Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5659

Search results for: learning style

5659 The Influence of Learning Styles on Learners Grade Achievement in E-Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

Authors: Thomas Yeboah, Gifty Akouko Sarpong

Abstract:

Every learner has a specific learning style that helps him/her to study best. This means that any learning method (e-learning method or traditional face-to-face method) a learner chooses should address the learning style of the learner. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether learners’ grade achievement in e-learning environment is improved for learners with a particular learning style. In this research, purposive sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample size of three hundred and twenty (320) students studying a course UGRC 140 Science and Technology in our Lives at Christian Service University College. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one-way ANOVA. A thorough analysis was done on the data collected and the results revealed that learners with the Assimilator learning style and the converger learning style obtained higher grade achievement than both diverger learning style and accommodative learning style. Again, the results also revealed that accommodative learning style was not good enough for e-learning method.

Keywords: e-learning, learning style, grade achievement, accomodative, divergent, convergent, assimilative

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5658 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning style, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebraic fraction was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style performs better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: algebraic fractions, graduated difficulty, mastery learning style, multimedia

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5657 Effects of the Mathcing between Learning and Teaching Styles on Learning with Happiness of College Students

Authors: Tasanee Satthapong

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between learning style preferences, teaching style preferences, and learning with happiness of college students who were majors in five different academic areas at the Suansunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The selected participants were 729 students 1st year-5th year in Faculty of Education from Thai teaching, early childhood education, math and science teaching, and English teaching majors. The research instruments are the Grasha and Riechmann learning and teaching styles survey and the students’ happiness in learning survey, based on learning with happiness theory initiated by the Office of the National Education Commission. The results of this study: 1) The most students’ learning styles were participant style, followed by collaborative style, and independent style 2) Most students’ happiness in learning in all subjects areas were at the moderate level: Early Childhood Education subject had the highest scores, while Math subject was at the least scores. 3) No different of student’s happiness in learning were found between students who has learning styles that match and not match to teachers’ teaching styles.

Keywords: learning style, teaching style, learning with happiness

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5656 Learning Object Interface Adapted to the Learner's Learning Style

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract:

Learning styles (LS) refer to the ways and forms that the student prefers to learn in the teaching and learning process. Each student has their own way of receiving and processing information throughout the learning process. Therefore, knowing their LS is important to better understand their individual learning preferences, and also, understand why the use of some teaching methods and techniques give better results with some students, while others it does not. We believe that knowledge of these styles enables the possibility of making propositions for teaching; thus, reorganizing teaching methods and techniques in order to allow learning that is adapted to the individual needs of the student. Adapting learning would be possible through the creation of online educational resources adapted to the style of the student. In this context, this article presents the structure of a learning object interface adaptation based on the LS. The structure created should enable the creation of the adapted learning object according to the student's LS and contributes to the increase of student’s motivation in the use of a learning object as an educational resource.

Keywords: adaptation, interface, learning object, learning style

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5655 An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective

Authors: Radesh Palakurthi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.

Keywords: hospitality competencies, hospitality education, Kolb’s learning style inventory, learning outcomes, study abroad

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5654 Navigating the Case-Based Learning Multimodal Learning Environment: A Qualitative Study Across the First-Year Medical Students

Authors: Bhavani Veasuvalingam

Abstract:

Case-based learning (CBL) is a popular instructional method aimed to bridge theory to clinical practice. This study aims to explore CBL mixed modality curriculum in influencing students’ learning styles and strategies that support learning. An explanatory sequential mixed method study was employed with initial phase, 44-itemed Felderman’s Index of Learning Style (ILS) questionnaire employed across year one medical students (n=142) using convenience sampling to describe the preferred learning styles. The qualitative phase utilised three focus group discussions (FGD) to explore in depth on the multimodal learning style exhibited by the students. Most students preferred combination of learning stylesthat is reflective, sensing, visual and sequential i.e.: RSVISeq style (24.64%) from the ILS analysis. The frequency of learning preference from processing to understanding were well balanced, with sequential-global domain (66.2%); sensing-intuitive (59.86%), active- reflective (57%), and visual-verbal (51.41%). The qualitative data reported three major themes, namely Theme 1: CBL mixed modalities navigates learners’ learning style; Theme 2: Multimodal learners active learning strategies supports learning. Theme 3: CBL modalities facilitating theory into clinical knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative study strongly reports the multimodal learning style of the year one medical students. Medical students utilise multimodal learning styles to attain the clinical knowledge when learning with CBL mixed modalities. Educators’ awareness of the multimodal learning style is crucial in delivering the CBL mixed modalities effectively, considering strategic pedagogical support students to engage and learn CBL in bridging the theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

Keywords: case-based learning, learnign style, medical students, learning

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5653 Group Learning for the Design of Human Resource Development for Enterprise

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee, Yu-Cheng Kuo

Abstract:

In order to understand whether there is a better than the learning function of learning methods and improve the CAD Courses for enterprise’s design human resource development, this research is applied in learning practical learning computer graphics software. In this study, Revit building information model for learning content, design of two different modes of learning curriculum to learning, learning functions, respectively, and project learning. Via a post-test, questionnaires and student interviews, etc., to study the effectiveness of a comparative analysis of two different modes of learning. Students participate in a period of three weeks after a total of nine-hour course, and finally written and hands-on test. In addition, fill in the questionnaire response by the student learning, a total of fifteen questionnaire title, problem type into the base operating software, application software and software-based concept features three directions. In addition to the questionnaire, and participants were invited to two different learning methods to conduct interviews to learn more about learning students the idea of two different modes. The study found that the ad hoc short-term courses in learning, better learning outcomes. On the other hand, functional style for the whole course students are more satisfied, and the ad hoc style student is difficult to accept the ad hoc style of learning.

Keywords: development, education, human resource, learning

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5652 The Relation between Learning Styles and English Achievement in the Language Training Centre

Authors: Nurul Yusnita

Abstract:

Many studies have been developed to help the students to get good achievement in English learning. They can be from the teaching method or psychological ones. One of the psychological studies in educational research is learning style. In some ways, learning style can affect the achievement of the students. This study aimed to examine 4 (four) learning styles and their relations to English achievement among the students learning English in Language Training Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (LTC UMY). The method of this study was descriptive analytical. The sample consisted of 39 Accounting students in LTC UMY. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert-scale. The achievement was obtained from the grade of the students. To analyze the questionnaires and to see the relation between the learning styles and the student achievement, SPSS statistical software of correlational analysis was used. The result showed that both visual and auditory had the same percentage of 35.9% (14 students). 3 students (7.7%) had kinaesthetic learning style and 8 students (20.5%) had visual and auditory ones. Meanwhile, there were 5 students (12.8%) who had visual learning style could increase their grades. Only 1 student (2.5%) who had visual and auditory could improve his grade. Besides grade increase, there were also grade decrease. Students with visual, auditory, visual and auditory, and kinaesthetic learning styles were 3 students (7.7%), 5 students (12%), 4 students (10.2%) and 1 student (2.5%) respectively. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between learning style and English achievement. Most of the good achievers were the students with visual and auditory learning styles and most of them preferred visual method. The implication is the teachers and material designers could improve their method through visual things to achieve effective English teaching learning.

Keywords: accounting students, English achievement, language training centre, learning styles

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
5651 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir

Abstract:

Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5650 Enhancement of Learning Style in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) via Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

Abstract:

Mobile communication provides access to the outside world without borders everywhere and at any time. The learning method that related to mobile communication technology is known as mobile learning (M-learning). It is a method that communicates learning materials with mobile device technology. The purpose of this method is to increase the interest in learning among students and assist them in obtaining learning materials at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) in order to improve the student’s performance in their study and to encourage educators to diversify the teaching practices. This paper discusses the student’s awareness for enhancement of learning style using mobile technologies and their readiness to apply the elements of mobile learning in learning to improve performance and interest in learning among students. An application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) has been developed as a tool to be used as a pilot test in KPTM.

Keywords: awareness, mobile learning, MEEFLS, teaching and learning, readiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
5649 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

Abstract:

This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

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5648 Learning Preference in Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri

Authors: B. Wattanakul, G. Ngamwongwan, S. Ngamkham

Abstract:

Exposure to different learning experiences contributes to changing in learning style. Addressing students’ learning preference could help teachers provide different learning activities that encourage the student to learn effectively. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe learning styles of nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri. Sample: The purposive sample was 463 nursing students who were enrolled in a nursing program at different academic levels. The 16-item VARK questionnaire with 4 multiple choices was administered at one time data collection. Choices have consisted with modalities of Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic measured by VARK. Results: Majority of learning preference of students at different levels was visual and read/write learning preference. Almost 67% of students have a multimodal preference, which is visual learning preference associated with read/write or kinesthetic preference. At different academic levels, multimodalities are greater than single preference. Over 30% of students have one dominant learning preference, including visual preference, read/write preference and kinesthetic preference. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment revealed a significant difference between students based on their academic level (p < 0.001). Learning style of the first-grade nursing students differed from the second-grade nursing students (p < 0.001). While learning style of nursing students in the second-grade has significantly varied from the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grade (p < 0.001), learning preference of the 3rd grade has significantly differed from the 4th grade of nursing students (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Nursing students have varied learning styles based on their different academic levels. Learning preference is not fixed attributes. This should help nursing teachers assess the types of changes in students’ learning preferences while developing teaching plans to optimize students’ learning environment and achieve the needs of the courses and help students develop learning preference to meet the need of the course.

Keywords: learning preference, VARK, learning style, nursing

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5647 Expansive-Restrictive Style: Conceptualizing Knowledge Workers

Authors: Ram Manohar Singh, Meenakshi Gupta

Abstract:

Various terms such as ‘learning style’, ‘cognitive style’, ‘conceptual style’, ‘thinking style’, ‘intellectual style’ are used in literature to refer to an individual’s characteristic and consistent approach to organizing and processing information. However, style concepts are criticized for mutually overlapping definitions and confusing classification. This confusion should be addressed at the conceptual as well as empirical level. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap in literature by proposing a new concept: expansive-restrictive intellectual style based on phenomenological analysis of an auto-ethnography and interview of 26 information technology (IT) professionals working in knowledge intensive organizations (KIOs) in India. Expansive style is an individual’s preference to expand his/her horizon of knowledge and understanding by gaining real meaning and structure of his/her work. On the contrary restrictive style is characterized by an individual’s preference to take minimalist approach at work reflected in executing a job efficiently without an attempt to understand the real meaning and structure of the work. The analysis suggests that expansive-restrictive style has three dimensions: (1) field dependence-independence (2) cognitive involvement and (3) epistemological beliefs.

Keywords: expansive, knowledge workers, restrictive, style

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5646 Learning and Teaching Styles of Student Nurses

Authors: Jefferson S. Galanza, Jewel An Mischelle R.Camcam, Alyssa Karryl C. Co, Stephanie P. De Guzman, Jet Jet K. Dongui-is, Rodolfo Dane C. Frias, Ovelle C. Jueco, Harvey L. Matbagan, Victoria Luzette T. Rillon, Christelle Romyna H. Saruca, Jeanette Roma M. Villasper

Abstract:

Background: Amidst numerous studies conducted on learning styles of students from a variety of courses, levels and school, a recent study recommended a great need for research on learning styles of student nurses. Moreover, related literatures have not been found exploring both the learning and teaching style of student nurses. Aims: The study aimed to determine the learning and teaching styles of student nurses and if there is an association between them. It also intended to discover whether student nurses are unimodal or multimodal in their styles and identified which faculty teaching style affords maximum outcome for student’s learning styles. Methods: Quantitative Descriptive-Correlational design was used. Participants were randomly selected 312 student nurses at School of Nursing X, Baguio City, Philippines. The questionnaire utilized a modified version of an adopted tool from Fleming’s VARK learning style version 7.2 (Visual, Auditory, Reader/Writer, Kinaesthetic) and Grasha’s teaching styles (Formal Authority, Demonstrator, Facilitator, Delegator). SPSS 19 was used for statistical treatment of data, where Chi square was used for the correlation of unimodal learning and teaching styles. Results/Finding: Majority of student nurses’ learning style is Kinesthetic and their teaching style is Demonstrator, which was also found to be significantly associated. Moreover, 8 out of 10 students are Unimodal in their learning and teaching modalities. In general, their preferred faculty teaching style is similar to their teaching style, which supports the concept, that teachers teach the way they learn. Conclusion: Study concludes that student nurses’ learning styles and teaching styles are varied, which exemplifies the uniqueness of every learner.This diversity in styles provided more evidence that a variety of mode of teaching and learning should be used by faculty and students to increase learning outcome and academic achievement. Recommendation: Future studies could be carried out in various schools of nursing utilizing faculty as respondents. Conduct assessment of learning style at the onset of classes/clinical placements so that faculty will become aware of the diversity of learners leading them to deliver diverse teaching methods.

Keywords: learning, learning styles, teaching styles, student nurses

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5645 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices

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5644 Revisiting High School Students’ Learning Styles in English Subject

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

The prime motive for this endeavor was to explore the tenth grade English class students’ preferred learning styles studying in government secondary school so that English subject teachers could tailor their pedagogical strategies in relation to their students learning needs. The further aim of this study was to identify any significance difference among the students on a gender basis, area basis and different categories of school basis. The population of this study consisting of all the secondary level schools working in the government sector and positioned in the province of Punjab. The multi-stage cluster sampling method was employed while selecting the study sample from the population. The scale used for the identification of students’ learning styles in this study was developed by Grasha-Riechmann. The data collected through learning style scale was analyzed by employing descriptive statistics technique. The results from data analysis depict that learning styles of the majority of students found to be Collaborative and Competitive. Overall, no considerable difference was surfaced between male-female, urban-rural, general-other categories of 10th grade English class students learning styles.

Keywords: learning style, learning style scale, grade, government sector

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5643 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

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5642 Social Media Data Analysis for Personality Modelling and Learning Styles Prediction Using Educational Data Mining

Authors: Srushti Patil, Preethi Baligar, Gopalkrishna Joshi, Gururaj N. Bhadri

Abstract:

In designing learning environments, the instructional strategies can be tailored to suit the learning style of an individual to ensure effective learning. In this study, the information shared on social media like Facebook is being used to predict learning style of a learner. Previous research studies have shown that Facebook data can be used to predict user personality. Users with a particular personality exhibit an inherent pattern in their digital footprint on Facebook. The proposed work aims to correlate the user's’ personality, predicted from Facebook data to the learning styles, predicted through questionnaires. For Millennial learners, Facebook has become a primary means for information sharing and interaction with peers. Thus, it can serve as a rich bed for research and direct the design of learning environments. The authors have conducted this study in an undergraduate freshman engineering course. Data from 320 freshmen Facebook users was collected. The same users also participated in the learning style and personality prediction survey. The Kolb’s Learning style questionnaires and Big 5 personality Inventory were adopted for the survey. The users have agreed to participate in this research and have signed individual consent forms. A specific page was created on Facebook to collect user data like personal details, status updates, comments, demographic characteristics and egocentric network parameters. This data was captured by an application created using Python program. The data captured from Facebook was subjected to text analysis process using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionary. An analysis of the data collected from the questionnaires performed reveals individual student personality and learning style. The results obtained from analysis of Facebook, learning style and personality data were then fed into an automatic classifier that was trained by using the data mining techniques like Rule-based classifiers and Decision trees. This helps to predict the user personality and learning styles by analysing the common patterns. Rule-based classifiers applied for text analysis helps to categorize Facebook data into positive, negative and neutral. There were totally two models trained, one to predict the personality from Facebook data; another one to predict the learning styles from the personalities. The results show that the classifier model has high accuracy which makes the proposed method to be a reliable one for predicting the user personality and learning styles.

Keywords: educational data mining, Facebook, learning styles, personality traits

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5641 Exploring and Evaluating the Current Style of Teaching Biology in Saudi Universities from Teachers' Points of View

Authors: Ibraheem Alzahrani

Abstract:

The Saudi Arabia ministry of higher education has established 24 universities across various cities in the kingdom. The universities have the mandate of sustaining technological progress in both teaching and learning. The present study explores the statues of teaching in Saudi universities, focusing on biology, a critical curriculum. The paper explores biology teachers’ points of view is several Saudi higher education institutions through questionnaires disseminated via emails. According to the findings, the current teaching methods are traditional and the teachers believe that it is critical to change it. This study also, reviews how biology has been taught in the kingdom over the past, as well as how it is undertaken presently. In addition, some aspects of biology teaching are considered, including the biology curriculum and learning objectives in higher education biology.

Keywords: higher education, teaching style, traditional learning, electronic learning, web 2.0 applications, blended learning

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5640 Effect of Two Transactional Instructional Strategies on Primary School Pupils’ Achievement in English Language Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Eniola Akande

Abstract:

Introduction: English vocabulary and reading comprehension are core to academic achievement in many school subjects. Deficiency in both accounts for dismal performance in internal and external examinations among primary school pupils in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Previous studies largely focused on factors influencing pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. In spite of what literature has shown, the problem still persists, implying the need for other kinds of intervention. This study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of two transactional strategies Picture Walk (PW) and Know-Want to Learn-Learnt (KWL) on primary four pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension in Ibadan Metropolis. The moderating effects of gender and learning style were also examined. Methodology: The study was anchored on Rosenblatt’s Transactional Reading and Piaget’s Cognitive Development theories; pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design with 3x2x3 factorial matrix was adopted. Six public primary schools were purposively selected based on the availability of qualified English language teachers in Primary Education Studies. Six intact classes (one per school) with a total of 101 primary four pupils (48 males and 53 females) participated. The intact classes were randomly assigned to PW (27), KWL (44) and conventional (30) groups. Instruments used were English Vocabulary (r=0.83), Reading Comprehension (r=0.84) achievement tests, Pupils’ Learning Style Preference Scale (r=0.93) and instructional guides. Treatment lasted six weeks. Data were analysed using the Descriptive statistics, Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc test at 0.05 level of significance. The mean age was 8.86±0.84 years. Result: Treatment had a significant main effect on pupils’ reading comprehension (F(2,82)=3.17), but not on English vocabulary. Participants in KWL obtained the highest post achievement means score in reading comprehension (8.93), followed by PW (8.06) and control (7.21) groups. Pupils’ learning style had a significant main effect on pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension (F(2,82)=4.41), but not on English vocabulary. Pupils with preference for tactile learning style had the highest post achievement mean score in reading comprehension (9.40), followed by the auditory (7.43) and the visual learning style (7.37) groups. Gender had no significant main effect on English vocabulary and reading comprehension. There was no significant two-way interaction effect of treatment and gender on pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. The two-way interaction effect of treatment and learning style on pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension was significant (F(4,82)=3.37), in favour of pupils with tactile learning style in PW group. There was no significant two-way interaction effect of gender and learning style on pupils’ achievement in English vocabulary and reading comprehension. The three-way interaction effects were not significant on English vocabulary and reading comprehension. Conclusion: Picture Walk and Know-Want to learn-Learnt instructional strategies were effective in enhancing pupils’ achievement in reading comprehension but not on English vocabulary. Learning style contributed considerably to achievement in reading comprehension but not to English vocabulary. Primary school, English language teachers, should put into consideration pupils’ learning style when adopting both strategies in teaching reading comprehension for improved achievement in the subject.

Keywords: comprehension-based intervention, know-want to learn-learnt, learning style, picture walk, primary school pupils

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5639 Causal-Explanatory Model of Academic Performance in Social Anxious Adolescents

Authors: Beatriz Delgado

Abstract:

Although social anxiety is one of the most prevalent disorders in adolescents and causes considerable difficulties and social distress in those with the disorder, to date very few studies have explored the impact of social anxiety on academic adjustment in student populations. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of social anxiety on school functioning in Secondary Education. Specifically, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and self-concept, academic goals, causal attributions, intellectual aptitudes, and learning strategies, personality traits, and academic performance, with the purpose of creating a causal-explanatory model of academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,022 students in the seven to ten grades of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain (M = 13.18; SD = 1.35; 51.1% boys). We found that: (a) social anxiety has a direct positive effect on internal attributional style, and a direct negative effect on self-concept. Social anxiety also has an indirect negative effect on internal causal attributions; (b) prior performance (first academic trimester) exerts a direct positive effect on intelligence, achievement goals, academic self-concept, and final academic performance (third academic trimester), and a direct negative effect on internal causal attributions. It also has an indirect positive effect on causal attributions (internal and external), learning goals, achievement goals, and study strategies; (c) intelligence has a direct positive effect on learning goals and academic performance (third academic trimester); (d) academic self-concept has a direct positive effect on internal and external attributional style. Also, has an indirect effect on learning goals, achievement goals, and learning strategies; (e) internal attributional style has a direct positive effect on learning strategies and learning goals. Has a positive but indirect effect on achievement goals and learning strategies; (f) external attributional style has a direct negative effect on learning strategies and learning goals and a direct positive effect on internal causal attributions; (g) learning goals have direct positive effect on learning strategies and achievement goals. The structural equation model fit the data well (CFI = .91; RMSEA = .04), explaining 93.8% of the variance in academic performance. Finally, we emphasize that the new causal-explanatory model proposed in the present study represents a significant contribution in that it includes social anxiety as an explanatory variable of cognitive-motivational constructs.

Keywords: academic performance, adolescence, cognitive-motivational variables, social anxiety

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5638 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

Abstract:

This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

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5637 Application of Neuroscience in Aligning Instructional Design to Student Learning Style

Authors: Jayati Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Teaching is a very dynamic profession. Teaching Science is as much challenging as Learning the subject if not more. For instance teaching of Chemistry. From the introductory concepts of subatomic particles to atoms of elements and their symbols and further presenting the chemical equation and so forth is a challenge on both side of the equation Teaching Learning. This paper combines the Neuroscience of Learning and memory with the knowledge of Learning style (VAK) and presents an effective tool for the teacher to authenticate Learning. The model of ‘Working Memory’, the Visio-spatial sketchpad, the central executive and the phonological loop that transforms short-term memory to long term memory actually supports the psychological theory of Learning style i.e. Visual –Auditory-Kinesthetic. A closer examination of David Kolbe’s learning model suggests that learning requires abilities that are polar opposites, and that the learner must continually choose which set of learning abilities he or she will use in a specific learning situation. In grasping experience some of us perceive new information through experiencing the concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world, relying on our senses and immersing ourselves in concrete reality. Others tend to perceive, grasp, or take hold of new information through symbolic representation or abstract conceptualization – thinking about, analyzing, or systematically planning, rather than using sensation as a guide. Similarly, in transforming or processing experience some of us tend to carefully watch others who are involved in the experience and reflect on what happens, while others choose to jump right in and start doing things. The watchers favor reflective observation, while the doers favor active experimentation. Any lesson plan based on the model of Prescriptive design: C+O=M (C: Instructional condition; O: Instructional Outcome; M: Instructional method). The desired outcome and conditions are independent variables whereas the instructional method is dependent hence can be planned and suited to maximize the learning outcome. The assessment for learning rather than of learning can encourage, build confidence and hope amongst the learners and go a long way to replace the anxiety and hopelessness that a student experiences while learning Science with a human touch in it. Application of this model has been tried in teaching chemistry to high school students as well as in workshops with teachers. The response received has proven the desirable results.

Keywords: working memory model, learning style, prescriptive design, assessment for learning

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5636 Effective Learning and Testing Methods in School-Aged Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinlou, Reza Kormi-Nouri, Monika Knopf, Kamal Kharrazi

Abstract:

When we teach, we have two critical elements at our disposal to help students: learning styles as well as testing styles. There are many different ways in which educators can effectively teach their students; verbal learning and experience-based learning. Lecture as a form of verbal learning style is a traditional arrangement in which teachers are more active and share information verbally with students. In experienced-based learning as the process of through, students learn actively through hands-on learning materials and observing teachers or others. Meanwhile, standard testing or assessment is the way to determine progress toward proficiency. Teachers and instructors mainly use essay (requires written responses), multiple choice questions (includes the correct answer and several incorrect answers as distractors), or open-ended questions (respondents answers it with own words). The current study focused on exploring an effective teaching style and testing methods as the function of age over school ages. In the present study, totally 410 participants were selected randomly from four grades (2ⁿᵈ, 4ᵗʰ, 6ᵗʰ, and 8ᵗʰ). Each subject was tested individually in one session lasting around 50 minutes. In learning tasks, the participants were presented three different instructions for learning materials (learning by doing, learning by observing, and learning by listening). Then, they were tested via different standard assessments as free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The results revealed that generally students remember more of what they do and what they observe than what they hear. The age effect was more pronounced in learning by doing than in learning by observing, and learning by listening, becoming progressively stronger in the free-recall, cued-recall, and recognition tasks. The findings of this study indicated that learning by doing and free recall task is more age sensitive, suggesting that both of them are more strategic and more affected by developmental differences. Pedagogically, these results denoted that learning by modeling and engagement in program activities have the special role for learning. Moreover, the findings indicated that the multiple-choice questions can produce the best performance for school-aged children but is less age-sensitive. By contrast, the essay as essay can produce the lowest performance but is more age-sensitive. It will be very helpful for educators to know that what types of learning styles and test methods are most effective for students in each school grade.

Keywords: experience-based learning, learning style, school-aged children, testing methods, verbal learning

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5635 Content Based Instruction: An Interdisciplinary Approach in Promoting English Language Competence

Authors: Sanjeeb Kumar Mohanty

Abstract:

Content Based Instruction (CBI) in English Language Teaching (ELT) basically helps English as Second Language (ESL) learners of English. At the same time, it fosters multidisciplinary style of learning by promoting collaborative learning style. It is an approach to teaching ESL that attempts to combine language with interdisciplinary learning for bettering language proficiency and facilitating content learning. Hence, the basic purpose of CBI is that language should be taught in conjunction with academic subject matter. It helps in establishing the content as well as developing language competency. This study aims at supporting the potential values of interdisciplinary approach in promoting English Language Learning (ELL) by teaching writing skills to a small group of learners and discussing the findings with the teachers from various disciplines in a workshop. The teachers who are oriented, they use the same approach in their classes collaboratively. The inputs from the learners as well as the teachers hopefully raise positive consciousness with regard to the vast benefits that Content Based Instruction can offer in advancing the language competence of the learners.

Keywords: content based instruction, interdisciplinary approach, writing skills, collaborative approach

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5634 A Study on Learning Styles and Academic Performance in Relation with Kinesthetic, Verbal and Visual Intelligences

Authors: Salina Budin, Nor Liawati Abu Othman, Shaira Ismail

Abstract:

This study attempts to determine kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences among mechanical engineering undergraduate students and explores any probable relation with students’ learning styles and academic performance. The questionnaire used in this study is based on Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory comprising of five elements of learning style; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Additional questions on students’ perception of learning styles and their academic performance are included in the questionnaire. The results show that one third of the students are strongly dominant in the kinesthetic intelligent (33%), followed by a combination of kinesthetic and visual intelligences (29%) and 21% are strongly dominant in all three types of intelligences. There is a statistically significant correlation between kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences and students learning styles and academic performances. The ANOVA analysis supports that there is a significant relationship between academic performances and level of kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences. In addition, it has also proven a remarkable relationship between academic performances and kinesthetic, verbal and visual learning styles amongst the male and female students. Thus, it can be concluded that, academic achievements can be enhanced by understanding as well as capitalizing the students’ types of intelligences and learning styles.

Keywords: kinesthetic intelligent, verbal intelligent, visual intelligent, learning style, academic performances

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5633 Investigation of the Influence of Student’s Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement in Junior Secondary School in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

This current study investigated students’ characteristics as factors that influence Mathematics Achievement of junior secondary school students. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was one hundred and twenty-three (123) JSS students of secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government in Oyo State. A Mathematics achievement test and three questionnaires on student’s self-efficacy belief, attitude, and learning style were the instruments used. Prior to the administration of the constructed mathematics achievement test, 100-item mathematics was subjected to the expert review, and items analysis was carried out. Fifty items were retained. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients of the instruments were 0.71, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. Collected data were analysed using the frequency count, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Path Analysis in Amos SPSS Version 20. Students characteristics: gender, age, self-efficacy, attitude and learning style had positive direct effects on students’ achievement in Mathematics as indicated by their respective beta weights (β = 0.36, 0.203, 0.92, 0.079, 0.69 p < 0.05). Consequently, the study concluded that student’s characteristics (Age, gender, and learning style) explained a significant part of the variability in students’ achievement in Mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics achievement, students’ characteristics, junior secondary school, Ibadan

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5632 Deciphering Orangutan Drawing Behavior Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Benjamin Beltzung, Marie Pelé, Julien P. Renoult, Cédric Sueur

Abstract:

To this day, it is not known if drawing is specifically human behavior or if this behavior finds its origins in ancestor species. An interesting window to enlighten this question is to analyze the drawing behavior in genetically close to human species, such as non-human primate species. A good candidate for this approach is the orangutan, who shares 97% of our genes and exhibits multiple human-like behaviors. Focusing on figurative aspects may not be suitable for orangutans’ drawings, which may appear as scribbles but may have meaning. A manual feature selection would lead to an anthropocentric bias, as the features selected by humans may not match with those relevant for orangutans. In the present study, we used deep learning to analyze the drawings of a female orangutan named Molly († in 2011), who has produced 1,299 drawings in her last five years as part of a behavioral enrichment program at the Tama Zoo in Japan. We investigate multiple ways to decipher Molly’s drawings. First, we demonstrate the existence of differences between seasons by training a deep learning model to classify Molly’s drawings according to the seasons. Then, to understand and interpret these seasonal differences, we analyze how the information spreads within the network, from shallow to deep layers, where early layers encode simple local features and deep layers encode more complex and global information. More precisely, we investigate the impact of feature complexity on classification accuracy through features extraction fed to a Support Vector Machine. Last, we leverage style transfer to dissociate features associated with drawing style from those describing the representational content and analyze the relative importance of these two types of features in explaining seasonal variation. Content features were relevant for the classification, showing the presence of meaning in these non-figurative drawings and the ability of deep learning to decipher these differences. The style of the drawings was also relevant, as style features encoded enough information to have a classification better than random. The accuracy of style features was higher for deeper layers, demonstrating and highlighting the variation of style between seasons in Molly’s drawings. Through this study, we demonstrate how deep learning can help at finding meanings in non-figurative drawings and interpret these differences.

Keywords: cognition, deep learning, drawing behavior, interpretability

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5631 The Educational Philosophies and Teaching Style Preferences of College Faculty at Selected Universities in the South of Metro Manila

Authors: Grace D. Severo, Lopita U. Jung

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the educational philosophies and teaching styles of the college faculty of the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA in the campuses of Las-Piñas, Molino, and Calamba, south of Metro Manila. It sought to determine the relationships of educational philosophy and teaching styles of the college faculty vis-à-vis the university system’s educational philosophies and teaching style preferences. A hundred and five faculty members from the Colleges of Education, Arts and Sciences responded to the survey during the academic year 2014-2015. The Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory measured the faculty’s preferred educational philosophies. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale measured the faculty’s teaching style preference. Findings show that there is a similarity between the university system and the faculty members in using the progressive educational philosophy, however both contrasted in the preferred teaching style. Majority of the faculty held progressive educational philosophy but their preference for teacher-centered teaching style did not match. This implies that the majority are certain of having progressive educational philosophy but are not utilizing the learner-centered teaching styles; a high degree of support and commitment to practice a progressive and humanist philosophical orientation in education; and a high degree of support on teacher-centered teaching style promotion from the institution can strengthen a high degree of commitment for the faculty to enunciate their values and practice through these educational philosophies and teaching styles.

Keywords: educational philosophies, teaching styles, philosophy of adult education inventory, principles of adult learning scale

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5630 Emotional Intelligence as a Correlate of Conflict Management Styles among Managers and Supervisors in Work Organizations in Nigeria

Authors: Solomon Ojo

Abstract:

The study investigated emotional intelligence as a correlate of conflict management styles among managers and supervisors in work organization. The study was a survey and Ex-post facto design was employed. A total of 407 participants took part in the study, and the participants were selected across different work organizations in the six (6) existing Geo-political zones in Nigeria, namely South-West, South East, South-South, North-East, North-West and North-Central. Questionnaire format was used for data collection in the study. Collected data were analyzed by both the Descriptive and Inferential Statistics, specifically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The findings revealed that considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of collaborating conflict management style, [r(405) = .50**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of compromising conflict management style, [r(405) = .3**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to accommodation conflict management style, [r(405) = .64**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was not significantly related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .07, P > .05]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and negatively related to avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = -.38**, P < .01]. Further, initiating structural leadership style was significantly and positively related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .33**, P < .01], avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = .41**, P < .01]; collaborating conflict management style [r(405) = 51**, P < .01]. However, the findings showed that initiating structural leadership style was significantly and negatively related to compromising style, [r(405) = -.57**, P < .01] and accommodating style, [r(405) = -.13**, P < .01]. The findings were extensively discussed in relation to the existing body of literature. Moreover, it was concluded that leadership styles of managers and supervisors play a crucial role in the choice and use of conflict management styles in work organizations in Nigeria.

Keywords: conflict management style, emotional, intelligence, leadership style, consideration, initiating structure, work organizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 191