confidence on meeting the deadlines and completing the degree within four years. Interestingly, females displayed higher academic self-efficacy than males. Specifically, the data were supported to conclude that there were significant differences in academic self-efficacy with respect to academic years.

Keywords: academic year, bachelor of commerce undergraduates, gender, self-efficacy

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12 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo


Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.

Keywords: arnold cat map, biometric encryption, block cipher, elliptic curve cryptography, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s encoding

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11 EduEasy: Smart Learning Assistant System

Authors: A. Karunasena, P. Bandara, J. A. T. P. Jayasuriya, P. D. Gallage, J. M. S. D. Jayasundara, L. A. P. Y. P. Nuwanjaya


Usage of smart learning concepts has increased rapidly all over the world recently as better teaching and learning methods. Most educational institutes such as universities are experimenting those concepts with their students. Smart learning concepts are especially useful for students to learn better in large classes. In large classes, the lecture method is the most popular method of teaching. In the lecture method, the lecturer presents the content mostly using lecture slides, and the students make their own notes based on the content presented. However, some students may find difficulties with the above method due to various issues such as speed in delivery. The purpose of this research is to assist students in large classes in the following content. The research proposes a solution with four components, namely note-taker, slide matcher, reference finder, and question presenter, which are helpful for the students to obtain a summarized version of the lecture note, easily navigate to the content and find resources, and revise content using questions.

Keywords: automatic summarization, extractive text summarization, speech recognition library, sentence extraction, automatic web search, automatic question generator, sentence scoring, the term weight

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10 Efficiency of Pre-Treatment Methods for Biodiesel Production from Mixed Culture of Microalgae

Authors: Malith Premarathne, Shehan Bandara, Kaushalya G. Batawala, Thilini U. Ariyadasa


The rapid depletion of fossil fuel supplies and the emission of carbon dioxide by their continued combustion have paved the way for increased production of carbon-neutral biodiesel from naturally occurring oil sources. The high biomass growth rate and lipid production of microalgae make it a viable source for biodiesel production compared to conventional feedstock. In Sri Lanka, the production of biodiesel by employing indigenous microalgae species is at its emerging stage. This work was an attempt to compare the various pre-treatment methods before extracting lipids such as autoclaving, microwaving and sonication. A mixed culture of microalgae predominantly consisting of Chlorella sp. was obtained from Beire Lake which is an algae rich, organically polluted water body located in Colombo, Sri Lanka. After each pre-treatment method, a standard solvent extraction using Bligh and Dyer’s method was used to compare the total lipid content in percentage dry weight (% dwt). The fatty acid profiles of the oils extracted with each pretreatment method were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The properties of the biodiesels were predicted by Biodiesel Analyzer© Version 1.1, in order to compare with ASTM 6751-08 biodiesel standard.

Keywords: biodiesel, lipid extraction, microalgae, pre-treatment

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9 Artificial Neural Network for Forecasting of Daily Reservoir Inflow: Case Study of the Kotmale Reservoir in Sri Lanka

Authors: E. U. Dampage, Ovindi D. Bandara, Vinushi S. Waraketiya, Samitha S. R. De Silva, Yasiru S. Gunarathne


The knowledge of water inflow figures is paramount in decision making on the allocation for consumption for numerous purposes; irrigation, hydropower, domestic and industrial usage, and flood control. The understanding of how reservoir inflows are affected by different climatic and hydrological conditions is crucial to enable effective water management and downstream flood control. In this research, we propose a method using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to assist the aforesaid decision-making process. The Kotmale reservoir, which is the uppermost reservoir in the Mahaweli reservoir complex in Sri Lanka, was used as the test bed for this research. The ANN uses the runoff in the Kotmale reservoir catchment area and the effect of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) to make a forecast for seven days ahead. Three types of ANN are tested; Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and LSTM. The extensive field trials and validation endeavors found that the LSTM ANN provides superior performance in the aspects of accuracy and latency.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, CNN, inflow, long short-term memory, LSTM, multi-layer perceptron, MLP, neural network

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8 ‘BEST BARK’ Dog Care and Owner Consultation System

Authors: Shalitha Jayasekara, Saluk Bawantha, Dinithi Anupama, Isuru Gunarathne, Pradeepa Bandara, Hansi De Silva


Dogs have been known as "man's best friend" for generations, providing friendship and loyalty to their human counterparts. However, due to people's busy lives, they are unaware of the ailments that can affect their pets. However, in recent years, mobile technologies have had a significant impact on our lives, and with technological improvements, a rule-based expert system allows the end-user to enable new types of healthcare systems. The advent of Android OS-based smartphones with more user-friendly interfaces and lower pricing opens new possibilities for continuous monitoring of pets' health conditions, such as healthy dogs, dangerous ingestions, and swallowed objects. The proposed ‘Best Bark’ Dog care and owner consultation system is a mobile application for dog owners. Four main components for dog owners were implemented after a questionnaire was distributed to the target group of audience and the findings were evaluated. The proposed applications are widely used to provide health and clinical support to dog owners, including suggesting exercise and diet plans and answering queries about their dogs. Additionally, after the owner uploads a photo of the dog, the application provides immediate feedback and a description of the dog's skin disease.

Keywords: Convolution Neural Networks, Artificial Neural Networks, Knowledgebase, Sentimental Analysis.

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7 Detecting Geographically Dispersed Overlay Communities Using Community Networks

Authors: Madhushi Bandara, Dharshana Kasthurirathna, Danaja Maldeniya, Mahendra Piraveenan


Community detection is an extremely useful technique in understanding the structure and function of a social network. Louvain algorithm, which is based on Newman-Girman modularity optimization technique, is extensively used as a computationally efficient method extract the communities in social networks. It has been suggested that the nodes that are in close geographical proximity have a higher tendency of forming communities. Variants of the Newman-Girman modularity measure such as dist-modularity try to normalize the effect of geographical proximity to extract geographically dispersed communities, at the expense of losing the information about the geographically proximate communities. In this work, we propose a method to extract geographically dispersed communities while preserving the information about the geographically proximate communities, by analyzing the ‘community network’, where the centroids of communities would be considered as network nodes. We suggest that the inter-community link strengths, which are normalized over the community sizes, may be used to identify and extract the ‘overlay communities’. The overlay communities would have relatively higher link strengths, despite being relatively apart in their spatial distribution. We apply this method to the Gowalla online social network, which contains the geographical signatures of its users, and identify the overlay communities within it.

Keywords: social networks, community detection, modularity optimization, geographically dispersed communities

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6 E-Learning Platform for School Kids

Authors: Gihan Thilakarathna, Fernando Ishara, Rathnayake Yasith, Bandara A. M. R. Y.


E-learning is a crucial component of intelligent education. Even in the midst of a pandemic, E-learning is becoming increasingly important in the educational system. Several e-learning programs are accessible for students. Here, we decided to create an e-learning framework for children. We've found a few issues that teachers are having with their online classes. When there are numerous students in an online classroom, how does a teacher recognize a student's focus on academics and below-the-surface behaviors? Some kids are not paying attention in class, and others are napping. The teacher is unable to keep track of each and every student. Key challenge in e-learning is online exams. Because students can cheat easily during online exams. Hence there is need of exam proctoring is occurred. In here we propose an automated online exam cheating detection method using a web camera. The purpose of this project is to present an E-learning platform for math education and include games for kids as an alternative teaching method for math students. The game will be accessible via a web browser. The imagery in the game is drawn in a cartoonish style. This will help students learn math through games. Everything in this day and age is moving towards automation. However, automatic answer evaluation is only available for MCQ-based questions. As a result, the checker has a difficult time evaluating the theory solution. The current system requires more manpower and takes a long time to evaluate responses. It's also possible to mark two identical responses differently and receive two different grades. As a result, this application employs machine learning techniques to provide an automatic evaluation of subjective responses based on the keyword provided to the computer as student input, resulting in a fair distribution of marks. In addition, it will save time and manpower. We used deep learning, machine learning, image processing and natural language technologies to develop these research components.

Keywords: math, education games, e-learning platform, artificial intelligence

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5 Production and Purification of Monosaccharides by Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse in an Ionic Liquid Medium

Authors: T. R. Bandara, H. Jaelani, G. J. Griffin


The conversion of lignocellulosic waste materials, such as sugar cane bagasse, to biofuels such as ethanol has attracted significant interest as a potential element for transforming transport fuel supplies to totally renewable sources. However, the refractory nature of the cellulosic structure of lignocellulosic materials has impeded progress on developing an economic process, whereby the cellulose component may be effectively broken down to glucose monosaccharides and then purified to allow downstream fermentation. Ionic liquid (IL) treatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been shown to disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose thus potentially enabling the cellulose to be more readily hydrolysed to monosaccharides. Furthermore, conventional hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials yields byproducts that are inhibitors for efficient fermentation of the monosaccharides. However, selective extraction of monosaccharides from an aqueous/IL phase into an organic phase utilizing a combination of boronic acids and quaternary amines has shown promise as a purification process. Hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse immersed in an aqueous solution with IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) was conducted at different pH and temperature below 100 ºC. It was found that the use of a high concentration of hydrochloric acid to acidify the solution inhibited the hydrolysis of bagasse. At high pH (i.e. basic conditions), using sodium hydroxide, catalyst yields were reduced for total reducing sugars (TRS) due to the rapid degradation of the sugars formed. For purification trials, a supported liquid membrane (SLM) apparatus was constructed, whereby a synthetic solution containing xylose and glucose in an aqueous IL phase was transported across a membrane impregnated with phenyl boronic acid/Aliquat 336 to an aqueous phase. The transport rate of xylose was generally higher than that of glucose indicating that a SLM scheme may not only be useful for purifying sugars from undesirable toxic compounds, but also for fractionating sugars to improve fermentation efficiency.

Keywords: biomass, bagasse, hydrolysis, monosaccharide, supported liquid membrane, purification

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4 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nutrition Related Non-Communicable Diseases in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: N. W. I. A. Jayawardana, W. A. T. A. Jayalath, W. M. T. Madhujith, U. Ralapanawa, R. S. Jayasekera, S. A. S. B. Alagiyawanna, A. M. K. R. Bandara, N. S. Kalupahana


There is mounting evidence to the effect that dietary and lifestyle changes affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study was conducted to investigate the association of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and duration of sleep with overweight, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2694 individuals aged between 17 – 68 years (Mean = 31) were included in the study. Body Mass Index cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants as normal, overweight and obese. The dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] and data on the level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and sleeping hours were obtained using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, random blood glucose levels were measured to determine the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Among the individuals, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34% and 16.4% respectively. Approximately 37% of the participants suffered from hypertension. Overweight and obesity were associated with older age men (P<0.0001), frequency of smoking (P=0.0434), alcohol consumption level (P=0.0287) and the quantity of lipid intake (P=0.0081). Consumption of fish (P=0.6983) and salty snacks (P=0.8327), sleeping hours (P=0.6847) and the level of physical activity were not significantly (P=0.3301) associated with the incidence of overweight and obesity. Based on the fitted model, only age was significantly associated with hypertension (P < 0.001). Further, age (P < 0.0001), sleeping hours (P=0.0953) and consumption of fatty foods (P=0.0930) were significantly associated with diabetes. Age was associated with higher odds of pre diabetes (OR:1.089;95% CI:1.053,1.127) and diabetes (OR:1.077;95% CI:1.055,1.1) whereas 7-8 hrs. of sleep per day was associated with lesser odds of diabetes (OR:0.403;95% CI:0.184,0.884). High prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in working-age males is a threatening sign for this area. As this population ages in the future and urbanization continues, the prevalence of above risk factors will likely to escalate.

Keywords: age, males, non-communicable diseases, obesity

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3 Impact on the Yield of Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content from Pomegranate Fruit by Different Extraction Methods

Authors: Udeshika Yapa Bandara, Chamindri Witharana, Preethi Soysa


Pomegranate fruits are used in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, Sri Lanka. Due to prevailing therapeutic effects of phytochemicals, this study was focus on anti-cancer properties of the constituents in the parts of Pomegranate fruit. Furthermore, the method of extraction, plays a crucial step of the phytochemical analysis. Therefore, this study was focus on different extraction methods. Five techniques were involved for the peel and the pericarp to evaluate the most effective extraction method; Boiling with electric burner (BL), Sonication (SN), Microwaving (MC), Heating in a 50°C water bath (WB) and Sonication followed by Microwaving (SN-MC). The presence of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to recognize the best extraction method for polyphenols. The total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (w/w% GAE). Total flavonoid content was also determined spectrophotometrically with Aluminium chloride colourimetric assay and expressed as Quercetin Equivalents (w/w % QE). Pomegranate juice was taken as fermented juice (with Saccharomyces bayanus) and fresh juice. Powdered seeds were refluxed, filtered and freeze-dried. 2g of freeze-dried powder of each component was dissolved in 100ml of De-ionized water for extraction. For the comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol content, the polyphenols were removed by the Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVVP) column and fermented and fresh juice were tested for the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, before and after the removal of polyphenols. For the peel samples of Pomegranate fruit, total phenol and flavonoid contents were high in Sonication (SN). In pericarp, total phenol and flavonoid contents were highly exhibited in method of Sonication (SN). A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid contents, between five extraction methods for both peel and pericarp samples. Fermented juice had a greatest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents comparative to fresh juice. After removing polyphenols of fermented juice and fresh juice using Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVVP) column, low antioxidant activity was resulted for DPPH antioxidant activity assay. Seeds had a very low total phenol and flavonoid contents according to the results. Although, Pomegranate peel is the main waste component of the fruit, it has an excellent polyphenolic and flavonoid contents compared to other parts of the fruit, devoid of the method of extraction. Polyphenols play a major role for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, flavonoids, polyphenols, pomegranate

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2 The Role of the Indigenous Radio Today and Its Impact on the Audience: The Case of Dambana FM in Sri Lanka

Authors: Dammika Bandara Herath


A group of people who inherits a long history of existence within a particular country may be known as early inhabitants or indigenous peoples. In other words, they have not migrated to the particular territory from another part of the world and at the same time, they have inhabited the territory in issue prior to the time of a major invasion/migration. According to the UN, there are a number of unique attributes of the indigenous peoples: Self-identification as indigenous people,Historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies, Distinct social, economic or political systems, Distinct language, culture and beliefs, Form non-dominant groups of society, Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities. Indigenous peoples constitute 5% of the world’s population. They are also known as tribal people, first people, native people, and indigenous people. Various indigenous communities can be found in about 90 countries in the world. Asia is home to approximately 70 % of these indigenous communities who have their own unique socio-cultural identities. Most indigenous communities remain isolated from the mainstream social, cultural, and economic institutions of their homeland. Yet, they inherited their own unique rights and responsible peculiar to their own group. These include: Protecting the socio-cultural heritage of the group, Protecting the unique identity of their community from socio-cultural changes in the mainstream communities,Protecting their land, Diffusing their cultural heritage to the future generation, Co-existing peacefully with other community .However, indigenous peoples encounter a lot of challenges as a result of socio-cultural change and legal restrictions in the world today. To assist the communities to face these challenges, the mass –media can play a significant role and the radio media has a purpose-built mechanism for this mission, known as the indigenous radio. In Sri Lanka, Dambana FM is such a radio channel based on the indigenous radio model. The target audience of this channel is the vedda / indigenous community of Sri Lanka. This study intends to the current role of the indigenous radio based on Dambana FM, of which the target audience is the indigenous community of Dambana. For the purpose of this study, interviews were conducted among fifty randomly selected respondents from the indigenous community of Dambana. As far as the findings of this study are concerned, problems in the quality of the programmed broadcasted and problems of transmission are the key issues faced by the indigenous radio in Sri Lanka. Based on the findings, the researcher seeks to develop a model to enhance the impact of the indigenous radio on its listeners in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous, communities, radio, vedda, culture

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1 Is Obesity Associated with CKD-(unknown) in Sri Lanka? A Protocol for a Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: Thaminda Liyanage, Anuga Liyanage, Chamila Kurukulasuriya, Sidath Bandara


Background: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world, particularly in Asia. Over the last two decades Sri Lanka has experienced an epidemic of CKD with ever growing number of patients pursuing medical care due to CKD and its complications, specially in the “Mahaweli” river basin in north central region of the island nation. This was apparently a new form of CKD which was not attributable to conventional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension or infection and widely termed as “CKD-unknown” or “CKDu”. In the past decade a number of small scale studies were conducted to determine the aetiology, prevalence and complications of CKDu in North Central region. These hospital-based studies did not provide an accurate estimate of the problem as merely 10% or less of the people with CKD are aware of their diagnosis even in developed countries with better access to medical care. Interestingly, similar observations were made on the changing epidemiology of obesity in the region but no formal study was conducted to date to determine the magnitude of obesity burden. Moreover, if increasing obesity in the region is associated with CKD epidemic is yet to be explored. Methods: We will conduct an area wide cross sectional survey among all adult residents of the “Mahaweli” development project area 5, in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. We will collect relevant medical history, anthropometric measurements, blood and urine for hematological and biochemical analysis. We expect a participation rate of 75%-85% of all eligible participants. Participation in the study is voluntary, there will be no incentives provided for participation. Every analysis will be conducted in a central laboratory and data will be stored securely. We will calculate the prevalence of obesity and chronic kidney disease, overall and by stage using total number of participants as the denominator and report per 1000 population. The association of obesity and CKD will be assessed with regression models and will be adjusted for potential confounding factors and stratified by potential effect modifiers where appropriate. Results: This study will provide accurate information on the prevalence of obesity and CKD in the region. Furthermore, this will explore the association between obesity and CKD, although causation may not be confirmed. Conclusion: Obesity and CKD are increasingly recognized as major public health problems in Sri Lanka. Clearly, documenting the magnitude of the problem is the essential first step. Our study will provide this vital information enabling the government to plan a coordinated response to tackle both obesity and CKD in the region.

Keywords: BMI, Chronic Kidney Disease, obesity, Sri Lanka

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