Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6360

Search results for: learning environments

6360 Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen

Abstract:

Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments herald a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous environments fuse together authentic learning situations and digital learning spaces where students can seamlessly immerse themselves into the learning process. Definitions of ubiquitous learning are wide and vary in the previous literature and learning environments are not systemically described. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the criteria and the use of ubiquitous learning environments in higher education contexts. The objective was to provide a clear scope and a wide view for this research area. The original studies were collected from nine electronic databases. Seven publications in total were defined as eligible and included in the final review. An inductive content analysis was used for the data analysis. The reviewed publications described the use of ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) in higher education. Components, contents and outcomes varied between studies, but there were also many similarities. In these studies, the concept of ubiquitousness was defined as context-awareness, embeddedness, content-personalization, location-based, interactivity and flexibility and these were supported by using smart devices, wireless networks and sensing technologies. Contents varied between studies and were customized to specific uses. Measured outcomes in these studies were focused on multiple aspects as learning effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, satisfaction, and usefulness. This study provides a clear scope for ULE used in higher education. It also raises the need for transparent development and publication processes, and for practical implications of ubiquitous learning environments.

Keywords: higher education, learning environment, scoping review, ubiquitous learning, u-learning

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6359 Leveraging Learning Analytics to Inform Learning Design in Higher Education

Authors: Mingming Jiang

Abstract:

This literature review aims to offer an overview of existing research on learning analytics and learning design, the alignment between the two, and how learning analytics has been leveraged to inform learning design in higher education. Current research suggests a need to create more alignment and integration between learning analytics and learning design in order to not only ground learning analytics on learning sciences but also enable data-driven decisions in learning design to improve learning outcomes. In addition, multiple conceptual frameworks have been proposed to enhance the synergy and alignment between learning analytics and learning design. Future research should explore this synergy further in the unique context of higher education, identifying learning analytics metrics in higher education that can offer insight into learning processes, evaluating the effect of learning analytics outcomes on learning design decision-making in higher education, and designing learning environments in higher education that make the capturing and deployment of learning analytics outcomes more efficient.

Keywords: learning analytics, learning design, big data in higher education, online learning environments

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6358 The AI Arena: A Framework for Distributed Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Edward W. Staley, Corban G. Rivera, Ashley J. Llorens

Abstract:

Advances in reinforcement learning (RL) have resulted in recent breakthroughs in the application of artificial intelligence (AI) across many different domains. An emerging landscape of development environments is making powerful RL techniques more accessible for a growing community of researchers. However, most existing frameworks do not directly address the problem of learning in complex operating environments, such as dense urban settings or defense-related scenarios, that incorporate distributed, heterogeneous teams of agents. To help enable AI research for this important class of applications, we introduce the AI Arena: a scalable framework with flexible abstractions for distributed multi-agent reinforcement learning. The AI Arena extends the OpenAI Gym interface to allow greater flexibility in learning control policies across multiple agents with heterogeneous learning strategies and localized views of the environment. To illustrate the utility of our framework, we present experimental results that demonstrate performance gains due to a distributed multi-agent learning approach over commonly-used RL techniques in several different learning environments.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, multi-agent, deep learning, artificial intelligence

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6357 An Approximation Technique to Automate Tron

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

With the trend of virtual and augmented reality environments booming to provide a life like experience, gaming is a major tool in supporting such learning environments. In this work, a variant of Voronoi heuristics, employing supervised learning for the TRON game is proposed. The paper discusses the features that would be really useful when a machine learning bot is to be used as an opponent against a human player. Various game scenarios, nature of the bot and the experimental results are provided for the proposed variant to prove that the approach is better than those that are currently followed.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, automation, machine learning, TRON game, Voronoi heuristics

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6356 Business Skills Laboratory in Action: Combining a Practice Enterprise Model and an ERP-Simulation to a Comprehensive Business Learning Environment

Authors: Karoliina Nisula, Samuli Pekkola

Abstract:

Business education has been criticized for being too theoretical and distant from business life. Different types of experiential learning environments ranging from manual role-play to computer simulations and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been used to introduce the realistic and practical experience into business learning. Each of these learning environments approaches business learning from a different perspective. The implementations tend to be individual exercises supplementing the traditional courses. We suggest combining them into a business skills laboratory resembling an actual workplace. In this paper, we present a concrete implementation of an ERP-supported business learning environment that is used throughout the first year undergraduate business curriculum. We validate the implementation by evaluating the learning outcomes through the different domains of Bloom’s taxonomy. We use the role-play oriented practice enterprise model as a comparison group. Our findings indicate that using the ERP simulation improves the poor and average students’ lower-level cognitive learning. On the affective domain, the ERP-simulation appears to enhance motivation to learn as well as perceived acquisition of practical hands-on skills.

Keywords: business simulations, experiential learning, ERP systems, learning environments

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6355 A Machine Learning Approach for Performance Prediction Based on User Behavioral Factors in E-Learning Environments

Authors: Naduni Ranasinghe

Abstract:

E-learning environments are getting more popular than any other due to the impact of COVID19. Even though e-learning is one of the best solutions for the teaching-learning process in the academic process, it’s not without major challenges. Nowadays, machine learning approaches are utilized in the analysis of how behavioral factors lead to better adoption and how they related to better performance of the students in eLearning environments. During the pandemic, we realized the academic process in the eLearning approach had a major issue, especially for the performance of the students. Therefore, an approach that investigates student behaviors in eLearning environments using a data-intensive machine learning approach is appreciated. A hybrid approach was used to understand how each previously told variables are related to the other. A more quantitative approach was used referred to literature to understand the weights of each factor for adoption and in terms of performance. The data set was collected from previously done research to help the training and testing process in ML. Special attention was made to incorporating different dimensionality of the data to understand the dependency levels of each. Five independent variables out of twelve variables were chosen based on their impact on the dependent variable, and by considering the descriptive statistics, out of three models developed (Random Forest classifier, SVM, and Decision tree classifier), random forest Classifier (Accuracy – 0.8542) gave the highest value for accuracy. Overall, this work met its goals of improving student performance by identifying students who are at-risk and dropout, emphasizing the necessity of using both static and dynamic data.

Keywords: academic performance prediction, e learning, learning analytics, machine learning, predictive model

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6354 Socio-Cultural Adaptation Approach to Enhance Intercultural Collaboration and Learning

Authors: Fadoua Ouamani, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud, Henda Hajjami Ben Ghézala

Abstract:

In the last few years and over the last decades, there was a growing interest in the development of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments. However, the existing systems ignore the variety of learners and their socio-cultural differences, especially in the case of distant and networked learning. In fact, within such collaborative learning environments, learners from different socio-cultural backgrounds may interact together. These learners evolve within various cultures and social contexts and acquire different socio-cultural values and behaviors. Thus, they should be assisted while communicating and collaborating especially in an intercultural group. Besides, the communication and collaboration tools provided to each learner must depend on and be adapted to her/his socio-cultural profile. The main goal of this paper is to present the proposed socio-cultural adaptation approach based on and guided by ontologies to adapt CSCL environments to the socio-cultural profiles of its users (learners or others).

Keywords: CSCL, socio-cultural profile, adaptation, ontology

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6353 Game-Based Learning in a Higher Education Course: A Case Study with Minecraft Education Edition

Authors: Salvador Antelmo Casanova Valencia

Abstract:

This study documents the use of the Minecraft Education Edition application to explore immersive game-based learning environments. We analyze the contributions of fourth-year university students who are pursuing a degree in Administrative Computing at the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. In this study, descriptive data and statistical inference are detailed using a quasi-experimental design using the Wilcoxon test. The instruments will provide data validation. Game-based learning in immersive environments necessarily implies greater student participation and commitment, resulting in the study, motivation, and significant improvements, promoting cooperation and autonomous learning.

Keywords: game-based learning, gamification, higher education, Minecraft

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6352 Impact of Gaming Environment in Education

Authors: Md. Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan, Quazi Mahabubul Hasan, Md. Rifat Ullah

Abstract:

In this research, we did explore the effectiveness of the gaming environment in education and compared it with the traditional education system. We take several workshops in both learning environments. We measured student’s performance by providing a grading score (by professional academics) on their attitude in different criteria. We also collect data from survey questionnaires to understand student’s experiences towards education and study. Finally, we examine the impact of the different learning environments by applying statistical hypothesis tests, the T-test, and the ANOVA test.

Keywords: gamification, game-based learning, education, statistical analysis, human-computer interaction

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6351 An Evaluation Framework for Virtual Reality Learning Environments in Sports Education

Authors: Jonathan J. Foo, Keng Hao Chew

Abstract:

Interest in virtual reality (VR) technologies as virtual learning environments have been on the rise in recent years. With thanks to the aggressively competitive consumer electronics environment, VR technology has been made affordable and accessible to the average person with developments like Google Cardboard and Oculus Go. While the promise of virtual access to unique virtual learning environments with the benefits of experiential learning sounds extremely attractive, there are still concerns over user comfort in the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains. Reports of motion sickness and short durations create doubt and have stunted its growth. In this paper, a multidimensional framework is proposed for the evaluation of VR learning environments within the three dimensions: tactual quality, didactic quality, and autodidactic quality. This paper further proposes a mixed-methods experimental research plan that sets out to evaluate a virtual reality training simulator in the context of amateur sports fencing. The study will investigate if an immersive VR learning environment can effectively simulate an authentic learning environment suitable for instruction, practice, and assessment while providing the user comfort in the tactual, didactic, and autodidactic dimensions. The models and recommendations developed for this study are designed in the context of fencing, but the potential impact is a guide for the future design and evaluation of all VR developments across sports and technical classroom education.

Keywords: autodidactic quality, didactic quality, tactual quality, virtual reality

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6350 Social Learning and the Flipped Classroom

Authors: Albin Wallace

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of social learning platforms in conjunction with the emergent pedagogy of the ‘flipped classroom’. In particular the attributes of the social learning platform “Edmodo” is considered alongside the changes in the way in which online learning environments are being implemented, especially within British education. Some observations are made regarding the use and usefulness of these platforms along with a consideration of the increasingly decentralized nature of education in the United Kingdom.

Keywords: education, Edmodo, Internet, learning platforms

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6349 Educators’ Perceived Capacity to Create Inclusive Learning Environments: Exploring Individual Competencies and District Policy

Authors: Thuy Phan, Stephanie Luallin

Abstract:

Inclusive education policies have demonstrated benefits for students with and without disabilities in the US. There are several laws that relate to inclusive education, such as 'No Child Left Behind', 'The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act'. However, the application of these inclusive education laws and policies vary per state and school district. Classroom teachers in an inclusive classroom often experience confusion as to how to apply these policies in order to create appropriate inclusive learning environments that meet the abilities and needs of their diverse student population. The study aims to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate learning environment for their diverse student population including students with disabilities. Qualitative method is implemented in this study, using open-end interview questions to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate inclusive learning environment for all students based on current inclusive education laws and district policies in the state of Colorado, USA. These findings may indicate a lack of confidence in teachers’ capacity to create appropriate inclusive learning environments based on laws and district policies; including challenges that classroom teachers may experience in creating inclusive learning environments. The purpose of this study is to examine the adequate preparation of classroom teachers in creating inclusive classrooms with the intent of determining implications for developing policies in inclusive education.

Keywords: educator’s capacity, inclusive education, inclusive learning environment, policy

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6348 An Ontology for Smart Learning Environments in Music Education

Authors: Konstantinos Sofianos, Michail Stefanidakis

Abstract:

Nowadays, despite the great advances in technology, most educational frameworks lack a strong educational design basis. E-learning has become prevalent, but it faces various challenges such as student isolation and lack of quality in the learning process. An intelligent learning system provides a student with educational material according to their learning background and learning preferences. It records full information about the student, such as demographic information, learning styles, and academic performance. This information allows the system to be fully adapted to the student’s needs. In this paper, we propose a framework and an ontology for music education, consisting of the learner model and all elements of the learning process (learning objects, teaching methods, learning activities, assessment). This framework can be integrated into an intelligent learning system and used for music education in schools for the development of professional skills and beyond.

Keywords: intelligent learning systems, e-learning, music education, ontology, semantic web

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6347 Embodied Cognition and Its Implications in Education: An Overview of Recent Literature

Authors: Panagiotis Kosmas, Panayiotis Zaphiris

Abstract:

Embodied Cognition (EC) as a learning paradigm is based on the idea of an inseparable link between body, mind, and environment. In recent years, the advent of theoretical learning approaches around EC theory has resulted in a number of empirical studies exploring the implementation of the theory in education. This systematic literature overview identifies the mainstream of EC research and emphasizes on the implementation of the theory across learning environments. Based on a corpus of 43 manuscripts, published between 2013 and 2017, it sets out to describe the range of topics covered under the umbrella of EC and provides a holistic view of the field. The aim of the present review is to investigate the main issues in EC research related to the various learning contexts. Particularly, the study addresses the research methods and technologies that are utilized, and it also explores the integration of body into the learning context. An important finding from the overview is the potential of the theory in different educational environments and disciplines. However, there is a lack of an explicit pedagogical framework from an educational perspective for a successful implementation in various learning contexts.

Keywords: embodied cognition, embodied learning, education, technology, schools

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6346 The Influence of Learning Styles on Learners Grade Achievement in E-Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

Authors: Thomas Yeboah, Gifty Akouko Sarpong

Abstract:

Every learner has a specific learning style that helps him/her to study best. This means that any learning method (e-learning method or traditional face-to-face method) a learner chooses should address the learning style of the learner. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether learners’ grade achievement in e-learning environment is improved for learners with a particular learning style. In this research, purposive sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample size of three hundred and twenty (320) students studying a course UGRC 140 Science and Technology in our Lives at Christian Service University College. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one-way ANOVA. A thorough analysis was done on the data collected and the results revealed that learners with the Assimilator learning style and the converger learning style obtained higher grade achievement than both diverger learning style and accommodative learning style. Again, the results also revealed that accommodative learning style was not good enough for e-learning method.

Keywords: e-learning, learning style, grade achievement, accomodative, divergent, convergent, assimilative

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6345 Using Q-Learning to Auto-Tune PID Controller Gains for Online Quadcopter Altitude Stabilization

Authors: Y. Alrubyli

Abstract:

Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs), and more specifically, quadcopters need to be stable during their flights. Altitude stability is usually achieved by using a PID controller that is built into the flight controller software. Furthermore, the PID controller has gains that need to be tuned to reach optimal altitude stabilization during the quadcopter’s flight. For that, control system engineers need to tune those gains by using extensive modeling of the environment, which might change from one environment and condition to another. As quadcopters penetrate more sectors, from the military to the consumer sectors, they have been put into complex and challenging environments more than ever before. Hence, intelligent self-stabilizing quadcopters are needed to maneuver through those complex environments and situations. Here we show that by using online reinforcement learning with minimal background knowledge, the altitude stability of the quadcopter can be achieved using a model-free approach. We found that by using background knowledge instead of letting the online reinforcement learning algorithm wander for a while to tune the PID gains, altitude stabilization can be achieved faster. In addition, using this approach will accelerate development by avoiding extensive simulations before applying the PID gains to the real-world quadcopter. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using the trial and error approach of reinforcement learning combined with background knowledge to achieve faster quadcopter altitude stabilization in different environments and conditions.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, Q-leanring, online learning, PID tuning, unmanned aerial vehicle, quadcopter

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6344 How Natural Environments Are Being Used by Teachers to Improve Student Learning and Wellbeing in Australia

Authors: Jade Fersterer, Tristan Snell, Mark Rickinson

Abstract:

This paper is designed to provide a review of the literature concerning the impact of natural environments on student learning and wellbeing in Australia. Specific areas of interest include how child-led and teacher-led pedagogies differ in outdoor learning settings, and the impact of each approach on children’s well-being, behavior, relationships with others as well as educational outcomes. The review will include links to possibilities for future research, including a Ph.D. currently being undertaken in Australia, which aims to fulfill a considerable gap in psychological, educational and outdoor learning research, regarding how natural environments are being used by teachers to improve learning and wellbeing among primary school students. The proposed study aims to understand if children’s experience of learning, 1. in a natural environment, and 2. in a child-led way, can support and strengthen their skills across several areas of development, including those required for positive educational outcomes. Data will be collected from a sample of primary school students and teachers via both quantitative and qualitative methods, including a pre- and post-questionnaire, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews. The study will have valuable implications for the provision of quality education as well as the promotion of good health and wellbeing. The implications of the research will be useful not only for teachers and parents but also for Psychologists working with children and young people in both a school and clinical setting. Understanding the impacts and implications of child-led learning and exposure to natural environments provides the opportunity to build on the current school curriculum. The inclusion of child-led experiences in nature may provide a simple way to build enthusiasm for school and learning, cultivating skills for life and relationships as well as meeting current curriculum requirements and building capacity for ongoing academic pursuits. In addition, understanding the impact of learning in a natural environment on wellbeing will assist in the development and dissemination of an educational model that could help mitigate the negative health outcomes associated with reduced physical activity and decreasing contact with nature among children.

Keywords: child-led learning, educational outcomes, natural environments, wellbeing

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6343 Two Different Learning Environments: Arabic International Students Coping with the Australian Learning System

Authors: H. van Rensburg, B. Adcock, B. Al Mansouri

Abstract:

This paper discusses the impact of pedagogical and learning differences on Arabic international students’ (AIS) learning when they come to study in Australia. It describes the difference in teaching and learning methods between the students’ home countries in the Arabic world and Australia. There are many research papers that discuss the general experiences of international students in the western learning systems, including Australia. However, there is little research conducted specifically about AIS learning in Australia. Therefore, the data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with AIS who are learning at an Australian regional university in Queensland. For that reason, this paper contributes to fill a gap by reporting on the learning experiences of AIS in Australia and, more specifically, on the AIS’ pedagogical experiences. Not only discussing the learning experiences of AIS, but also discussing the cultural adaptation using the Oberg’s cultural adaptation model. This paper suggests some learning strategies that may benefit AIS and academic lecturers when teaching students from a completely different culture and language.

Keywords: arabic international students, cultural adaption, learning differences, learning systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
6342 MLOps Scaling Machine Learning Lifecycle in an Industrial Setting

Authors: Yizhen Zhao, Adam S. Z. Belloum, Goncalo Maia Da Costa, Zhiming Zhao

Abstract:

Machine learning has evolved from an area of academic research to a real-word applied field. This change comes with challenges, gaps and differences exist between common practices in academic environments and the ones in production environments. Following continuous integration, development and delivery practices in software engineering, similar trends have happened in machine learning (ML) systems, called MLOps. In this paper we propose a framework that helps to streamline and introduce best practices that facilitate the ML lifecycle in an industrial setting. This framework can be used as a template that can be customized to implement various machine learning experiment. The proposed framework is modular and can be recomposed to be adapted to various use cases (e.g. data versioning, remote training on cloud). The framework inherits practices from DevOps and introduces other practices that are unique to the machine learning system (e.g.data versioning). Our MLOps practices automate the entire machine learning lifecycle, bridge the gap between development and operation.

Keywords: cloud computing, continuous development, data versioning, DevOps, industrial setting, MLOps

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6341 Field Trips inside Digital Game Environments

Authors: Amani Alsaqqaf, Frederick W. B. Li

Abstract:

Field trips are essential methods of learning in different subjects, and in recent times, there has been a reduction in the number of field trips (FTs) across all learning levels around the world. Virtual field trips (VFTs) in game environments provide FT experience based on the experiential learning theory (ELT). A conceptual framework for designing virtual field trip games (VFTGs) is developed with an aim to support game designers and educators to produce an effective FT experience where technology would enhance education. The conceptual framework quantifies ELT as an internal economy to link learning elements to game mechanics such as feedback loops which leads to facilitating VFTGs design and implementation. This study assesses the conceptual framework for designing VFTGs by investigating the possibility of applying immersive VFTGs in a secondary classroom and compare them with traditional learning that uses video clips and PowerPoint slides from the viewpoint of students’ perceived motivation, presence, and learning. The assessment is achieved by evaluating the learning performance and learner experience of a prototype VFT game, Island of Volcanoes. A quasi-experiment was conducted with 60 secondary school students. The findings of this study are that the VFTG enhanced learning performance to a better level than did the traditional way of learning, and in addition, it provided motivation and a general feeling of presence in the VFTG environment.

Keywords: conceptual framework, game-based learning, game design, virtual field trip game

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6340 The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

Authors: Chris Landorf, Stephen Ward

Abstract:

This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialled with over 1,300 students and evaluated through questionnaires, observational studies and coursework analysis. Results demonstrate a positive impact on students’ technical learning and collaboration skills, but there is need for further research in relation to critical thinking skills and work-readiness.

Keywords: architectural education, construction industry, digital learning environments, immersive learning

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6339 Use Cloud-Based Watson Deep Learning Platform to Train Models Faster and More Accurate

Authors: Susan Diamond

Abstract:

Machine Learning workloads have traditionally been run in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, where users log in to dedicated machines and utilize the attached GPUs to run training jobs on huge datasets. Training of large neural network models is very resource intensive, and even after exploiting parallelism and accelerators such as GPUs, a single training job can still take days. Consequently, the cost of hardware is a barrier to entry. Even when upfront cost is not a concern, the lead time to set up such an HPC environment takes months from acquiring hardware to set up the hardware with the right set of firmware, software installed and configured. Furthermore, scalability is hard to achieve in a rigid traditional lab environment. Therefore, it is slow to react to the dynamic change in the artificial intelligent industry. Watson Deep Learning as a service, a cloud-based deep learning platform that mitigates the long lead time and high upfront investment in hardware. It enables robust and scalable sharing of resources among the teams in an organization. It is designed for on-demand cloud environments. Providing a similar user experience in a multi-tenant cloud environment comes with its own unique challenges regarding fault tolerance, performance, and security. Watson Deep Learning as a service tackles these challenges and present a deep learning stack for the cloud environments in a secure, scalable and fault-tolerant manner. It supports a wide range of deep-learning frameworks such as Tensorflow, PyTorch, Caffe, Torch, Theano, and MXNet etc. These frameworks reduce the effort and skillset required to design, train, and use deep learning models. Deep Learning as a service is used at IBM by AI researchers in areas including machine translation, computer vision, and healthcare. 

Keywords: deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, model training

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6338 Teaching Professional Competences through Projects: Experiencing Curriculum Development through Active Learning

Authors: Flavio Campos, Patricia Masmo, Fernanda Yamamoto

Abstract:

The report presents a research about teaching professional competencies through projects, considering the student as an active learner and curriculum development. Considering project based-learning, the report articulate the result of research about curriculum development for professional competencies and teaching-learning strategies to help the development of professional competencies in learning environments in the courses of National Learning Service in São Paulo, Brazil. There so, intend to demonstrate fundamentals to elaborate curriculum to learning environment, specific about teaching methodologies to enrich student-learning process, using projects. The practice that has been taking place since 2013 indicates the needs of rethinking knowledge and practice in courses that prepared students to labor.

Keywords: curriculum design, active learning, professional competencies, project based-learning

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6337 The Effects of Integrating Knowledge Management and e-Learning: Productive Work and Learning Coverage

Authors: Ashraf Ibrahim Awad

Abstract:

It is important to formulate suitable learning environments ca-pable to be customized according to value perceptions of the university. In this paper, light is shed on the concepts of integration between knowledge management (KM), and e-learning (EL) in the higher education sector of the economy in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A discussion on and how KM and EL can be integrated and leveraged for effective education and training is presented. The results are derived from the literature and interviews with 16 of the academics in eight universities in the Emirate. The conclusion is that KM and EL have much to offer each other, but this is not yet reflected at the implementation level, and their boundaries are not always clear. Interviews have shown that both concepts perceived to be closely related and, responsibilities for these initiatives are practiced by different departments or units.

Keywords: knowledge management, e-learning, learning integration, universities, UAE

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6336 The Effect of Visual Access to Greenspace and Urban Space on a False Memory Learning Task

Authors: Bryony Pound

Abstract:

This study investigated how views of green or urban space affect learning performance. It provides evidence of the value of visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments, and builds on the extensive research into the cognitive and learning-related benefits of access to green and natural spaces, particularly in learning environments. It demonstrates that benefits of visual access to natural spaces whilst learning can produce statistically significant faster responses than those facing urban views after only 5 minutes. The primary hypothesis of this research was that a greenspace view would improve short-term learning. Participants were randomly assigned to either a view of parkland or of urban buildings from the same room. They completed a psychological test of two stages. The first stage consisted of a presentation of words from eight different categories (four manmade and four natural). Following this a 2.5 minute break was given; participants were not prompted to look out of the window, but all were observed doing so. The second stage of the test involved a word recognition/false memory test of three types. Type 1 was presented words from each category; Type 2 was non-presented words from those same categories; and Type 3 was non-presented words from different categories. Participants were asked to respond with whether they thought they had seen the words before or not. Accuracy of responses and reaction times were recorded. The key finding was that reaction times for Type 2 words (highest difficulty) were significantly different between urban and green view conditions. Those with an urban view had slower reaction times for these words, so a view of greenspace resulted in better information retrieval for word and false memory recognition. Importantly, this difference was found after only 5 minutes of exposure to either view, during winter, and with a sample size of only 26. Greenspace views improve performance in a learning task. This provides a case for better visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments.

Keywords: benefits, greenspace, learning, restoration

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6335 Sensory Ethnography and Interaction Design in Immersive Higher Education

Authors: Anna-Kaisa Sjolund

Abstract:

The doctoral thesis examines interaction design and sensory ethnography as tools to create immersive education environments. In recent years, there has been increasing interest and discussions among researchers and educators on immersive education like augmented reality tools, virtual glasses and the possibilities to utilize them in education at all levels. Using virtual devices as learning environments it is possible to create multisensory learning environments. Sensory ethnography in this study refers to the way of the senses consider the impact on the information dynamics in immersive learning environments. The past decade has seen the rapid development of virtual world research and virtual ethnography. Christine Hine's Virtual Ethnography offers an anthropological explanation of net behavior and communication change. Despite her groundbreaking work, time has changed the users’ communication style and brought new solutions to do ethnographical research. The virtual reality with all its new potential has come to the fore and considering all the senses. Movie and image have played an important role in cultural research for centuries, only the focus has changed in different times and in a different field of research. According to Karin Becker, the role of image in our society is information flow and she found two meanings what the research of visual culture is. The images and pictures are the artifacts of visual culture. Images can be viewed as a symbolic language that allows digital storytelling. Combining the sense of sight, but also the other senses, such as hear, touch, taste, smell, balance, the use of a virtual learning environment offers students a way to more easily absorb large amounts of information. It offers also for teachers’ different ways to produce study material. In this article using sensory ethnography as research tool approaches the core question. Sensory ethnography is used to describe information dynamics in immersive environment through interaction design. Immersive education environment is understood as three-dimensional, interactive learning environment, where the audiovisual aspects are central, but all senses can be taken into consideration. When designing learning environments or any digital service, interaction design is always needed. The question what is interaction design is justified, because there is no simple or consistent idea of what is the interaction design or how it can be used as a research method or whether it is only a description of practical actions. When discussing immersive learning environments or their construction, consideration should be given to interaction design and sensory ethnography.

Keywords: immersive education, sensory ethnography, interaction design, information dynamics

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6334 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

Abstract:

This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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6333 Learning Model Applied to Cope with Professional Knowledge Gaps in Final Project of Information System Students

Authors: Ilana Lavy, Rami Rashkovits

Abstract:

In this study, we describe Information Systems students' learning model which was applied by students in order to cope with professional knowledge gaps in the context of their final project. The students needed to implement a software system according to specifications and design they have made beforehand. They had to select certain technologies and use them. Most of them decided to use programming environments that were learned during their academic studies. The students had to cope with various levels of knowledge gaps. For that matter they used learning strategies that were organized by us as a learning model which includes two phases each suitable for different learning tasks. We analyze the learning model, describing advantages and shortcomings as perceived by the students, and provide excerpts to support our findings.

Keywords: knowledge gaps, independent learner skills, self-regulated learning, final project

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6332 Learning in Multicultural Workspaces: A Case of Aged Care

Authors: Robert John Godby

Abstract:

To be responsive now and in the future, workplaces must address the demands of multicultural teams as they become more common elements of the global labor force. This is especially the case for aged care due to the aging population, industry growth and migrant recruitment. This research identifies influences on and improvements for learning in these environments. Its unique contribution is to illuminate how culturally diverse workplaces can work and learn together more effectively. A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data about this topic in two phases. Firstly, the research methods included a survey of 102 aged care workers around Australia from two multi-site aged care organisations. The questionnaire elicited both quantitative and qualitative data about worker characteristics and perspectives on working and learning in aged care. Secondly, a case study of one aged care worksite was formulated drawing on worksite information and interviews with workers. A review of the literature suggests that learning in multicultural work environments is influenced by three main factors: 1) the individual workers themselves, 2) their interaction with each other and 3) the environment in which they work. There are various accounts of these three factors, how they are manifested and how they lead to a change in workers’ disposition, knowledge, or expertise when confronted with new circumstances. The study has found that a key individual factor influencing learning is cultural background. Their unique view of the world was shown to affect their approach to both their work and co-working. Interactional factors suggest that the high requirement for collaboration in aged care positively supports learning in this context; however, it can be hindered by cultural bias and spoken accent. The study also found that environmental factors, such as disruptions caused by the pandemic, were another key influence. For example, the need to wear face masks hindered the communication needed for workplace learning. This was especially challenging due to the diverse language backgrounds and abilities within the teams. Potential improvements for learning in multicultural aged care work environments were identified. These include more frequent and structured inter-peer learning (e.g. buddying), communication training (e.g. English language usage for both native and non-native speaking workers) and support for cross-cultural habitude (e.g. recognizing and adapting to cultural differences). Workplace learning in cross-cultural aged care environments is an area that is not extensively dealt with in the literature. This study addresses this gap and holds the potential to contribute practical insights to aged care and other diverse industries.

Keywords: cross-cultural learning, learning in aged care, migrant learning, workplace learning

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6331 Learning Environments in the Early Years: A Case Study of an Early Childhood Centre in Australia

Authors: Mingxi Xiao

Abstract:

Children’s experiences in the early years build and shape the brain. The early years learning environment plays a significantly important role in children’s development. A well-constructed environment will facilitate children’s physical and mental well-being. This case study used an early learning centre in Australia called SDN Hurstville as an example, describing the learning environment in the centre, as well as analyzing the functions of the affordances. In addition, this report talks about the sustainability of learning in the centre, and how the environment supports cultural diversity and indigenous learning. The early years for children are significant. Different elements in the early childhood centre should work together to help children develop better. This case study found that the natural environment and the artificial environment are both critical to children; only when they work together can children have better development in physical and mental well-being and have a sense of belonging when playing and learning in the centre.

Keywords: early childhood center, early childhood education, learning environment, Australia

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