Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13818

Search results for: impact test

13818 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. Moreover, the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment is presented to satisfy the requirements of the test,and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
13817 A New Instrumented Drop-Weight Test Machine for Studying the Impact Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Al-Farttoosi, M. Y. Rafiq, J. Summerscales, C. Williams

Abstract:

Structures can be subjected to impact loading from various sources like earthquake, tsunami, missiles and explosions. The impact loading can cause different degrees of damage to concrete structures. The demand for strengthening and rehabilitation of damaged structures is increasing. In recent years, Car0bon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) matrix composites has gain more attention for strengthening and repairing these structures. To study the impact behaviour of the reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP, a heavy impact test machine was designed and manufactured .The machine included a newly designed support system for beams together with various instrumentation. This paper describes the support design configuration of the impact test machine, instrumentation and dynamic analysis of the concrete beams. To evaluate the efficiency of the new impact test machine, experimental impact tests were conducted on simple supported reinforced concrete beam. Different methods were used to determine the impact force and impact response of the RC beams in terms of inertia force, maximum deflection, reaction force and fracture energy. The manufactured impact test machine was successfully used in testing RC beams under impact loading and used successfully to test the reinforced concrete beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP under impact loading.

Keywords: beam, concrete, impact, machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
13816 Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete under Impact Loading

Authors: Feng Fu, Ahmad Bazgir

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate and examine the structural behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete slabs when subjected to impact loading using drop weight method. A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. The experimental work consists of testing both conventional reinforced slabs and SFRC slabs. Parameters to be considered for carrying out the test will consist of the volume fraction of steel fibre, type of steel fibres, drop weight height and number of blows. Energy absorption of slabs under impact loading and failure modes were examined in-depth and compared with conventional reinforced concrete slab are investigated.

Keywords: steel fibre reinforce concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
13815 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
13814 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
13813 A Methodology of Testing Beam to Column Connection under Lateral Impact Load

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones

Abstract:

Beam to column connection can be considered as the most important structural part that affects the response of buildings to progressive collapse. However, many studies were conducted to investigate the beam to column connection under accidental loads such as fire, blast and impact load to investigate the connection response. The study is a part of a PhD plan to investigate different types of connections under lateral impact load. The conventional test setups, such as cruciform setup, were designed to apply shear forces and bending moment on the connection, whilst, in the lateral impact case, the connection is subjected to combined tension and moment. Hence, a review is presented to introduce the previous test setup that is used to investigate the connection behaviour. Then, the design and fabrication of the novel test setup is presented. Finally, some trial test results to investigate the efficiency of the proposed setup are discussed. The final results indicate that the setup was efficient in terms of the simplicity and strength.

Keywords: connections, impact load, drop hammer, testing methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
13812 Studying the Relationship Between Washback Effects of IELTS Test on Iranian Language Teachers, Teaching Strategies and Candidates

Authors: Afsaneh Jasmine Majidi

Abstract:

Language testing is an important part of language teaching experience and language learning process as it presents assessment strategies for teachers to evaluate the efficiency of teaching and for learners to examine their outcomes. However, language testing is demanding and challenging because it should provide the opportunity for proper and objective decision. In addition to all the efforts test designers put to design valid and reliable tests, there are some other determining factors which are even more complex and complicated. These factors affect the educational system, individuals, and society, and the impact of the tests vary according to the scope of the test. Seemingly, the impact of a simple classroom assessment is not the same as that of high stake tests such as International English Language Testing System (IELTS). As the importance of the test increases, it affects wider domain. Accordingly, the impacts of high stake tests are reflected not only in teaching, learning strategies but also in society. Testing experts use the term ‘washback’ or ‘impact’ to define the different effects of a test on teaching, learning, and community. This paper first looks at the theoretical background of ‘washback’ and ‘impact’ in language testing by reviewing of relevant literature in the field and then investigates washback effects of IELTS test of on Iranian IELTS teachers and students. The study found significant relationship between the washback effect of IELTS test and teaching strategies of Iranian IELTS teachers as well as performance of Iranian IELTS candidates and their community.

Keywords: high stake tests, IELTS, Iranian Candidates, language testing, test impact, washback

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
13811 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
13810 Investigation of the Fading Time Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Vermicular Cast Iron

Authors: Mehmet Ekici

Abstract:

In this study, the fading time affecting the mechanical properties and microstructures of vermicular cast iron were studied. Pig iron and steel scrap weighing about 12 kg were charged into the high-frequency induction furnace crucible and completely melted for production of vermicular cast iron. The slag was skimmed using a common flux. After fading time was set at 1. 3 and 5 minutes. In this way, three vermicular cast iron was produced that same composition but different phase structures. The microstructure of specimens was investigated, and uni-axial tensile test and the Charpy impact test were performed, and their micro-hardness measurements were done in order to characterize the mechanical behaviours of vermicular cast iron.

Keywords: vermicular cast iron, fading time, hardness, tensile test and impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
13809 The Internationalization of Capital Market Influencing Debt Sustainability's Impact on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, Eugine Iheanacho

Abstract:

The paper set out to assess the sustainability of debt in the Nigerian economy. Precisely, it sought to determine the level of debt sustainability and its impact on the growth of the economy; whether internationalization of capital market has positively influenced debt sustainability’s impact on economic growth; and to ascertain the direction of causality between external debt sustainability and the growth of GDP. In the light of these objectives, ratio analysis was employed for the determination of debt sustainability. Our findings revealed that the periods 1986 – 1994 and 1999 – 2004 were periods of severe unsustainable borrowing. The unit root test showed that the variables of the growth model were integrated of order one, I(1) and the cointegration test provided evidence for long run stability. Considering the dawn of internationalization of capital market, the researcher employed the structural break approach using Chow Breakpoint test on the vector error correction model (VECM). The result of VECM showed that debt sustainability, measured by debt to GDP ratio exerts negative and significant impact on the growth of the economy while debt burden measured by debt-export ratio and debt service export ratio are negative though insignificant on the growth of GDP. The Cho test result indicated that internationalization of capital market has no significant effect on the debt overhang impact on the growth of the Economy. The granger causality test indicates a feedback effect from economic growth to debt sustainability growth indicators. On the bases of these findings, the researchers made some necessary recommendations which if followed religiously will go a long way to ameliorating debt burdens and engendering economic growth.

Keywords: debt sustainability, internalization, capital market, cointegration, chow test

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
13808 Effect of Austenitizing Temperature, Soaking Time and Grain Size on Charpy Impact Toughness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

Authors: S. Gupta, R. Sarkar, S. Pathak, D. H. Kela, A. Pramanick, P. Talukdar

Abstract:

Low alloy quenched and tempered steels are typically used in cast railway components such as knuckles, yokes, and couplers. Since these components experience extensive impact loading during their service life, adequate impact toughness of these grades need to be ensured to avoid catastrophic failure of parts in service. Because of the general availability of Charpy V Test equipment, Charpy test is the most common and economical means to evaluate the impact toughness of materials and is generally used in quality control applications. With this backdrop, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of austenitizing temperature, soaking time and resultant grain size on the Charpy impact toughness and the related fracture mechanisms in a quenched and tempered low alloy steel, with the aim of optimizing the heat treatment parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and soaking time) with respect to impact toughness. In the first phase, samples were austenitized at different temperatures viz. 760, 800, 840, 880, 920 and 960°C, followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. In the next phase, samples were subjected to different soaking times (0, 2, 4 and 6 hours) at a fixed austenitizing temperature (980°C), followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. The samples corresponding to different test conditions were then subjected to instrumented Charpy tests at -40°C and energy absorbed were recorded. Subsequently, microstructure and fracture surface of samples corresponding to different test conditions were observed under scanning electron microscope, and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. In the final stage, austenitizing temperature, soaking time and measured grain sizes were correlated with impact toughness and the fracture morphology and mechanism.

Keywords: heat treatment, grain size, microstructure, retained austenite and impact toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
13807 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
13806 A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation

Authors: Adriano Bessa Albuquerque, Francisco Jose Barreto Nunes

Abstract:

Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.

Keywords: software test, software security verification validation and test, security test institutionalization, systematic mapping study

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
13805 Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, P. Zlabek, J. Volak

Abstract:

New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.

Keywords: mechanical properties, miniature test specimens, correlations, small punch test, micro-tensile test, mini-charpy impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
13804 A Consideration on the Offset Frontal Impact Modeling Using Spring-Mass Model

Authors: Jaemoon Lim

Abstract:

To construct the lumped spring-mass model considering the occupants for the offset frontal crash, the SISAME software and the NHTSA test data were used. The data on 56 kph 40% offset frontal vehicle to deformable barrier crash test of a MY2007 Mazda 6 4-door sedan were obtained from NHTSA test database. The overall behaviors of B-pillar and engine of simulation models agreed very well with the test data. The trends of accelerations at the driver and passenger head were similar but big differences in peak values. The differences of peak values caused the large errors of the HIC36 and 3 ms chest g’s. To predict well the behaviors of dummies, the spring-mass model for the offset frontal crash needs to be improved.

Keywords: chest g’s, HIC36, lumped spring-mass model, offset frontal impact, SISAME

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
13803 Influence of Glass Plates Different Boundary Conditions on Human Impact Resistance

Authors: Alberto Sanchidrián, José A. Parra, Jesús Alonso, Julián Pecharromán, Antonia Pacios, Consuelo Huerta

Abstract:

Glass is a commonly used material in building; there is not a unique design solution as plates with a different number of layers and interlayers may be used. In most façades, a security glazing have to be used according to its performance in the impact pendulum. The European Standard EN 12600 establishes an impact test procedure for classification under the point of view of the human security, of flat plates with different thickness, using a pendulum of two tires and 50 kg mass that impacts against the plate from different heights. However, this test does not replicate the actual dimensions and border conditions used in building configurations and so the real stress distribution is not determined with this test. The influence of different boundary conditions, as the ones employed in construction sites, is not well taking into account when testing the behaviour of safety glazing and there is not a detailed procedure and criteria to determinate the glass resistance against human impact. To reproduce the actual boundary conditions on site, when needed, the pendulum test is arranged to be used "in situ", with no account for load control, stiffness, and without a standard procedure. Fracture stress of small and large glass plates fit a Weibull distribution with quite a big dispersion so conservative values are adopted for admissible fracture stress under static loads. In fact, test performed for human impact gives a fracture strength two or three times higher, and many times without a total fracture of the glass plate. Newest standards, as for example DIN 18008-4, states for an admissible fracture stress 2.5 times higher than the ones used for static and wing loads. Now two working areas are open: a) to define a standard for the ‘in situ’ test; b) to prepare a laboratory procedure that allows testing with more real stress distribution. To work on both research lines a laboratory that allows to test medium size specimens with different border conditions, has been developed. A special steel frame allows reproducing the stiffness of the glass support substructure, including a rigid condition used as reference. The dynamic behaviour of the glass plate and its support substructure have been characterized with finite elements models updated with modal tests results. In addition, a new portable impact machine is being used to get enough force and direction control during the impact test. Impact based on 100 J is used. To avoid problems with broken glass plates, the test have been done using an aluminium plate of 1000 mm x 700 mm size and 10 mm thickness supported on four sides; three different substructure stiffness conditions are used. A detailed control of the dynamic stiffness and the behaviour of the plate is done with modal tests. Repeatability of the test and reproducibility of results prove that procedure to control both, stiffness of the plate and the impact level, is necessary.

Keywords: glass plates, human impact test, modal test, plate boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
13802 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
13801 Evaluation of Deformable Boundary Condition Using Finite Element Method and Impact Test for Steel Tubes

Authors: Abed Ahmed, Mehrdad Asadi, Jennifer Martay

Abstract:

Stainless steel pipelines are crucial components to transportation and storage in the oil and gas industry. However, the rise of random attacks and vandalism on these pipes for their valuable transport has led to more security and protection for incoming surface impacts. These surface impacts can lead to large global deformations of the pipe and place the pipe under strain, causing the eventual failure of the pipeline. Therefore, understanding how these surface impact loads affect the pipes is vital to improving the pipes’ security and protection. In this study, experimental test and finite element analysis (FEA) have been carried out on EN3B stainless steel specimens to study the impact behaviour. Low velocity impact tests at 9 m/s with 16 kg dome impactor was used to simulate for high momentum impact for localised failure. FEA models of clamped and deformable boundaries were modelled to study the effect of the boundaries on the pipes impact behaviour on its impact resistance, using experimental and FEA approach. Comparison of experimental and FE simulation shows good correlation to the deformable boundaries in order to validate the robustness of the FE model to be implemented in pipe models with complex anisotropic structure.

Keywords: dynamic impact, deformable boundary conditions, finite element modelling, LS-DYNA, stainless steel pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
13800 Infrastructural Investment and Economic Growth in Indian States: A Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Jonardan Koner, Basabi Bhattacharya, Avinash Purandare

Abstract:

The study is focused to find out the impact of infrastructural investment on economic development in Indian states. The study uses panel data analysis to measure the impact of infrastructural investment on Real Gross Domestic Product in Indian States. Panel data analysis incorporates Unit Root Test, Cointegration Teat, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effect Approach, Random Effect Approach, Hausman Test. The study analyzes panel data (annual in frequency) ranging from 1991 to 2012 and concludes that infrastructural investment has a desirable impact on economic development in Indian. Finally, the study reveals that the infrastructural investment significantly explains the variation of economic indicator.

Keywords: infrastructural investment, real GDP, unit root test, cointegration teat, pooled ordinary least squares, fixed effect approach, random effect approach, Hausman test

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
13799 The Impact of Basic TRIZ Training on Psychological Flexibility among University Students

Authors: Bakr M. Saeid

Abstract:

Psychological flexibility is a basic ability that allows people to adapt to a changing, difficult world. TRIZ is a Theory of Solving Inventive Problems that has many applications in both science & technology and creativity development; this research aimed to investigate the impact of basic TRIZ training on psychological flexibility among university students. The research sample included (30) university students divided into two groups: experimental group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PFQ) was conducted in the pre-test and post-test on the experimental and control group, as the study treatment was applied to the experimental group only. Data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon z test; results showed the effectiveness of the TRIZ training program on the development of psychological flexibility and its five factors. Results were interpreted, recommendations were presented.

Keywords: psychological flexibility, TRIZ, positive perception of change, self as flexible and innovative, perception of reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
13798 Risk Management of Natural Disasters on Insurance Stock Market

Authors: Tarah Bouaricha

Abstract:

The impact of worst natural disasters is analysed in terms of insured losses which happened between 2010 and 2014 on S&P insurance index. Event study analysis is used to test whether natural disasters impact insurance index stock market price. There is no negative impact on insurance stock market price around the disasters event. To analyse the reaction of insurance stock market, normal returns (NR), abnormal returns (AR), cumulative abnormal returns (CAR), cumulative average abnormal returns (CAAR) and a parametric test on AR and on CAR are used.

Keywords: study event, natural disasters, insurance, reinsurance, stock market

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
13797 Impact of Gaming Environment in Education

Authors: Md. Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan, Quazi Mahabubul Hasan, Md. Rifat Ullah

Abstract:

In this research, we did explore the effectiveness of the gaming environment in education and compared it with the traditional education system. We take several workshops in both learning environments. We measured student’s performance by providing a grading score (by professional academics) on their attitude in different criteria. We also collect data from survey questionnaires to understand student’s experiences towards education and study. Finally, we examine the impact of the different learning environments by applying statistical hypothesis tests, the T-test, and the ANOVA test.

Keywords: gamification, game-based learning, education, statistical analysis, human-computer interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
13796 Comparison of Shell-Facemask Responses in American Football Helmets during NOCSAE Drop Tests

Authors: G. Alston Rush, Gus A. Rush III, M. F. Horstemeyer

Abstract:

This study compares the shell-facemask responses of four commonly used American football helmets, under the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) drop impact test method, to show that the test standard would more accurately simulate in-use conditions by modification to include the facemask. In our study, the need for a more vigorous systematic approach to football helmet testing procedures is emphasized by comparing the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), the Gadd Severity Index (SI), and peak acceleration values for different helmets at different locations on the helmet under modified NOCSAE standard drop tower tests. Drop tests were performed on the Rawlings Quantum Plus, Riddell 360, Schutt Ion 4D, and Xenith X2 helmets at eight impact locations, impact velocities of 5.46 and 4.88 meters per second, and helmet configurations with and without facemasks. Analysis of NOCSAE drop test results reveal significant differences (p < 0.05) for when the facemasks were attached to helmets, as compared to the NOCSAE Standard, without facemask configuration. The boundary conditions of the facemask attachment can have up to a 50% decrease (p < 0.001) in helmet performance with respect to peak acceleration. While generally, all helmets with the facemasks gave greater HIC, SI, and acceleration values than helmets without the facemasks, significant helmet dependent variations were observed across impact locations and impact velocities. The variations between helmet responses could be attributed to the unique design features of each helmet tested, which include different liners, chin strap attachments, and faceguard attachment systems. In summary, these comparative drop test results revealed that the current NOCSAE standard test methods need improvement by attaching the facemasks to helmets during testing. The modified NOCSAE football helmet standard test gives a more accurate representation of a helmet’s performance and its ability to mitigate the on-field impact.

Keywords: football helmet testing, gadd severity index, head injury criterion, mild traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
13795 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker

Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan

Abstract:

Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.

Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
13794 The Impact of Research and Development Cooperation Partner Diversity, Knowledge Source Diversity and Knowledge Source Network Embeddedness on Radical Innovation: Direct Relationships and Interaction with Non-Price Competition

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we test whether different types of research and development (R&D) alliances positively impact the radical innovation performance of firms. We differentiate between the R&D alliances without extern R&D orders and embeddedness in knowledge source network. We test the differences between the domestically diversified R&D alliances and R&D alliances diversified abroad. Moreover, we test how non-price competition influences the impact of domestically diversified R&D alliances, and R&D alliance diversified abroad on radical innovation performance. Our empirical analysis is based on the comprehensive Swiss innovation panel, which allowed us to study 3520 firms between the years between 1996 and 2011 in 3 years intervals. We analyzed the data with a linear estimation with Swamy-Aurora transformation using plm package in R software. Our results show as hypothesized a positive impact of R&D alliances diversity abroad as well as domestically on radical innovation performance. The effect of non-price interaction is in contrast to our hypothesis, not significant. This suggests that diversity of R&D alliances is highly advantageous independent of non-price competition.

Keywords: R&D alliances, partner diversity, knowledge source diversity, non-price competition, absorptive capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
13793 Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Robert J. Thomas, Colton Bedke, Andrew Sorensen

Abstract:

The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.

Keywords: Charpy impact test, dynamic shear, impact loading, ultra-high performance concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
13792 The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Current Account Deficit: The Turkish Case

Authors: E. Selçuk, Z. Karaçor, P. Yardımcı

Abstract:

Trade liberalization and its effects on the economies of developing countries have been investigated by many different studies, and some of them have focused on its impact on the current account balance. Turkey, as being one of the countries, which has liberalized its foreign trade in the 1980s, also needs to be studied in terms of the impact of liberalization on current account deficits. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out whether trade liberalization has affected Turkey’s trade and current account balances. In order to determine this, yearly data of Turkey from 1980 to 2013 is used. As liberalization dummy, the year 1989, which was set for Turkey, is selected. Structural break test and model estimation results show that trade liberalization has a negative impact on trade balance but do not have a significant impact on the current account balance.

Keywords: budget deficit, liberalization, Turkish economy, current account

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
13791 Pedagogical Effects of Using Workbooks in English Classes for the TOEIC Test: A Study on ESL Learners in Japanese Colleges

Authors: Mikako Nobuhara

Abstract:

The Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) test, conducted by the Institute for International Business Communication (IIBC), has a huge impact on education in Japan. Almost all college students have to submit their TOEIC test scores when applying for entry-level jobs at companies. In addition, an increasing number of colleges are encouraging students to have a global vision. For this specific reason, studying for the TOEIC test is essential for English as a second language (ESL) learner to develop English communication skills. This study shows that studying by using some workbooks about the listening section of the TOEIC test clearly helps ESL learners to develop their listening skills. For this purpose, the listening test scores before and after classroom sessions were analyzed for each student. Students obtained higher scores in the listening section of the test and improved their English listening skills at the end of all the classroom sessions. In conclusion, it is important for English teachers to achieve the following objectives: (1) facilitate the learning of effective methods for correctly solving questions based on listening skills and (2) prepare listening tasks for reading aloud so as to keep up with the original speed, which is required for solving questions in the TOEIC test.

Keywords: education, ESL, listening skills, TOEIC test

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
13790 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Welds Fabricated at a Close Proximity on Offshore Structures

Authors: T. Nakkeran, Ramasamy Deverajan, How Peng Yeow, Jerry Sorton, C. Dhamodharan, Win Myint Soe

Abstract:

This manuscript presents the results from an experimental investigation performed to study the material and mechanical properties of two weld joints fabricated within close proximity. The experiment has been designed using welded S355 D Z35 with distances between two parallel adjacent weld toes at 8 mm. These distances were less than the distance that has normally been recommended in standards, codes, and specifications. The main idea of the analysis is to determine any significant effects when welding the joints with the close proximity of 8mm using SAW Welding Process of the one joint with high heat put and one joint welded with FCAW welding process evaluating the destructing and nondestructive testing between the welded joints. Further, we have evaluated the joints with mechanical testing for evaluating by performing tensile test, bend testing, macrostructure, microstructure, hardness test, impact testing. After evaluating the final outcome of the result, no significant changes were observed for welding the close proximity of weld of 8mm distance between the joints as compared to the specification minimum distance between the weldments of any design should be 50mm.

Keywords: S355 carbon steel, weld proximity, bending test, hardness test, impact test, macro, and microscopic examinations

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13789 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi

Abstract:

Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 367