Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 372

Search results for: Thomas Yeboah

372 The Influence of Learning Styles on Learners Grade Achievement in E-Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

Authors: Thomas Yeboah, Gifty Akouko Sarpong

Abstract:

Every learner has a specific learning style that helps him/her to study best. This means that any learning method (e-learning method or traditional face-to-face method) a learner chooses should address the learning style of the learner. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate whether learners’ grade achievement in e-learning environment is improved for learners with a particular learning style. In this research, purposive sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample size of three hundred and twenty (320) students studying a course UGRC 140 Science and Technology in our Lives at Christian Service University College. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one-way ANOVA. A thorough analysis was done on the data collected and the results revealed that learners with the Assimilator learning style and the converger learning style obtained higher grade achievement than both diverger learning style and accommodative learning style. Again, the results also revealed that accommodative learning style was not good enough for e-learning method.

Keywords: e-learning, learning style, grade achievement, accomodative, divergent, convergent, assimilative

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
371 Prefectorial Participation in Inclusive School Governance: A Shrewd Strategy for Building an Inclusive Society

Authors: Thomas Jerome Yeboah

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Inclusive school leadership is not a standalone project. It is spread across a broad array of individual leaders in the school. Successful inclusive education thrives on collaborative, shared, and participatory leadership. School prefects are generally not included in leadership discourses in respect of the implementation of inclusive education and the benefits inherent in it, yet they live at the closest proximity to the learners and wield much influence over them. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the participation of school prefects in inclusive school governance could be used as a strategy to prepare them to champion the course of individuals who live with disability and special needs in order to build a more inclusive society. The exploratory study employed a purposive sampling technique to select ten (10) school prefects from five (5) inclusive schools in Ghana. Semi-structured interview was used to glean information from the selected participants to answer the research questions raised in the study. Results from the study were thematically analysed. The study concluded that the school prefects could be agents of societal transformation who would be capable of creating an environment where those with disability and special needs would be accepted by society as ‘normal.’

Keywords: inclusive society, participation, inclusive school leadership, societal transformation, school prefects

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
370 Microfinance and Gender Empowerment Discourse: Rethinking Minimalist View of Microcredit Programmes

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

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In recent times, micro-finance programmes targeting women have become the central means of donor poverty alleviation strategies. In view of the renewed focus on post-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty reduction strategies, there is the likelihood that funding might increase in the next coming decades to support different initiatives by donor agencies. In this paper, we critically examine the role of microfinance in shaping gender relations and empowerment outcomes of women. It is widely argued that providing and reaching out to women with credit methodologies serves as a means of increasing women’s bargaining power and challenging existing gender subordination thereby releasing them from power structures which dominate their lives. This paper cautions this view and instead show that the mainstream argument surrounding microfinance and gender empowerment is much complex than what the popular rhetoric preaches. Drawing on empirical cases on microfinance literature, we argue that lack of systematic strategy to incorporate men and the wider socio-cultural dynamics within which women’s lives are embedded radically constraints the empowerment potential of microcredit programmes and in some context may lead to unintended consequences for women.

Keywords: microfinance, empowerment, women, men, gender relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
369 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari

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The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: ANN, biosorption, cadmium, packed-bed, potable water

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
368 Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing and Job Scheduling in Cloud Computing

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

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Cloud Computing is newly paradigm in computing that promises a delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). As Cloud Computing is a newly style of computing on the internet. It has many merits along with some crucial issues that need to be resolved in order to improve reliability of cloud environment. These issues are related with the load balancing, fault tolerance and different security issues in cloud environment.In this paper the main concern is to develop an effective load balancing algorithm that gives satisfactory performance to both, cloud users and providers. This proposed algorithm (hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm) is a combination of two dynamic algorithms: Ant Colony Optimization and Bees Life algorithm. Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues whiles the Bees Life algorithm is used for optimization of job scheduling in cloud environment. The results of the proposed algorithm shows that the hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm outperforms the performances of both Ant Colony algorithm and Bees Life algorithm when evaluated the proposed algorithm performances in terms of Waiting time and Response time on a simulator called CloudSim.

Keywords: ant colony optimization algorithm, bees life algorithm, scheduling algorithm, performance, cloud computing, load balancing

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
367 Controller Design Using GA for SMC Systems

Authors: Susy Thomas, Sajju Thomas, Varghese Vaidyan

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This paper considers SMCs using linear feedback with switched gains and proposes a method which can minimize the pole perturbation. The method is able to enhance the robustness property of the controller. A pre-assigned neighborhood of the ‘nominal’ positions is assigned and the system poles are not allowed to stray out of these bounds even when parameters variations/uncertainties act upon the system. A quasi SMM is maintained within the assigned boundaries of the sliding surface.

Keywords: parameter variations, pole perturbation, sliding mode control, switching surface, robust switching vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
366 Children and Migration in Ghana: Unveiling the Realities of Vulnerability and Social Exclusion

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

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In contemporary times, the incessant movement of northern children especially girls to southern Ghana at the detriment of their education is worrisome. Due to the misplaced mindset of the migrants concerning southern Ghana, majority of them move without an idea of where to stay and what to do exposing them to hash conditions of living. Majority find menial work in cocoa farms, illegal mining and head porterage business. This study was conducted in the Kumasi Metropolis to ascertain the major causes of child migration from the northern part of Ghana to the south and their living conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative tools of data collection and analysis were employed. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 90 migrants below 18 years. Specifically, interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the units of analysis. The study revealed that the major cause of child migration from northern Ghana to the south is poverty. It was evident that respondents were vulnerable to the new environment in which they lived. They are exposed to harsh environmental conditions; sexual, verbal and physical assault; and harassment from arm robbers. The paper recommends that policy decisions should be able to create an enabling environment for the labour force in the north to ameliorate the compelling effects poverty has on child migration. Efforts should also be made to create a proper psychological climate in the minds of the children regarding their destination areas through sensitization and education.

Keywords: child migration, vulnerability, social exclusion, child labour, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
365 Physical Characterization of a Watershed for Correlation with Parameters of Thomas Hydrological Model and Its Application in Iber Hidrodinamic Model

Authors: Carlos Caro, Ernest Blade, Nestor Rojas

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This study determined the relationship between basic geo-technical parameters and parameters of the hydro logical model Thomas for water balance of rural watersheds, as a methodological calibration application, applicable in distributed models as IBER model, which represents a distributed system simulation models for unsteady flow numerical free surface. There was an exploration in 25 points (on 15 sub) basin of Rio Piedras (Boy.) obtaining soil samples, to which geo-technical characterization was performed by laboratory tests. Thomas model has a physical characterization of the input area by only four parameters (a, b, c, d). Achieve measurable relationship between geo technical parameters and 4 values of hydro logical parameters helps to determine subsurface, underground and surface flow more agile manner. It is intended in this way to reach some solutions regarding limits initial model parameters on the basis of Thomas geo-technical characterization. In hydro geological models of rural watersheds, calibration is an important process in the characterization of the study area. This step can require a significant computational cost and time, especially if the initial values or parameters before calibration are outside of the geo-technical reality. A better approach in these initial values means optimization of these process through a geo-technical materials area, where is obtained an important approach to the study as in the starting range of variation for the calibration parameters.

Keywords: distributed hydrology, hydrological and geotechnical characterization, Iber model

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364 Aquinas Be Damned: Tension between Nothingness and Suffering

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Aquinas has long been revered by the Catholic Church as one of the greatest theologians of all time. His most well-known and widely respected theological work, the Summa Theologica has been referenced by countless members of the clergy in support of arguments for and about the existence of God. It is surprising, then, and important that one component in his ontological arguments seems to contradict a precept upheld by the Catechism, the Catholic Church’s comprehensive document detailing their theological positions and laws. In Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas argued that God’s eternal existence is both an observable and necessary quality. In the Catechism, the Catholic Church argues that souls in Hell are separated from God, and only souls in Heaven are like him. After introducing research on Philosophical Psychology and the natures of consciousness and pain, this paper comes to the conclusion that in order to reconcile the theology of the Catholic Church at large with that of Thomas Aquinas, one must somehow solve the following problem: if a soul must exist eternally to suffer eternally, it must be like God; and, if a soul is in Hell, it is completely separate from God and not like him at all. Thomas Aquinas deviates at this point from the current theological holdings of the Catholic Church, and this apparent discrepancy must be resolved if the Church hopes to use him going forward as a standard for natural theology.

Keywords: aquinas, catholic catechism, consciousness, philosophical psychology, summa theologica

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
363 Grief and Repenting: The Engaging Remembrance in Thomas Hardy’s ‘Poems of 1912-13’

Authors: Chih-Chun Tang

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Nostalgia, to some people, may seem foolhardy in a way. However, nostalgia is a completely and intensely private but social, collective emotion. It has continuing consequence and outgrowth for our lives as social actions. It leads people to hunt and explore remembrance of persons and places of our past in an effort to confer meaning of persons and places of present. In the ‘Poems of 1912-13’ Thomas Hardy, a British poet, composed a series of poems after the unexpected death of his long-disaffected wife, Emma. The series interprets the cognitive and emotional concussion of Emma’s death on Hardy, concerning his mind and real visit to the landscape in Cornwall, England. Both spaces perform the author’s innermost in thought to his late wife and to the landscape. They present an apparent counterpart of the poet and his afflicted conscience. After Emma had died, Hardy carried her recollections alive by roaming about in the real visit and whimsical land (space) they once had drifted and meandered. This paper highlights the nostalgias and feds that seem endlessly to crop up.

Keywords: Thomas Hardy, remembrance, psychological, poems 1912-13, Fred Davis, nostalgia

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362 Attraction and Retention of Newly Graduated Medical Doctors to Deprived Regions in Ghana: A Qualitative Case Study

Authors: Lily Yarney, Emmanuel M. Y. Seidu, Thomas Chireh Kuusaanu, Belinda Adzimah-Yeboah

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Healthcare delivery is labor-intensive; the role of the health worker is, therefore, indispensable in maintaining and improving individual and population health. In Ghana, doctor-patient ratio is 1:10,450, with a disproportionate tilt in favor of the relatively resource rich southern part of the country. The Upper West Region located in Northern Ghana, is among the poorest regions in the country. The study was aimed at finding out the reasons why medical doctors are unwilling to accept postings to the Upper West Region where their services are needed most despite some efforts to attract, motivate and retain them. Current initiatives by the Ministry of Health and its partners to attract and retain doctors in the region were also examined. Qualitative methodology was employed with an in-depth interview guide to collect data. Sixteen respondents comprising medical doctors, health managers, and other health-related partners purposively selected took part in the study. Data were recorded, transcribed, coded, and categorized into themes in tandem with the objectives of the study. The study found that medical doctors are unwilling to take up appointments in the Upper West Region because of limited opportunities for career and continuing professional development, poor financial inducement, and weak leadership, among other important contextual social and cultural factors. Critical success factors to surmount these challenges include concessions and sponsorship for medical specialization training for doctors and clear implementable national and local policies on postings.

Keywords: attraction, retention, medical doctors, deprived regions, Ghana

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361 An Exploration of Early Cinematic Technology (1890s-1920s) and Shifting Cinematic Styles

Authors: Adam L. Miller

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The aim of this paper is to look back to the very beginning of cinematic history and explore the connection between the differing technology used, and the varying styles adopted by early filmmakers. The paper will be structured chronologically, first looking at the advances that predated Thomas Edison and his Kinetograph and Kinetogram. This paper will then explore how Edison’s technology and films varied from the Lumiere brothers and their Cinematograph. Finally, the paper will go on to draw parallels and differences between French filmmakers such as Alice Guy and George Melies, and American filmmakers like Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith.

Keywords: film studies, early cinema, silent cinema, early cinematic technology, Thomas Edison, Alice Guy, George Melies, Edwin S. Porter, Lumiere brothers, D. W. Griffith

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360 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

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Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
359 Shock Compressibility of Iron Alloys Calculated in the Framework of Quantum-Statistical Models

Authors: Maxim A. Kadatskiy, Konstantin V. Khishchenko

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Iron alloys are widespread components in various types of structural materials which are exposed to intensive thermal and mechanical loads. Various quantum-statistical cell models with the approximation of self-consistent field can be used for the prediction of the behavior of these materials under extreme conditions. The application of these models is even more valid, the higher the temperature and the density of matter. Results of Hugoniot calculation for iron alloys in the framework of three quantum-statistical (the Thomas–Fermi, the Thomas–Fermi with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree–Fock–Slater) models are presented. Results of quantum-statistical calculations are compared with results from other reliable models and available experimental data. It is revealed a good agreement between results of calculation and experimental data for terra pascal pressures. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown.

Keywords: alloy, Hugoniot, iron, terapascal pressure

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358 Zero Valent Iron Algal Biocomposite for the Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution: Box-Behnken Optimization and Fixed Bed Column Studies

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian

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In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite a marine algal based biosorbent was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch and continuous fixed bed operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. The effect of various column parameters like bed depth (3, 6 and 9 cm), flow rate (5, 10 and 15 mL/min) and influent CV concentration (5, 10 and 15 mg/L) were investigated. The exhaustion time increased with increase of bed depth, influent CV concentration and decrease of flow rate. Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were used to predict the breakthrough curve and to evaluate the model parameters. Out of these models, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models well described the experimental data. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: algae, biosorption, zero-valent, dye, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
357 Using Tyre Ash as Ground Resistance Improvement Material-Health and Environmental Perspective

Authors: George Eduful, Dominic Yeboah, Kingsford Joseph A. Atanga

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The use of tyre ash as backfill material for ground electrode has been found to provide ultra-low and stable ground resistance value for grounding systems. However, health and environmental concerns have been expressed regarding its application. To address these concerns, the paper investigates chemical contents of the tyre ash and compares them to levels considered non-hazardous to health and the environment. It was found that the levels of the pollutant agents in the tyre ash were within the recommended safety margins. The rate of ground electrode corrosion in tyre ash material was also investigated. It was found that the effect of corrosion and the life of electrode can be extended if the tyre ash is mixed with cement. For best results, a ratio of 10 portions of tyre ash to 1 portion of cement is recommended.

Keywords: tyre ash, scrapped tyre, ground resistance reducing agent, rate of corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
356 Of Rites of Narration and Representation of Orient and Occident in Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West

Authors: Tarik Bouguerba

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Thomas Heywood was an outstanding, prolific playwright of the period, writing both in prose and verse. Unlike Shakespeare in particular, Heywood could be considered as a playwright who was well informed about Morocco and wrote in greater detail about a possible dialogue among cultures. As it is a historical platform for power relations, The Fair Maid of the West recalled the heroism and excitement of English counterattacks against Spain in the Post-Armada period. This paper therefore pins down the acts of narration and representation of Morocco and Moroccans and examines how the Occident has contributed to the production of the Orient and finally attests to the metamorphosis the plot undergoes in Part I and Part II. As an adventure play, The Fair Maid of the West teaches about, informs of and confirms the existing patterns of virtue in European voyagers and at the same time it asserts how honor and chastity are European par excellence whereas villainy and wickedness are Oriental assets. Once taken captive, these virtues and traits are put into task as the plot disentangles. This paper also examines how the play in both parts generates a whole history of stereotypes about Morocco and unexpectedly subverts this stereotype; such a biased mode of narration of the Orient the playwright took up at first was played down at a later phase in the narrative.

Keywords: Heywood, Occident, Orientalism, Stereotype, Virtue

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
355 Progressive Changes in Physico-Chemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom

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The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: conductivity, pH, physicochemical, rainwater quality, TDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
354 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Calcium Mixed Ferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: Sijo S. Thomas, S. Hridya, Manoj Mohan, Bibin Jacob, Hysen Thomas

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Ferrites are iron based oxides with technologically significant magnetic properties and have widespread applications in medicine, technology, and industry. There has been a growing interest in the study of magnetic, electrical and structural properties of mixed ferrites. In the present work, structural and magnetic properties of Nickel and Calcium substituted Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were investigated. NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the samples were subsequently sintered at 900°C. The magnetic and structural properties of NiₓCa₁₋ₓFe₂O₄ were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and X-Ray diffraction. The XRD results revealed that the synthesized particles have nanometer size and it varies from 46-72 nm as the calcium concentration diminishes. The variation is explained based on the increase in the reaction rate with Ni concentration which favors the formation of ultrafine particles of mixed ferrites. VSM results show pure CaFe₂O₄ exhibit paramagnetic behavior with low saturation value. As the concentration of Ca decreases, a transition occurs from paramagnetic state to ferromagnetic state. When the concentration of Ni becomes dominant, magnetic saturation, coercivity, and retentivity become high, indicating near ferromagnetic behavior of the compound.

Keywords: co-precipitation, ferrites, magnetic behavior, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
353 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

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Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
352 The Impact of Distributed Epistemologies on Software Engineering

Authors: Thomas Smith

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Many hackers worldwide would agree that, had it not been for linear-time theory, the refinement of Byzantine fault tolerance might never have occurred. After years of significant research into extreme programming, we validate the refinement of simulated annealing. Maw, our new framework for unstable theory, is the solution to all of these issues.

Keywords: distributed, software engineering, DNS, DHCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
351 Microbial Reduction of Terpenes from Pine Wood Material

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Thomas Ters, Ewald Srebotnik, Thomas Kuncinger

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Terpenes are natural components in softwoods and rank among the most frequently emitted volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wood-processing industry. In this study, the main focus was on α- and β-pinene as well as Δ3-carene, which are the major terpenes in softwoods. To lower the total emission level of wood composites, defined terpene degrading microorganisms were applied to basic raw materials (e.g. pine wood particles and strands) in an optimised and industry-compatible testing procedure. In preliminary laboratory tests, bacterial species suitable for the utilisation of α-pinene as single carbon source in liquid culture were selected and then subjected to wood material inoculation. The two species Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens were inoculated onto wood particles and strands and incubated at room temperature. Applying specific pre-cultivation and daily ventilation of the samples enabled a reduction of incubation time from six days to one day. SPME measurements and subsequent GC-MS analysis indicated a complete absence of α- and β-pinene emissions after 24 hours from pine wood particles. When using pine wood strands rather than particles, bacterial treatment resulted in a reduction of α- and β-pinene by 50%, while Δ3-carene emissions were reduced by 30% in comparison to untreated strands. Other terpenes were also reduced in the course of the microbial treatment. The method developed here appears to be feasible for industrial application. However, growth parameters such as time and temperature as well as the technical implementation of the inoculation step will have to be adapted for the production process.

Keywords: GC-MS, pseudomonas, SPME, terpenes

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350 Performance of the Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System

Authors: Siobhan O’Shea, Sangeetha Vijaysri Nair, Hee Cheol Kim, Charles Thomas Nugent, Cheuk Yan William Tong, Sam Douthwaite, Andrew Worlock

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The Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay is a fully automated assay on the Panther system. It is based on Transcription-Mediated Amplification and real time detection technologies. This assay is intended for monitoring HIV-1 viral load in plasma specimens and for the detection of HIV-1 in plasma and serum specimens. Nine-hundred and seventy nine specimens selected at random from routine testing at St Thomas’ Hospital, London were anonymised and used to compare the performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test, v2.0. Two-hundred and thirty four specimens gave quantitative HIV-1 viral load results in both assays. The quantitative results reported by the Aptima Assay were comparable those reported by the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0 with a linear regression slope of 1.04 and an intercept on -0.097. The Aptima assay detected HIV-1 in more samples than the Roche assay. This was not due to lack of specificity of the Aptima assay because this assay gave 99.83% specificity on testing plasma specimens from 600 HIV-1 negative individuals. To understand the reason for this higher detection rate a side-by-side comparison of low level panels made from the HIV-1 3rd international standard (NIBSC10/152) and clinical samples of various subtypes were tested in both assays. The Aptima assay was more sensitive than the Roche assay. The good sensitivity, specificity and agreement with other commercial assays make the HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay appropriate for both viral load monitoring and detection of HIV-1 infections.

Keywords: HIV viral load, Aptima, Roche, Panther system

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349 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

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Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
348 Analysis of Football Fans Perception of the Video Assistant Referee System

Authors: David Yartel, Johnmark Ampomah Mensah Fobi, Ernest Yeboah Acheampong, Sintim Musah

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Football has gone through a series of technological reforms targeted at improving the game for its audience. Yet, promote sanity of the game led to the introduction of the video assistant referee (VAR) to ‘check’ or ‘review’ an incident to clarify incidents and communicate the outcome to the referee and the fans. This is to reduce controversies regarding incidents on the pitch of play. In this study, we seek to survey the views of football fans to understand their perception of the video assistant referee, whether it has brought sanity or reduce the uncertainty regarding the decisions after reviews. The exploratory study focuses on 420 fans arbitrarily sampled on the university campuses to answer questionnaires based on the introduction of the video assistant referee. Results show that the VAR has interrupted the flow of the game, dropping passion, increased controversies including decisions from the referees’ call room leading to ensuing fans conflict, especially when it is against their team and vice versa. The study concludes by addressing some of their concerns as the VAR has come to minimise perceptions of incidents and engender fairness for teams.

Keywords: football fans, football incidents, football match, video assistant referee, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
347 Comparison of Adsorbents for Ammonia Removal from Mining Wastewater

Authors: F. Al-Sheikh, C. Moralejo, M. Pritzker, W. A. Anderson, A. Elkamel

Abstract:

Ammonia in mining wastewater is a significant problem, and treatment can be especially difficult in cold climates where biological treatment is not feasible. An adsorption process is one of the alternative processes that can be used to reduce ammonia concentrations to acceptable limits, and therefore a LEWATIT resin strongly acidic H+ form ion exchange resin and a Bowie Chabazite Na form AZLB-Na zeolite were tested to assess their effectiveness. For these adsorption tests, two packed bed columns (a mini-column constructed from a 32-cm long x 1-cm diameter piece of glass tubing, and a 60-cm long x 2.5-cm diameter Ace Glass chromatography column) were used containing varying quantities of the adsorbents. A mining wastewater with ammonia concentrations of 22.7 mg/L was fed through the columns at controlled flowrates. In the experimental work, maximum capacities of the LEWATIT ion exchange resin were 0.438, 0.448, and 1.472 mg/g for 3, 6, and 9 g respectively in a mini column and 1.739 mg/g for 141.5 g in a larger Ace column while the capacities for the AZLB-Na zeolite were 0.424, and 0.784 mg/g for 3, and 6 g respectively in the mini column and 1.1636 mg/g for 38.5 g in the Ace column. In the theoretical work, Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were constructed to describe a breakthrough curve of the adsorption process and find the constants of the above-mentioned models. In the regeneration tests, 5% hydrochloric acid, HCl (v/v) and 10% sodium hydroxide, NaOH (w/v) were used to regenerate the LEWATIT resin and AZLB-Na zeolite with 44 and 63.8% recovery, respectively. In conclusion, continuous flow adsorption using a LEWATIT ion exchange resin and an AZLB-Na zeolite is efficient when using a co-flow technique for removal of the ammonia from wastewater. Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models satisfactorily fit the data with R2 closer to 1 in all cases.

Keywords: AZLB-Na zeolite, continuous adsorption, Lewatit resin, models, regeneration

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346 Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Authors: Przemyslaw Nogly, Tobias Weinert, Daniel James, Sergio Carbajo, Dmitry Ozerov, Antonia Furrer, Dardan Gashi, Veniamin Borin, Petr Skopintsev, Kathrin Jaeger, Karol Nass, Petra Bath, Robert Bosman, Jason Koglin, Matthew Seaberg, Thomas Lane, Demet Kekilli, Steffen Brünle, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Wenting Wu, Christopher Milne, Thomas A. White, Anton Barty, Uwe Weierstall, Valerie Panneels, Eriko Nango, So Iwata, Mark Hunter, Igor Schapiro, Gebhard Schertler, Richard Neutze, Jörg Standfuss

Abstract:

Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.

Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin, free-electron laser, retinal isomerization mechanism, time-resolved crystallography

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345 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh

Abstract:

One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

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344 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupled-field in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
343 Sustainable Production of Pharmaceutical Compounds Using Plant Cell Culture

Authors: David A. Ullisch, Yantree D. Sankar-Thomas, Stefan Wilke, Thomas Selge, Matthias Pump, Thomas Leibold, Kai Schütte, Gilbert Gorr

Abstract:

Plants have been considered as a source of natural substances for ages. Secondary metabolites from plants are utilized especially in medical applications but are more and more interesting as cosmetical ingredients and in the field of nutraceuticals. However, supply of compounds from natural harvest can be limited by numerous factors i.e. endangered species, low product content, climate impacts and cost intensive extraction. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry the ability to provide sufficient amounts of product and high quality are additional requirements which in some cases are difficult to fulfill by plant harvest. Whereas in many cases the complexity of secondary metabolites precludes chemical synthesis on a reasonable commercial basis, plant cells contain the biosynthetic pathway – a natural chemical factory – for a given compound. A promising approach for the sustainable production of natural products can be plant cell fermentation (PCF®). A thoroughly accomplished development process comprises the identification of a high producing cell line, optimization of growth and production conditions, the development of a robust and reliable production process and its scale-up. In order to address persistent, long lasting production, development of cryopreservation protocols and generation of working cell banks is another important requirement to be considered. So far the most prominent example using a PCF® process is the production of the anticancer compound paclitaxel. To demonstrate the power of plant suspension cultures here we present three case studies: 1) For more than 17 years Phyton produces paclitaxel at industrial scale i.e. up to 75,000 L in scale. With 60 g/kg dw this fully controlled process which is applied according to GMP results in outstanding high yields. 2) Thapsigargin is another anticancer compound which is currently isolated from seeds of Thapsia garganica. Thapsigargin is a powerful cytotoxin – a SERCA inhibitor – and the precursor for the derivative ADT, the key ingredient of the investigational prodrug Mipsagargin (G-202) which is in several clinical trials. Phyton successfully generated plant cell lines capable to express this compound. Here we present data about the screening for high producing cell lines. 3) The third case study covers ingenol-3-mebutate. This compound is found in the milky sap of the intact plants of the Euphorbiacae family at very low concentrations. Ingenol-3-mebutate is used in Picato® which is approved against actinic keratosis. Generation of cell lines expressing significant amounts of ingenol-3-mebutate is another example underlining the strength of plant cell culture. The authors gratefully acknowledge Inspyr Therapeutics for funding.

Keywords: Ingenol-3-mebutate, plant cell culture, sustainability, thapsigargin

Procedia PDF Downloads 172