Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 357

Search results for: joints

357 Modeling Joints of Moment Resisting Steel Frames for Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the modeling of joints required for nonlinear static pushover analysis. The hysteresis envelope model represents the new model and is used here to describe the cyclic behavior of beam-to-column joints. The parameters of the hysteresis model were defined based on numerical simulations of the joints. The rotational capacity and ductility of the joints under cyclic loading were analyzed in relation to the monotonic behavior of joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joint, hysteresis behavior, moment resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, steel structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
356 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi


Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
355 Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity

Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji, A.C. Kandemir


In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.

Keywords: bonding strength, humidity, nano-silica, scarf joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
354 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran


This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
353 Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections

Authors: N. Zhang, J. S. Kuang, S. Mogili


To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.

Keywords: large-scale tests, RC beam-column knee joints, seismic performance, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
352 Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hasheminia, Heoung Jae Chun, Jong Chan Park, Hong Suk Chang


Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.

Keywords: composite joints, composite materials, hybrid joints, single-lap joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
351 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh


The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
350 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
349 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa


This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
348 The Influence of Brazing Method on Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Aluminum Joints

Authors: F. Ghasim-akbari, A. M. Hadian, A. M. Aminazad


Fluid transmission pipes made of aluminum are widely use in petrochemical industries. For many applications they have to be brazed to each other. The brazed joints, in many cases, are encountered with corrosive medias. This paper reports a part of a work to investigate the corrosion behavior of brazed Al6061 using Al4047 as filler metal with and without the use of flux to discover the effect of different brazing atmospheres. The samples brazed under air, vacuum, argon, and hydrogen atmospheres. The interfacial area of the joints was examined to ensure being free of any defects. The sides of each test piece were covered with insulator and the surface of the joint was encountered to polarization test. The results revealed a significant difference of corrosion resistance. The samples that brazed under argon and hydrogen atmospheres had better corrosion resistance than other samples. Microstructure of the corroded joints revealed that the amount of the filler metal is a critical parameter on corrosion resistance of the joints.

Keywords: brazing, corrosion behavior, Al6061, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
347 Lapped Gussets Joints in Compression

Authors: K. R. Tshunza, A. Elvin, A. Gabremmeskel


Final results of an extensive laboratory research program on “lapped gusset joints in compression” are presented. The investigation was carried out at the Heavy structures laboratory at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. A proposed, relatively easy to use analytical equation was found to be reasonably adequate in determining the global compressive capacity of lapped gussets joints under compressive load. A wide range of lapped mild steel plates of varying slenderness, welded on 219*10 and 127*6 Mild steel circular hollow sections of 1m length were tested in compression and the formula was validated with experimental results. The investigation show that the connection’s capacity is controlled by flexure due to the eccentricity between the plates that are connected side to side.

Keywords: compression, eccentricity, lapped gussets joints, moment resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
346 Design of Composite Joints from Carbon Fibre for Automotive Parts

Authors: G. Hemath Kumar, H. Mohit, K. Karthick


One of the most important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of parts of aircraft structures which is manufactured from composite materials. In such applications and also for joining various composite parts together, they are fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The tensile strength of these joints was carried out using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). A parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent thickness, adhesive thickness and overlap length. The composition of the material is combination of epoxy resin and carbon fibre under the method of reinforcement. To utilize the full potential of composite materials as structural elements, the strength and stress distribution of these joints must be understood. The study of tensile strength in the members involved under various design conditions and various joints were took place.

Keywords: carbon fiber, FRP composite, MMC, automotive

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
345 Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application

Authors: M. R. Abusrea, Shiyi Jiang, Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa


Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: One is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.

Keywords: adhesive joints, CFRP, VARTM, resin transfer molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
344 Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Dissimilar Thickness 6061-T6 to 5182-O Aluminum Alloys

Authors: A. Elrefaei


The possibility of having sheets with different thicknesses and materials in one assembly facilitates the optimal material distribution within the final product and reduces the weight of the structure. Ability of joining process to assembly these different material combinations is always a challenge to the designer. In this study, 0.6 mm thick 6061-T6 and 2 mm thick 5182-O were robot CMT welded using ER5356 and ER4043 filler metals. The thermal effect of welding resulted in a loss of hardness in the 6061 HAZ. Joints welded by ER5356 filler metal were much higher in fracture load than joints welded by ER4043 and the elongation of joints welded by ER5356 was almost double its corresponding joints welded by ER4043 filler. Owing to the big difference in formability and thickness of base metals, the fracture in forming test occurred in the softened 6061 HAZ out from the weld centerline.

Keywords: aluminum, CMT, mechanical, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
343 Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Hasan Puskul


A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints. In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance, the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002 specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour. First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms. Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.

Keywords: composite materials, adhesive bonding, bonding strength, lap joint, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
342 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee


Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
341 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
340 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Welds Fabricated at a Close Proximity on Offshore Structures

Authors: T. Nakkeran, Ramasamy Deverajan, How Peng Yeow, Jerry Sorton, C. Dhamodharan, Win Myint Soe


This manuscript presents the results from an experimental investigation performed to study the material and mechanical properties of two weld joints fabricated within close proximity. The experiment has been designed using welded S355 D Z35 with distances between two parallel adjacent weld toes at 8 mm. These distances were less than the distance that has normally been recommended in standards, codes, and specifications. The main idea of the analysis is to determine any significant effects when welding the joints with the close proximity of 8mm using SAW Welding Process of the one joint with high heat put and one joint welded with FCAW welding process evaluating the destructing and nondestructive testing between the welded joints. Further, we have evaluated the joints with mechanical testing for evaluating by performing tensile test, bend testing, macrostructure, microstructure, hardness test, impact testing. After evaluating the final outcome of the result, no significant changes were observed for welding the close proximity of weld of 8mm distance between the joints as compared to the specification minimum distance between the weldments of any design should be 50mm.

Keywords: S355 carbon steel, weld proximity, bending test, hardness test, impact test, macro, and microscopic examinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
339 Torque Loss Prediction Test Method of Bolted Joints in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Volkan Ayik


Loosening as a result of torque loss in bolted joints is one of the most encountered problems resulting in loss of connection between parts. The main reason for this is the dynamic loads to which the joints are subjected while the vehicle is moving. In particular, vibration-induced loads can loosen the joints in any size and geometry. The aim of this study is to study an improved method due to road-induced vibration in heavy commercial vehicles for estimating the vibration performance of bolted joints of the components connected to the chassis, before conducting prototype level vehicle structural strength tests on a proving ground. The frequency and displacements caused by the road conditions-induced vibration loads have been determined for the parts connected to the chassis, and various experimental design scenarios have been formed by matching specific components and vibration behaviors. In the studies, the performance of the torque, washer, test displacement, and test frequency parameters were observed by maintaining the connection characteristics on the vehicle, and the sensitivity ratios for these variables were calculated. As a result of these experimental design findings, tests performed on a developed device based on Junker’s vibration device and proving ground conditions versus test correlation levels were found.

Keywords: bolted joints, junker’s test, loosening failure, torque loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
338 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint Strengthening with Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Abdulsamee Halahla, Emad Allout


The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) strengthened with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), in terms of the shear strength and maximum displacement using pushover analysis at the tip of the beam. A finite element (F.E) analysis was performed to study three main parameters – the level of the axial load in the column (N), the beam shear reinforcement (Av/s)B, and the effect of using UHPC. The normal concrete at the studied joint region was replaced by UHPC. The model was verified by using experimental results taken from the literature. The results showed that the UHPC contributed to the transference of the plastic hinge from the joint to the beam-column interface. In addition, the strength of the UHPC-strengthened joints was enhanced dramatically from 8% to 38% for the joints subjected to 12.8MPa and zero axial loads, respectively. Moreover, the UHPC contributed in improving the maximum deflection. This improvement amounted to 1% and 176% for the joints subjected to zero and 12.8MPa axial load, respectively.

Keywords: ultra high performance concrete, ductility, reinforced concrete joints, finite element modeling, nonlinear behavior; pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
337 Design of Reconfigurable Supernumerary Robotic Limb Based on Differential Actuated Joints

Authors: Qinghua Zhang, Yanhe Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Yeqin Yang, Hongwei Jing, Guoan Zhang, Jie Zhao


This paper presents a wearable reconfigurable supernumerary robotic limb with differential actuated joints, which is lightweight, compact and comfortable for the wearers. Compared to the existing supernumerary robotic limbs which mostly adopted series structure with large movement space but poor carrying capacity, a prototype with the series-parallel configuration to better adapt to different task requirements has been developed in this design. To achieve a compact structure, two kinds of cable-driven mechanical structures based on guide pulleys and differential actuated joints were designed. Moreover, two different tension devices were also designed to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the cable-driven transmission. The proposed device also employed self-designed bearings which greatly simplified the structure and reduced the cost.

Keywords: cable-driven, differential actuated joints, reconfigurable, supernumerary robotic limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
336 Effect of Shot Peening on the Mechanical Properties for Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Khairia Salman Hussan, Huda Mohummed AbdudAlaziz


This work aims to study the effect of shot peening on the mechanical properties of welded joints which performed by two different welding processes: Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and friction stir welding (FSW) processes of aluminum alloy 6061 T6. Arc welding process (TIG) was carried out on the sheet with dimensions of (100x50x6 mm) to obtain many welded joints with using electrode type ER4043 (AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielding gas. While the friction stir welding process was carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20 mm/min) to obtain the same butt welded joints. The welded pieces were tested by X-ray radiography to detect the internal defects and faulty welded pieces were excluded. Tensile test specimens were prepared from welded joints and base alloy in the dimensions according to ASTM17500 and then subjected to shot peening process using steel ball of diameter 0.9 mm and for 15 min. All specimens were subjected to Vickers hardness test and micro structure examination to study the effect of welding process (TIG and FSW) on the micro structure of the weld zones. Results showed that a general decay of mechanical properties of TIG and FSW welded joints comparing with base alloy while the FSW welded joint gives better mechanical properties than that of TIG welded joint. This is due to the micro structure changes during the welding process. It has been found that the surface hardening by shot peening improved the mechanical properties of both welded joints, this is due to the compressive residual stress generation in the weld zones which was measured using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) inspection.

Keywords: friction stir welding, TIG welding, mechanical properties, shot peening

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
335 Optimization of Friction Stir Spot Welding Process Parameters for Joining 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Mohammed A. Tashkandi, Jawdat A. Al-Jarrah, Masoud Ibrahim


This paper investigates the shear strength of the joints produced by friction stir spot welding process (FSSW). FSSW parameters such as tool rotational speed, plunge depth, shoulder diameter of the welding tool and dwell time play the major role in determining the shear strength of the joints. The effect of these four parameters on FSSW process as well as the shear strength of the welded joints was studied via five levels of each parameter. Taguchi method was used to minimize the number of experiments required to determine the fracture load of the friction stir spot-welded joints by incorporating independently controllable FSSW parameters. Taguchi analysis was applied to optimize the FSSW parameters to attain the maximum shear strength of the spot weld for this type of aluminum alloy.

Keywords: Friction Stir Spot Welding, Al6061 alloy, Shear Strength, FSSW process parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
334 Lamb Waves Propagation in Elastic-Viscoelastic Three-Layer Adhesive Joints

Authors: Pezhman Taghipour Birgani, Mehdi Shekarzadeh


In this paper, the propagation of lamb waves in three-layer joints is investigated using global matrix method. Theoretical boundary value problem in three-layer adhesive joints with perfect bond and traction free boundary conditions on their outer surfaces is solved to find a combination of frequencies and modes with the lowest attenuation. The characteristic equation is derived by applying continuity and boundary conditions in three-layer joints using global matrix method. Attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained with numerical solution of this equation by a computer code for a three-layer joint, including an aluminum repair patch bonded to the aircraft aluminum skin by a layer of viscoelastic epoxy adhesive. To validate the numerical solution results of the characteristic equation, wave structure curves are plotted for a special mode in two different frequencies in the adhesive joint. The purpose of present paper is to find a combination of frequencies and modes with minimum attenuation in high and low frequencies. These frequencies and modes are recognizable by transducers in inspections with Lamb waves because of low attenuation level.

Keywords: three-layer adhesive joints, viscoelastic, lamb waves, global matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
333 Effects of Different Thermal Processing Routes and Their Parameters on the Formation of Voids in PA6 Bonded Aluminum Joints

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Guillermo Requena, Jan Haubrich


Adhesively bonded aluminum joints are common in automotive and aircraft industries and are one of the enablers of lightweight construction to minimize the carbon emissions during transportation for a sustainable life. This study is focused on the effects of two thermal processing routes, i.e., by direct and induction heating, and their parameters on void formation in PA6 bonded aluminum EN-AW6082 joints. The joints were characterized microanalytically as well as by lap shear experiments. The aging resistance of the joints was studied by accelerated aging tests at 80°C hot water. It was found that the processing of single lap joints by direct heating in a convection oven causes the formation of a large number of voids in the bond line. The formation of voids in the convection oven was due to longer processing times and was independent of any surface pretreatments of the metal as well as the processing temperature. However, when processing at low temperatures, a large number of small-sized voids were observed under the optical microscope, and they were larger in size but reduced in numbers at higher temperatures. An induction heating process was developed, which not only successfully reduced or eliminated the voids in PA6 bonded joints but also reduced the processing times for joining significantly. Consistent with the trend in direct heating, longer processing times and higher temperatures in induction heating also led to an increased formation of voids in the bond line. Subsequent single lap shear tests revealed that the increasing void contents led to a 21% reduction in lap shear strengths (i.e., from ~47 MPa for induction heating to ~37 MPa for direct heating). Also, there was a 17% reduction in lap shear strengths when the consolidation temperature was raised from 220˚C to 300˚C during induction heating. However, below a certain threshold of void contents, there was no observable effect on the lap shear strengths as well as on hydrothermal aging resistance of the joints consolidated by the induction heating process.

Keywords: adhesive, aluminium, convection oven, induction heating, mechanical properties, nylon6 (PA6), pretreatment, void

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
332 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
331 Fatigue Life Estimation of Tubular Joints - A Comparative Study

Authors: Jeron Maheswaran, Sudath C. Siriwardane


In fatigue analysis, the structural detail of tubular joint has taken great attention among engineers. The DNV-RP-C203 is covering this topic quite well for simple and clear joint cases. For complex joint and geometry, where joint classification isn’t available and limitation on validity range of non-dimensional geometric parameters, the challenges become a fact among engineers. The classification of joint is important to carry out through the fatigue analysis. These joint configurations are identified by the connectivity and the load distribution of tubular joints. To overcome these problems to some extent, this paper compare the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore jacket according to the stress concentration factors (SCF) in DNV-RP-C203 and finite element method employed Abaqus/CAE. The paper presents the geometric details, material properties and considered load history of the jacket structure. Describe the global structural analysis and identification of critical tubular joints for fatigue life estimation. Hence fatigue life is determined based on the guidelines provided by design codes. Fatigue analysis of tubular joints is conducted using finite element employed Abaqus/CAE [4] as next major step. Finally, obtained SCFs and fatigue lives are compared and their significances are discussed.

Keywords: fatigue life, stress-concentration factor, finite element analysis, offshore jacket structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
330 Development of Probability Distribution Models for Degree of Bending (DoB) in Chord Member of Tubular X-Joints under Bending Loads

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Amirreza Ghaffari


Fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore structures is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress, but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The DoB exhibits considerable scatter calling for greater emphasis in accurate determination of its governing probability distribution which is a key input for the fatigue reliability analysis of a tubular joint. Although the tubular X-joints are commonly found in offshore jacket structures, as far as the authors are aware, no comprehensive research has been carried out on the probability distribution of the DoB in tubular X-joints. What has been used so far as the probability distribution of the DoB in reliability analyses is mainly based on assumptions and limited observations, especially in terms of distribution parameters. In the present paper, results of parametric equations available for the calculation of the DoB have been used to develop probability distribution models for the DoB in the chord member of tubular X-joints subjected to four types of bending loads. Based on a parametric study, a set of samples was prepared and density histograms were generated for these samples using Freedman-Diaconis method. Twelve different probability density functions (PDFs) were fitted to these histograms. The maximum likelihood method was utilized to determine the parameters of fitted distributions. In each case, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Finally, after substituting the values of estimated parameters for each distribution, a set of fully defined PDFs have been proposed for the DoB in tubular X-joints subjected to bending loads.

Keywords: tubular X-joint, degree of bending (DoB), probability density function (PDF), Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test

Procedia PDF Downloads 641
329 Review for Mechanical Tests of Corner Joints on Wooden Windows and Effects to the Stiffness

Authors: Milan Podlena, Stepan Hysek, Jiri Prochazka, Martin Bohm, Jan Bomba


Corner joints are the weakest part of windows, where the members are connected together. Since the dimensions of the windows started become bigger, the strength requirements for corner joints started to increase as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the samples of corner joints of wooden windows. Moisture content of test specimens was stabilized in the climate chamber. After conditioning, test specimens were loaded in the laboratory conditions onto an universal testing machine and the failure load was measured. Data was recalculated by using goniometric, bending moment and stiffness equation to the stiffness coefficients and the bending moments were investigated. The results showed difference that was observed for the mortise with tenon joint and the dowel joint. This difference was explained by a varied adhesive bond area, which is related to the dimensions of dowels (diameter and length) as well. The bending moments and stiffness ware (except of type of corner joint) also affected by type of used adhesive, type of dowels and wood species.

Keywords: corner joint, wooden window, bending moment, stiffness

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328 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong


Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: nail laminated timber, butt joint, bending stiffness, reinforcement

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