Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4278

Search results for: local stewardship

4278 Peace through Environmental Stewardship

Authors: Elizabeth D. Ramos

Abstract:

Peace education supports a holistic appreciation for the value of life and the interdependence of all living systems. Peace education aims to build a culture of peace. One way of building a culture of peace is through environmental stewardship. This study sought to find out the environmental stewardship practices in selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines and how these environmental stewardship practices lead to building a culture of peace. The findings revealed that there is still room for improvement in implementing environmental stewardship in schools through academic service learning. In addition, the following manifestations are implemented very satisfactorily in schools: 1) waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, 2) community service, 3) clean and green surroundings. Administrators of schools in the study lead their staff and students in implementing environmental stewardship. It could be concluded that those involved in environmental stewardship display an acceptable culture of peace, particularly, solidarity, respect for persons, and inner peace.

Keywords: academic service learning, environmental stewardship, leadership support, peace, solidarity

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4277 Implications of Private Military Security Companies on Stewardship of the Profession of Arms

Authors: Kevin Krupski

Abstract:

Private Military Security Companies have grown to become a major force contributor to nations in military operations. Scholars have debated the implications of this in relation to control and efficiency related to the privatization of violence, but there has been little discussion on how these companies affect the profession of arms. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how the privatization of violence influences the military’s stewardship, whether private military security companies are capable of stewardship of the military profession, and whether there are aspects of stewardship of the military profession that private military security companies are capable of emulating. This paper reviews literature on stewardship, the relationship of the military to the state, and private military security companies in order to identify overlap between uniformed military services and the private sector. Then, it offers a typology for determining under what conditions an organization would act as a steward. Ultimately, there are insufficient reasons for private military security companies to act as stewards of the profession of arms.

Keywords: stewardship, military profession, civil-military, security

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4276 Human-Tiger Conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

Authors: Abishek Poudel

Abstract:

Human-tiger conflicts are serious issues of conflicts between local people and park authority and the conflicting situation potentially play negative role in park management. The study aimed (1) To determine the trend and nature of human-tiger conflicts (2) To understand people's perception and mitigation measures towards tiger conservation. Both primary and secondary information were used to determine human- tiger conflicts in Chitwan National Park. Systematic random sampling with 5% intensity was done to collect the perception of the villagers regarding human-tiger conflicts. The study sites were selected based on frequencies of incidences of human attacks and livestock depredation viz. Rajahar and Ayodhyapuri VDCs respectively. The trend of human casualties by tiger has increased in last five year whereas the trend of livestock has decreased. Reportedly, between 2008 and 2012, tigers killed 22 people, injured 10 and killed at least 213 livestock. Conflict was less common in the park and more intense in the sub-optimal habitats of Buffer Zone. Goat was the most vulnerable livestock followed by cattle. The livestock grazing and human intrusion into tiger habitat were the causes of conflicts. Developing local stewardship and support for tiger conservation, livestock insurance, and compensation policy simplification may help reduce human-tiger conflicts.

Keywords: livestock depredation, sub optimal habitat, human-tiger, local stewardship

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4275 Retrospective Audit of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spinal Patient at Mater Private Network Cork 2019 vs 2021

Authors: Ciaran Smiddy, Fergus Nugent, Karen Fitzmaurice

Abstract:

A measure of prescribing and administration of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis before and during Covid-19(2019 vs. 2021) was desired to assess how these were affected by Covid-19. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis was assessed for 60 patients, under 3 Orthopaedic Consultants, against local guidelines. The study found that compliance with guidelines improved significantly, from 60% to 83%, but Appropriate use of Vancomycin reduced from 37% to 29%.

Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship, prescribing, spinal surgery, vancomycin

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4274 Carbapenem Usage in Medical Wards: An Antibiotic Stewardship Feedback Project

Authors: Choon Seong Ng, P. Petrick, C. L. Lau

Abstract:

Background: Carbapenem-resistant isolates have been increasingly reported recently. Carbapenem stewardship is designed to optimize its usage particularly among medical wards with high prevalence of carbapenem prescriptions to combat such emerging resistance. Carbapenem stewardship programmes (CSP) can reduce antibiotic use but clinical outcome of such measures needs further evaluation. We examined this in a prospective manner using feedback mechanism. Methods: Our single-center prospective cohort study involved all carbapenem prescriptions across the medical wards (including medical patients admitted to intensive care unit) in a tertiary university hospital setting. The impact of such stewardship was analysed according to the accepted and the rejected groups. The primary endpoint was safety. Safety measure applied in this study was the death at 1 month. Secondary endpoints included length of hospitalisation and readmission. Results: Over the 19 months’ period, input from 144 carbapenem prescriptions was analysed on the basis of acceptance of our CSP recommendations on the use of carbapenems. Recommendations made were as follows : de-escalation of carbapenem; stopping the carbapenem; use for a short duration of 5-7 days; required prolonged duration in the case of carbapenem-sensitive Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases bacteremia; dose adjustment; and surgical intervention for removal of septic foci. De-escalation, shorten duration of carbapenem and carbapenem cessation comprised 79% of the recommendations. Acceptance rate was 57%. Those who accepted CSP recommendations had no increase in mortality (p = 0.92), had a shorter length of hospital stay (LOS) and had cost-saving. Infection-related deaths were found to be higher among those in the rejected group. Moreover, three rejected cases (6%) among all non-indicated cases (n = 50) were found to have developed carbapenem-resistant isolates. Lastly, Pitt’s bacteremia score appeared to be a key element affecting the carbapenem prescription’s behaviour in this trial. Conclusions: Carbapenem stewardship program in the medical wards not only saves money, but most importantly it is safe and does not harm the patients with added benefits of reducing the length of hospital stay. However, more time is needed to engage the primary clinical teams by formal clinical presentation and immediate personal feedback by senior Infectious Disease (ID) personnel to increase its acceptance.

Keywords: audit and feedback, carbapenem stewardship, medical wards, university hospital

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4273 Computer Assisted Strategies Help to Pharmacist

Authors: Komal Fizza

Abstract:

All around the world in every field professionals are taking great support from their computers. Computer assisted strategies not only increase the efficiency of the professionals but also in case of healthcare they help in life-saving interventions. The background of this current research is aimed towards two things; first to find out if computer assisted strategies are useful for Pharmacist for not and secondly how much these assist a Pharmacist to do quality interventions. Shifa International Hospital is a 500 bedded hospital, and it is running Antimicrobial Stewardship, during their stewardship rounds pharmacists observed that a lot of wrong doses of antibiotics were coming at times those were being overlooked by the other pharmacist even. So, with the help of MIS team the patients were categorized into adult and peads depending upon their age. Minimum and maximum dose of every single antibiotic present in the pharmacy that could be dispensed to the patient was developed. These were linked to the order entry window. So whenever pharmacist would type any order and the dose would be below or above the therapeutic limit this would give an alert to the pharmacist. Whenever this message pop-up this was recorded at the back end along with the antibiotic name, pharmacist ID, date, and time. From 14th of January 2015 and till 14th of March 2015 the software stopped different users 350 times. Out of this 300 were found to be major errors which if reached to the patient could have harmed them to the greater extent. While 50 were due to typing errors and minor deviations. The pilot study showed that computer assisted strategies can be of great help to the pharmacist. They can improve the efficacy and quality of interventions.

Keywords: antibiotics, computer assisted strategies, pharmacist, stewardship

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4272 Intended and Unintended Outcomes of Partnerships at the Local Level in Slovakia

Authors: Daniel Klimovský

Abstract:

Slovakia belongs to the most fragmented countries if one looks at its local government structure. The Slovak central governments implemented both broad devolution and fiscal decentralization some decades ago. However, neither territorial consolidation nor size categorization of local competences and powers has been implemented yet. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that the local governments are challenged not only by their citizens as customers but also by effectiveness as well as efficiency of delivered services. The paper is focused on behavior of the local governments in Slovakia and their approaches towards other local partners, including other local governments. Analysis of set of interviews shows that inter-municipal cooperation is the most common local partnership in Slovakia, but due to diversity of the local governments, this kind of cooperation leads to both intended and unintended outcomes. While in many cases the local governments are more efficient as well as effective in delivery of local services thanks to inter-municipal cooperation, there are many cases where inter-municipal cooperation fails, and it brings rather questionable or even negative outcomes.

Keywords: local governments, local partnerships, inter-municipal cooperation, delivery of local services

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4271 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

Abstract:

This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

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4270 Monitoring Prolong Use of Intravenous Antibiotics: Antimicrobial Stewardship

Authors: Komal Fizza

Abstract:

Irrational and non-judicious use of antibiotics pave the way for an upsurge in antibiotic resistance, diminished effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens and as well as impounding effect on disease management leading to further morbidities. In the backdrop of this the current research is aimed to assess whether antimicrobial prescribing is in accordance with the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines in hospitalized patients at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad is a 500 bed hospital. With the help of MIS team a form wad developed that gave the information about medical records number, name of the patient, day of start of antibiotic, the day antibiotic is supposed to be stopped and as well as the diagnosis of the patient. A ward pharmacist was employed to generate this report on a daily basis. The therapeutic regiment was reviewed by the pharmacist by monitoring the clinical progress, laboratory report and diagnosis. On the basis of this information, pharmacist made suggestions and forwarded to the hospital doctors responsible for prescribing antibiotics. If desired, changes were made regularly. In the current research our main focus was to implement this action and therefore, started monitoring patients who were on antibiotic regimens for more than 10-15 days. We took this initiative since November, 2013. At the start of the program a maximum 19 patients/day were reported to be on antibiotic regimen for more than 10-15 days. After the implementation of the initiative, the number of patients was decreased to fifteen patients per day in December, further decreased to 7 in the month of January and 9 and 6 in February and March respectively. The average patient census was 350. The current pilot study highlighted the role of pharmacist in initiating antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings.

Keywords: stewardship, antibiotics, resistance, clinical process

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4269 The Application of Pareto Local Search to the Single-Objective Quadratic Assignment Problem

Authors: Abdullah Alsheddy

Abstract:

This paper presents the employment of Pareto optimality as a strategy to help (single-objective) local search escaping local optima. Instead of local search, Pareto local search is applied to solve the quadratic assignment problem which is multi-objectivized by adding a helper objective. The additional objective is defined as a function of the primary one with augmented penalties that are dynamically updated.

Keywords: Pareto optimization, multi-objectivization, quadratic assignment problem, local search

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4268 Non-Profit Organizations and the Future: Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Annual Reports

Authors: Nadzira Yahaya, Saunah Zainon, Marshita Hashim, Ruhaya Atan

Abstract:

Non-profit organizations (NPOs) in Malaysia are diverse in their origins, structures, objectives, and stakeholders. The largest category of NPOs is from charity and religious category while many other categories such as youth, professionals, women, education and mutual benefits either operate independently or controlled by governments. NPOs have stewardship obligations to their stakeholders and other users of their annual reports, including the public at large. The existing accounting practices without the proper framework of the preparation and presentation of annual reports resulted in a lack of uniformity in the preparation and presentation of NPOs annual reports. Furthermore, a lack of awareness of the applicability of accounting standards and the adoption of different bases of accounting resulted in the need for framework in the preparation and presentation of financial statements for true and fair view of the state of affairs and the operating result of the NPOs activities. This study presents the proposed framework for the preparation and presentation of NPOs annual reports to help the organizations provide high-quality reporting for them to be accountable for good stewardship.

Keywords: annual reports, framework, NPOs, preparation and presentation

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4267 Contestation of Local and Non-Local Knowledge in Developing Bali Cattle at Barru Regency, Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: A. Amidah Amrawaty, M. Saleh S. Ali, Darmawan Salman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to identify local and non local knowledge in Bali cattle development, to analyze the contestation between local and non-local knowledge. The paradigm used was constructivism paradigm with a qualitative approach. descriptive type of research using case study method. The study was conducted in four villages subjected to Agropolitan Program, i.e. Palakka, Tompo, Galung and Anabanua in Barru District, province of South Sulawesi. The results indicated that the local knowledge of the farmers were: a) knowledge of animal housing, b) knowledge of the prevention and control disease, c) knowledge of the feed, d) knowledge of breed selection, e) knowledge of sharing arrangement, f) knowledge of marketing, Generally, there are three patterns of knowledge contestation namely coexistence, ‘zero sum game’ and hybridization but in this research only coexistence and zero sum game patterns took place, while the pattern of hybridization did not occur.

Keywords: contestation, local knowledge, non-local knowledge, developing of Bali cattle

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4266 Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Chinese Family Businesses: Proposal for a Model of Work-Life Synergy

Authors: Jenny Oliveros Lao Phillips, Arturo E. Osorio, José Alves

Abstract:

Family business are the dominant form of business in the world, and Chinese family business (CFB) is a unique type of family business that relies on collective action to survive. This paper argues that in CFBs, entrepreneurial actions are transgenerational collective endeavors, and successors are groomed as stewards of the family legacy. Work-life relationship in CFBs is about synergy and not balance because the family identity is the business identity, and vice-versa. Using five in-depth case studies, this research introduces an alternative understanding of CFBs and proposes a model of work-life synergy in transgenerational entrepreneurship based on discussion of five theory-based propositions. This model explains that through emphasizing on the business family’s shared value and entrepreneurial legacy, elements of trust, shared identity and stewardship of family members are enhanced which leads to collective action and goal of the business family, resulting in transgenerational entrepreneurship. Limitations and future research are presented.

Keywords: Chinese family business, family legacy, stewardship, transgenerational entrepreneurship, work-life synergy

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4265 Non-Timber Forest Products and Livelihood Linkages: A Case of Lamabagar, Nepal

Authors: Sandhya Rijal, Saroj Adhikari, Ramesh R. Pant

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have attracted substantial interest in the recent years with the increasing recognition that these can provide essential community needs for improved and diversified rural livelihood and support the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, various challenges are witnessed in their sustainable harvest and management. Assuming that sustainable management with community stewardship can offer one of the solutions to existing challenges, the study assesses the linkages between NTFPs and rural livelihood in Lamabagar village of Dolakha, Nepal. The major objective was to document the status of NTFPs and their contributions in households of Lamabagar. For status documentation, vegetation sampling was done using systematic random sampling technique. 30 plots of 10 m × 10 m were laid down in six parallel transect lines at horizontal distance of 160 m in two different community forests. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 76 households (excluding non-response rate) using stratified random sampling technique for contribution analysis. Likewise, key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted for data triangulations. 36 different NTFPs were recorded from the vegetation sample in two community forests of which 50% were used for medicinal purposes. The other uses include fodder, religious value, and edible fruits and vegetables. Species like Juniperus indica, Daphne bholua Aconitum spicatum, and Lyonia ovalifolia were frequently used for trade as a source of income, which was sold in local market. The protected species like Taxus wallichiana and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora were also recorded in the area for which the trade is prohibited. The protection of these species urgently needs community stewardship. More than half of the surveyed households (55%) were depending on NTFPs for their daily uses, other than economic purpose whereas 45% of them sold those products in the market directly or in the form of local handmade products as a source of livelihood. NTFPs were the major source of primary health curing agents especially for the poor and unemployed people in the study area. Hence, the NTFPs contributed to livelihood under three different categories: subsistence, supplement income and emergency support, depending upon the economic status of the households. Although the status of forest improved after handover to the user group, the availability of valuable medicinal herbs like Rhododendron anthopogon, Swertia nervosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, and Aconitum spicatum were declining. Inadequacy of technology, lack of easy transport access, and absence of good market facility were the major limitations for external trade of NTFPs in the study site. It was observed that people were interested towards conservation only if they could get some returns: economic in terms of rural settlements. Thus, the study concludes that NTFPs could contribute rural livelihood and support conservation objectives only if local communities are provided with the easy access of technology, market and capital.

Keywords: contribution, medicinal, subsistence, sustainable harvest

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4264 Local Homology Modules

Authors: Fatemeh Mohammadi Aghjeh Mashhad

Abstract:

In this paper, we give several ways for computing generalized local homology modules by using Gorenstein flat resolutions. Also, we find some bounds for vanishing of generalized local homology modules.

Keywords: a-adic completion functor, generalized local homology modules, Gorenstein flat modules

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4263 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: business, creativity, local potential, local wisdom

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4262 Towards Conservation and Recovery of Species at Risk in Ontario: Progress on Recovery Planning and Implementation and an Overview of Key Research Needs

Authors: Rachel deCatanzaro, Madeline Austen, Ken Tuininga, Kathy St. Laurent, Christina Rohe

Abstract:

In Canada, the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides protection for wildlife species at risk and a national legislative framework for the conservation or recovery of species that are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern under Schedule 1 of SARA. Key aspects of the federal species at risk program include the development of recovery documents (recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans) outlining threats, objectives, and broad strategies or measures for conservation or recovery of the species; the identification and protection of critical habitat for threatened and endangered species; and working with groups and organizations to implement on-the-ground recovery actions. Environment Canada’s progress on the development of recovery documents and on the identification and protection of critical habitat in Ontario will be presented, along with successes and challenges associated with on-the ground implementation of recovery actions. In Ontario, Environment Canada is currently involved in several recovery and monitoring programs for at-risk bird species such as the Loggerhead Shrike, Piping Plover, Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler and has provided funding for a wide variety of recovery actions targeting priority species at risk and geographic areas each year through stewardship programs including the Habitat Stewardship Program, Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk, and the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund. Key research needs relevant to the recovery of species at risk have been identified, and include: surveys and monitoring of population sizes and threats, population viability analyses, and addressing knowledge gaps identified for individual species (e.g., species biology and habitat needs). The engagement of all levels of government, the local and international conservation communities, and the scientific research community plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of species at risk in Ontario– through surveying and monitoring, filling knowledge gaps, conducting public outreach, and restoring, protecting, or managing habitat – and will be critical to the continued success of the federal species at risk program.

Keywords: conservation biology, habitat protection, species at risk, wildlife recovery

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4261 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue

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4260 An Appraisal of Revenue Collection in Local Government: A Case Study of Boripe Local Government Iragbiji Osun State

Authors: Olanike O. Akinwale, Isiaka S. Adedoyin

Abstract:

Revenue is a fund realized by the government to meet both current and capital expenditures. The study found out the various ways through which local governments in Nigeria generate revenue or obtain funds and determined whether the people of Boripe local government are paying tax as at when due and also evaluated how the revenue generated is being used by the local government. During the course of this study, research questionnaires were drafted and distributed to respondents in the local government secretariat who supplied the information needed to carry out the research work. Data were collected by using simple random sampling technique where members of the population have been given equal chance of being picked as a member of the sample. Data were analysed using chart table; the chart analyzed the figure of the past two years revenue and expenditure of the local government. It was deduced from the result that revenue generated but this was not up to what one expected for this local government to finance the projected expenditure when the size was considered, its location as well as its natural endowment of this local government. This was due to lack of cooperation of the people and staffs within the local government in the local government jurisdiction as well as fraudulent activities the revenue collectors engaged in. Revenue generation is a fuel for development in any organization whether public or private. The ability of revenue drive of Boripe was not strong enough since the targeted revenue from taxation was not enough to meet the projected expenditure for a particular year as in 2016, the difference was carried forward to the next year.

Keywords: appraisal, expenditure, local government, questionnaire, revenue

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4259 The Corrupt Behavior of Local Government Officials and Its Effect: A Case Study of Muang District, Songkhla Province, Thailand

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt

Abstract:

This research aims to compare the corrupt behavior of local government officials and the public’s opinion about the effects of this corruption, as classified by the personal factors of the public. It also analyzes the relationship between the corrupt behavior of local government officials and the public’s opinion toward the effects of this corruption. The sample used in this research comprised 322 voters from Songkhla province, with a questionnaire being used to collect the data. The statistics used in the data analysis were the percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that the corrupt behavior of local government officials was at a high overall level. The sample’s opinion toward the effects of corrupt local government officials was also at a high overall level. Hypothesis testing indicated that samples with different personal factors did not vary in how they regarded the corrupt behavior of local government officials, and the samples’ opinions toward the effects of corrupt local government officials also did not vary. The corrupt behavior of local government officials and the opinions toward the effect of corrupt local government officials are both at consistently high levels and follow the same trend.

Keywords: corrupt behavior, local government, official, Thailand

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4258 The Characteristics of the Chairman of Board of Directors That Are Associated with Better Levels of Performance

Authors: Abilio Pires Zacarias

Abstract:

Analyzing company boards of directors is a relevant and timely topic. As the representative of shareholders, the board is the most senior management body of this type of company. Therefore, ascertaining the best kind of candidates to nominate, namely the most appropriate characteristics for leading the board to achieve better levels of performance, is certainly of great interest. The companies selected for this study were the 1,000 largest non-financial companies and the 100 largest financial companies in Portugal according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística for 2010. The information stemmed from a questionnaire addressed to the person in charge of daily company management and then processed through STATA 17 with the multivariate analysis of variables - MANOVA. The study may correspondingly report that the vast majority of boards in the sample operate a dual leadership structure. By in terms of its prevalence, unitary leadership represents only a minority. Agency theory and stewardship theory postulate different characteristics for the ideal chairman but neither receive confirmation from our results. On the other hand, our findings do validate the behavioral theory of firms (BToF), concluding that experience is associated with organizational performance. This study is also relevant due to its analysis of companies not listed on the financial markets not only because of their weighting in the economy but also because they remain only very poorly studied in this field and thus also correspondingly contributing to deepening the literature.

Keywords: agency theory, behavioral theory of the firm, board of directors, corporate governance, stewardship theory

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4257 A Case Study on the Tourists' Satisfaction: Local Gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte

Authors: Reysand Mae A. Abapial, Christine Claire Z. Agra, Quenna Lyn V. De Guzman, Marielle Arianne Joyce Q. Hojilla, John Joseph A. Tiangco

Abstract:

The study focused on the assessment of the tourists’ satisfaction on the local gastronomy in Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte as a tourist destination as perceived by 100 tourists visiting the tourist destination, which is determined through convenient random sampling. Mean, percentage frequency and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used in the collection of data. The results revealed that the tourists agree that the local establishments offering local cuisines are accessible in terms of the location, internet visibility and facilities for persons-with-disabilities. The tourist are also willing to pay for the local food because it is attainable, budget-friendly, worthy for an expensive price, satisfies the cravings, reflects the physical appearance of the establishment and its quantity is reasonable based on the price. However, the tourists disagree that the local food completes their overall experience as tourists and it does not have the potential to satisfy all types of tourists. Recommendations for the enhancement of the local cuisine and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: gastronomy, local gastronomy, tourist satisfaction, Pagudpud

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4256 An Application of Remote Sensing for Modeling Local Warming Trend

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: local warming, climate change, urban area, Alberta, Canada

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4255 Whose Education Is It? Developing Communities Left Out in Framing Higher Education

Authors: Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

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Developing communities accommodating institutions of Higher Education (HE) often have no capacity to pay for HE and so do not contribute values and do not participate in Quality Assurance. Only governments, academia, employers and professional organisations determine values, QA and curricula in HE. A gap between the values in HE and those desirable in local communities and environments leads to erroneous conceptions of the purposes of HE, and to graduates who hardly fit into those local communities. Unemployment and under-utilization of local resources are thus expected. As a way to improve and make HE more relevant for local communities and environment, public perceptions, values and needs should be researched and HE courses should relate with local values and environments. Communities should participate in QA.

Keywords: values, quality assurance, higher education, utilization

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4254 Sub-Municipal Government as a Tool for Decentralization

Authors: Mirko Klaric

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In different countries, sub-municipal units have different organizational and political positions. In some countries, the role of sub-municipal units is important; in others, it is marginal. That depends on the organization of the local government system in different countries, and the political role of local self-government units, their size, public authorities, and the possibility for managing various local public tasks. This paper attempts to analyze the sub-municipal government as an organizational form of local governance participation of citizens in the local community with a comparative perspective. Secondly, it presents elements that generally format sub-municipal government as a tool for strengthening of democratization processes in local government units. Those elements are crucial for the understanding of the dynamic in relation to local government vs. sub-municipal government. Special focus is put on the sub-municipal government in South-Eastern European countries, which have a common history and institutional framework, with this main question: how can sub-municipal government contribute to strengthening democratic processes in these countries. In centralized countries, the sub-municipal government usually has a reduced role, which relates to managing public tasks connected with local community needs. The purpose of this comparative research methodology is used for analyzing the present organization and role of sub-municipal government in local government systems in Croatia and other significant countries in Europe, with a special focus on the states in South-Eastern Europe and Croatia. Comparative analyses attempt to show that local government systems with bigger local government units have more significant sub-municipal government. On the other hand, local government systems with small local government units don’t have a strong sub-municipal government. Finally, this paper aims to present ideas on how the sub-municipal government can improve decentralization and contribute to better development of the local community and the whole of society.

Keywords: public administration, local government, sub-municipal government, decentralization

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4253 Modeling Local Warming Trend: An Application of Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: local warming, climate change, urban area, Alberta, Canada

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4252 Analysis of Risk-Based Disaster Planning in Local Communities

Authors: R. A. Temah, L. A. Nkengla-Asi

Abstract:

Planning for future disasters sets the stage for a variety of activities that may trigger multiple recurring operations and expose the community to opportunities to minimize risks. Local communities are increasingly embracing the necessity for planning based on local risks, but are also significantly challenged to effectively plan and response to disasters. This research examines basic risk-based disaster planning model and compares it with advanced risk-based planning that introduces the identification and alignment of varieties of local capabilities within and out of the local community that can be pivotal to facilitate the management of local risks and cascading effects prior to a disaster. A critical review shows that the identification and alignment of capabilities can potentially enhance risk-based disaster planning. A tailored holistic approach to risk based disaster planning is pivotal to enhance collective action and a reduction in disaster collective cost.

Keywords: capabilities, disaster planning, hazards, local community, risk-based

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4251 Exploring Managerial Approaches towards Green Manufacturing: A Thematic Analysis

Authors: Hakimeh Masoudigavgani

Abstract:

Since manufacturing firms deplete non-renewable resources and pollute air, soil, and water in greatly unsustainable manner, industrial activities or production of products are considered to be a key contributor to adverse environmental impacts. Hence, management strategies and approaches that involve an effective supply chain decision process in a manufacturing sector could be extremely significant to the application of environmental initiatives. Green manufacturing (GM) is one of these strategies which minimises negative effects on the environment through reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste, and the consumption of energy and natural resources. This paper aims to explore what greening methods and mechanisms could be applied in the manufacturing supply chain and what are the outcomes of adopting these methods in terms of abating environmental burdens? The study is an interpretive research with an exploratory approach, using thematic analysis by coding text, breaking down and grouping the content of collected literature into various themes and categories. It is found that green supply chain could be attained through execution of some pre-production strategies including green building, eco-design, and green procurement as well as a number of in-production and post-production strategies involving green manufacturing and green logistics. To achieve an effective GM, the pre-production strategies are suggested to be employed. This paper defines GM as (1) the analysis of the ecological impacts generated by practices, products, production processes, and operational functions, and (2) the implementation of greening methods to reduce damaging influences of them on the natural environment. Analysis means assessing, monitoring, and auditing of practices in order to measure and pinpoint their harmful impacts. Moreover, greening methods involved within GM (arranged in order from the least to the most level of environmental compliance and techniques) consist of: •product stewardship (e.g. less use of toxic, non-renewable, and hazardous materials in the manufacture of the product; and stewardship of the environmental problems with regard to the product in all production, use, and end-of-life stages); •process stewardship (e.g. controlling carbon emission, energy and resources usage, transportation method, and disposal; reengineering polluting processes; recycling waste materials generated in production); •lean and clean production practices (e.g. elimination of waste, materials replacement, materials reduction, resource-efficient consumption, energy-efficient usage, emission reduction, managerial assessment, waste re-use); •use of eco-industrial parks (e.g. a shared warehouse, shared logistics management system, energy co-generation plant, effluent treatment). However, the focus of this paper is only on methods related to the in-production phase and needs further research on both pre-production and post-production environmental innovations. The outlined methods in this investigation may possibly be taken into account by policy/decision makers. Additionally, the proposed future research direction and identified gaps can be filled by scholars and researchers. The paper compares and contrasts a variety of viewpoints and enhances the body of knowledge by building a definition for GM through synthesising literature and categorising the strategic concept of greening methods, drivers, barriers, and successful implementing tactics.

Keywords: green manufacturing (GM), product stewardship, process stewardship, clean production, eco-industrial parks (EIPs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
4250 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

Abstract:

Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

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4249 A Developmental Survey of Local Stereo Matching Algorithms

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the history and development of stereo matching algorithms. Details from its inception, up to relatively recent techniques are described, noting challenges that have been surmounted across these past decades. Different components of these are explored, though focus is directed towards the local matching techniques. While global approaches have existed for some time, and demonstrated greater accuracy than their counterparts, they are generally quite slow. Many strides have been made more recently, allowing local methods to catch up in terms of accuracy, without sacrificing the overall performance.

Keywords: developmental survey, local stereo matching, rectification, stereo correspondence

Procedia PDF Downloads 208