Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Search results for: shot peening

99 Elevated Temperature Shot Peening for M50 Steel

Authors: Xinxin Ma, Guangze Tang, Shuxin Yang, Jinguang He, Fan Zhang, Peiling Sun, Ming Liu, Minyu Sun, Liqin Wang


As a traditional surface hardening technique, shot peening is widely used in industry. By using shot peening, a residual compressive stress is formed in the surface which is beneficial for improving the fatigue life of metal materials. At the same time, very fine grains and high density defects are generated in the surface layer which enhances the surface hardness, either. However, most of the processes are carried out at room temperature. For high strength steel, such as M50, the thickness of the strengthen layer is limited. In order to obtain a thick strengthen surface layer, elevated temperature shot peening was carried out in this work by using Φ1mm cast ion balls with a speed of 80m/s. Considering the tempering temperature of M50 steel is about 550 oC, the processing temperature was in the range from 300 to 500 oC. The effect of processing temperature and processing time of shot peening on distribution of residual stress and surface hardness was investigated. As we known, the working temperature of M50 steel can be as high as 315 oC. Because the defects formed by shot peening are unstable when the working temperature goes higher, it is worthy to understand what happens during the shot peening process, and what happens when the strengthen samples were kept at a certain temperature. In our work, the shot peening time was selected from 2 to 10 min. And after the strengthening process, the samples were annealed at various temperatures from 200 to 500 oC up to 60 h. The results show that the maximum residual compressive stress is near 900 MPa. Compared with room temperature shot peening, the strengthening depth of 500 oC shot peening sample is about 2 times deep. The surface hardness increased with the processing temperature, and the saturation peening time decreases. After annealing, the residual compressive stress decreases, however, for 500 oC peening sample, even annealing at 500 oC for 20 h, the residual compressive stress is still over 600 MPa. However, it is clean to see from SEM that the grain size of surface layers is still very small.

Keywords: shot peening, M50 steel, residual compressive stress, elevated temperature

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98 Effect of Nitriding and Shot Peening on Corrosion Behavior and Surface Properties of Austenite Stainless Steel 316L

Authors: Khiaira S. Hassan, Abbas S. Alwan, Muna K. Abbass


This research aims to study the effect of the liquid nitriding and shot peening on the hardness, surface roughness, residual stress, microstructure and corrosion behavior of austenite stainless steel 316 L. Chemical surface heat treatment by liquid nitriding process was carried out at 500 °C for 1 h and followed by shot peening with using ball steel diameter of 1.25 mm in different exposure time of 10 and 20 min. Electrochemical corrosion test was applied in sea water (3.5% NaCl solution) by using potentostat instrument. The results showed that the nitride layer consists of a compound layer (white layer) and diffusion zone immediately below the alloy layer. It has been found that the mechanical treatment (shot peening) has led to the formation of compressive residual stresses in layer surface that increased the hardness of stainless steel surface. All surface treatment (nitriding and shot peening) processes have led to the formation of carbide of CrN in hard surface layer. It was shown that both processes caused an increase in surface hardness and roughness which increases with shot peening time. Also, the corrosion results showed that the liquid nitriding and shot peening processes increase the corrosion rate to values more than that of not treated stainless steel.

Keywords: stainless steel 316L, shot peening, nitriding, corrosion, hardness

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97 Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Shot Peening Process using Multiple Pin Impacts

Authors: Chao-xun Liu, Shi-hong Lu


In spite of its importance to the aerospace and automobile industries, little or no attention has been devoted to the accurate modeling of the ultrasonic shot peening (USP) process. It is therefore the purpose of this study to conduct finite element analysis of the process using a realistic multiple pin impacts model with the explicit solver of ABAQUS. In this paper, we research the effect of several key parameters on the residual stress distribution within the target, including impact velocity, incident angle, friction coefficient between pins and target and impact number of times were investigated. The results reveal that the impact velocity and impact number of times have obvious effect and impacting vertically could produce the most perfect residual stress distribution. Then we compare the results with the date in USP experiment and verify the exactness of the model. The analysis of the multiple pin impacts date reveal the relationships between peening process parameters and peening quality, which are useful for identifying the parameters which need to be controlled and regulated in order to produce a more beneficial compressive residual stress distribution within the target.

Keywords: ultrasonic shot peening, finite element, multiple pins, residual stress, numerical simulation

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96 Effect of Shot Peening on the Mechanical Properties for Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Khairia Salman Hussan, Huda Mohummed AbdudAlaziz


This work aims to study the effect of shot peening on the mechanical properties of welded joints which performed by two different welding processes: Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and friction stir welding (FSW) processes of aluminum alloy 6061 T6. Arc welding process (TIG) was carried out on the sheet with dimensions of (100x50x6 mm) to obtain many welded joints with using electrode type ER4043 (AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielding gas. While the friction stir welding process was carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20 mm/min) to obtain the same butt welded joints. The welded pieces were tested by X-ray radiography to detect the internal defects and faulty welded pieces were excluded. Tensile test specimens were prepared from welded joints and base alloy in the dimensions according to ASTM17500 and then subjected to shot peening process using steel ball of diameter 0.9 mm and for 15 min. All specimens were subjected to Vickers hardness test and micro structure examination to study the effect of welding process (TIG and FSW) on the micro structure of the weld zones. Results showed that a general decay of mechanical properties of TIG and FSW welded joints comparing with base alloy while the FSW welded joint gives better mechanical properties than that of TIG welded joint. This is due to the micro structure changes during the welding process. It has been found that the surface hardening by shot peening improved the mechanical properties of both welded joints, this is due to the compressive residual stress generation in the weld zones which was measured using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) inspection.

Keywords: friction stir welding, TIG welding, mechanical properties, shot peening

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95 Surface Nanostructure Developed by Ultrasonic Shot Peening and Its Effect on Low Cycle Fatigue Life of the IN718 Superalloy

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Vikas Kumar


Inconel 718 (IN718) is a high strength nickel-based superalloy designed for high-temperature applications up to 650 °C. It is widely used in gas turbines of jet engines and related aerospace applications because of its good mechanical properties and structural stability at elevated temperatures. Because of good performance ratio and excellent process capability, this alloy has been used predominantly for aeronautic engine components like compressor disc and compressor blade. The main precipitates that contribute to high-temperature strength of IN718 are γʹ Ni₃(Al, Ti) and mainly γʹʹ (Ni₃ Nb). Various processes have been used for modification of the surface of components, such as Laser Shock Peening (LSP), Conventional Shot Peening (SP) and Ultrasonic Shot Peening (USP) to induce compressive residual stress (CRS) and development of fine-grained structure in the surface region. Surface nanostructure by ultrasonic shot peening is a novel methodology of surface modification to improve the overall performance of structural components. Surface nanostructure was developed on the peak aged IN718 superalloy using USP and its effect was studied on low cycle fatigue (LCF) life. Nanostructure of ~ 49 to 73 nm was developed in the surface region of the alloy by USP. The gage section of LCF samples was USPed for 5 minutes at a constant frequency of 20 kHz using StressVoyager to modify the surface. Strain controlled cyclic tests were performed for non-USPed and USPed samples at ±Δεt/2 from ±0.50% to ±1.0% at strain rate (ė) 1×10⁻³ s⁻¹ under reversal loading (R=‒1) at room temperature. The fatigue life of the USPed specimens was found to be more than that of the non-USPed ones. LCF life of the USPed specimen at Δεt/2=±0.50% was enhanced by more than twice of the non-USPed specimen.

Keywords: IN718 superalloy, nanostructure, USP, LCF life

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94 Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12

Authors: Shi-hong Lu, Chao-xun Liu, Yi-feng Zhu


Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and microhardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that the radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while it increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical microhardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.

Keywords: USP forming, surface properties, radius of curvature, residual stress

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93 Fatigue Influence on the Residual Stress State in Shot Peened Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: P. D. Pedrosa, J. M. A. Rebello, M. P. Cindra Fonseca


Duplex stainless steels (DSS) exhibit a biphasic microstructure consisting of austenite and delta ferrite. Their high resistance to oxidation, and corrosion, even in H2S containing environments, allied to low cost when compared to conventional stainless steel, are some properties which make this material very attractive for several industrial applications. However, several of these industrial applications imposes cyclic loading to the equipments and in consequence fatigue damage needs to be a concern. A well-known way of improving the fatigue life of a component is by introducing compressive residual stress in its surface. Shot peening is an industrial working process which brings the material directly beneath component surface in a high mechanical compressive state, so inhibiting fatigue crack initiation. However, one must take into account the fact that the cyclic loading itself can reduce and even suppress these residual stresses, thus having undesirable consequences in the process of improving fatigue life by the introduction of compressive residual stresses. In the present work, shot peening was used to introduce residual stresses in several DSS samples. These were thereafter submitted to three different fatigue regimes: low, medium and high cycle fatigue. The evolution of the residual stress during loading were then examined on both surface and subsurface of the samples. It was used the DSS UNS S31803, with microstructure composed of 49% austenite and 51% ferrite. The treatment of shot peening was accomplished by the application of blasting in two Almen intensities of 0.25 and 0.39A. The residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the double exposure method and a portable equipment with CrK radiation and the (211) diffracting plane for the austenite phase and the (220) plane for the ferrite phase. It is known that residual stresses may arise when two regions of the same material experienced different degrees of plastic deformation. When these regions are separated in respect to each other on a scale that is large compared to the material's microstructure they are called macro stresses. In contrast, microstresses can largely vary over distances which are small comparable to the scale of the material's microstructure and must balance zero between the phases present. In the present work, special attention will be paid to the measurement of residual microstresses. Residual stress measurements were carried out in test pieces submitted to low, medium and high-cycle fatigue, in both longitudinal and transverse direction of the test pieces. It was found that after shot peening, the residual microstress is tensile in the austenite and compressive in the ferrite phases. It was hypothesized that the hardening behavior of the austenite after shot peening was probably due to its higher nitrogen content. Fatigue cycling can effectively change this stress state but this effect was found to be dependent of the shot peening intensity was well as the fatigue range.

Keywords: residual stresses, fatigue, duplex steel, shot peening

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92 Simulation the Effect of Temperature on the Residual Stress in Shot Peening Process Using FEM Method

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi Majd, A.R. Aboudi Asl, D. Sajedipour, V. Tawaf


Sandblasting is a generally used surface treatment technique to improve the residual stress and adhesion of coatings to substrate. The goal of this work is to study the effect of temperature on the residual stress in sandblasting AISI1045 substrate. For this purpose a two dimensional axisymmetric model of shot impacting on an AISI 1045 disc was generated using ABAQUS version 6.10. The result shows for sandblasting temperature there is an optimum condition. In addition there are other effective factors that influence the fatigue life of parts.

Keywords: modeling, shot peen, residual stress, temperature

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91 Potentiodynamic Polarization Behavior of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treated AA7075

Authors: Vaibhav Pandey, K. Chattopadhyay, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Aluminium alloy 7075 consist of different intermetallic precipitate particles MgZn2, CuAl2, which result in heterogeneity of micro structure and influence the corrosion properties of the alloy. Artificial ageing was found to enhance the strength properties, but highly susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. Various conventional surface modification techniques are developed for improving corrosion properties of aluminum alloys. This led to development of novel surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) technique the so called ultrasonic shot peening which gives nano-grain structure at surface. In the present investigation the influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment on corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7075 was studied in 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Two different size of 1 mm and 3 mm steel balls are used as peening media and SMAT was carried out for different time intervals 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Surface nano-grains/nano-crystallization was observed after SMAT. The formation of nano-grain structure was observed for larger size balls with time of treatment and consequent increase in micro strain. As-SMATed sample with 1 mm balls exhibits better corrosion resistance as compared to that of un-SMATed sample. The enhancement in corrosion resistance may be due to formation of surface nano-grain structure which reduced the electron release rate. In contrast the samples treated with 3 mm balls showed very poor corrosion resistance. A decrease in corrosion resistance was observed with increase in the time of peening. The decrease in corrosion resistance in the shotpeened samples with larger diameter balls may due to increase in microstrain and defect density.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 7075, corrosion, SMAT, ultrasonic shot peening, surface nano-grains

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90 Influence of Selected Finishing Technologies on the Roughness Parameters of Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method

Authors: J. Hajnys, M. Pagac, J. Petru, P. Stefek, J. Mesicek, J. Kratochvil


The new progressive method of 3D metal printing SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is increasingly expanded into the normal operation. As a result, greater demands are placed on the surface quality of the parts produced in this way. The article deals with research of selected finishing methods (tumbling, face milling, sandblasting, shot peening and brushing) and their impact on the final surface roughness. The 20 x 20 x 7 mm produced specimens using SLM additive technology on the Renishaw AM400 were subjected to testing of these finishing methods by adjusting various parameters. Surface parameters of roughness Sa, Sz were chosen as the evaluation criteria and profile parameters Ra, Rz were used as additional measurements. Optical measurement of surface roughness was performed on Alicona Infinite Focus 5. An experiment conducted to optimize the surface roughness revealed, as expected, that the best roughness parameters were achieved through a face milling operation. Tumbling is particularly suitable for 3D printing components, as tumbling media are able to reach even complex shapes and, after changing to polishing bodies, achieve a high surface gloss. Surface quality after tumbling depends on the process time. Other methods with satisfactory results are shot peening and tumbling, which should be the focus of further research.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, SLM, surface roughness, stainless steel

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89 Laser Shock Peening of Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Superalloys

Authors: Michael Munther, Keivan Davami


One significant roadblock for additively manufactured (AM) parts is the buildup of residual tensile stresses during the fabrication process. These residual stresses are formed due to the intense localized thermal gradients and high cooling rates that cause non-uniform material expansion/contraction and mismatched strain profiles during powder-bed fusion techniques, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The residual stresses adversely affect the fatigue life of the AM parts. Moreover, if the residual stresses become higher than the material’s yield strength, they will lead to acute geometric distortion. These are limiting the applications and acceptance of AM components for safety-critical applications. Herein, we discuss laser shock peening method as an advanced technique for the manipulation of the residual stresses in AM parts. An X-ray diffraction technique is used for the measurements of the residual stresses before and after the laser shock peening process. Also, the hardness of the structures is measured using a nanoindentation technique. Maps of nanohardness and modulus are obtained from the nanoindentation, and a correlation is made between the residual stresses and the mechanical properties. The results indicate that laser shock peening is able to induce compressive residual stresses in the structure that mitigate the tensile residual stresses and increase the hardness of AM IN718, a superalloy, almost 20%. No significant changes were observed in the modulus after laser shock peening. The results strongly suggest that laser shock peening can be used as an advanced post-processing technique to optimize the service lives of critical components for various applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Inconel 718, laser shock peening, residual stresses

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88 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Mehdi Moayyedian, Kazem Abhary, Romeo Marian


This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: injection molding, plastic defects, short shot, Taguchi method

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87 3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Ashish Phulkar, Krishna K. Sahu


Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.

Keywords: biomechanics, analysis, shot put, international throwers

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86 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe


Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: combined fatigue, damage tolerance, engine, surface treatment

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85 Stress Corrosion Cracking, Parameters Affecting It, Problems Caused by It and Suggested Methods for Treatment: State of the Art

Authors: Adnan Zaid


Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) may be defined as a degradation of the mechanical properties of a material under the combined action of a tensile stress and corrosive environment of the susceptible material. It is a harmful phenomenon which might cause catastrophic fracture without a sign of prior warning. In this paper, the stress corrosion cracking, SCC, process, the parameters affecting it, and the different damages caused by it are given and discussed. Utilization of shot peening as a mean of enhancing the resistance of materials to SCC is given and discussed. Finally, a method for improving materials resistance to SCC by grain refining its structure by some refining elements prior to usage is suggested.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, parameters, damages, treatment methods

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84 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian


Whereas currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning

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83 A Numerical Study of the Interaction between Residual Stress Profiles Induced by Quasi-Static Plastification

Authors: Guilherme F. Guimaraes, Alfredo R. De Faria, Ronnie R. Rego, Andre L. R. D'Oliveira


The development of methods for predicting manufacturing phenomena steadily grows due to their high potential to contribute to the component’s performance and durability. One of the most relevant phenomena in manufacturing is the residual stress state development through the manufacturing chain. In most cases, the residual stresses have their origin due to heterogenous plastifications produced by the processes. Although a few manufacturing processes have been successfully approached by numerical modeling, there is still a lack of understanding on how these processes' interactions will affect the final stress state. The objective of this work is to analyze the influence of previous stresses on the residual stress state induced by plastic deformation of a quasi-static indentation. The model consists of a simplified approach of shot peening, modeling four cases with variations in indenter size and force. This model was validated through topography, measured by optical 3D focus-variation, and residual stress, measured with the X-ray diffraction technique. The validated model was then exposed to several initial stress states, and the effect on the final residual stress was analyzed.

Keywords: plasticity, residual stress, finite element method, manufacturing

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82 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber-Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi


Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: FSDWT, key frame extraction, shot detection, singular value decomposition

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81 Large Strain Compression-Tension Behavior of AZ31B Rolled Sheet in the Rolling Direction

Authors: A. Yazdanmehr, H. Jahed


Being made with the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium (Mg) alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods requires Mg properties at large strains. Several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion need compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture is used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values of up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves is evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with those of the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curves, specifically at high strain values.

Keywords: large strain, compression-tension, loading-unloading, Mg alloys

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80 Images Selection and Best Descriptor Combination for Multi-Shot Person Re-Identification

Authors: Yousra Hadj Hassen, Walid Ayedi, Tarek Ouni, Mohamed Jallouli


To re-identify a person is to check if he/she has been already seen over a cameras network. Recently, re-identifying people over large public cameras networks has become a crucial task of great importance to ensure public security. The vision community has deeply investigated this area of research. Most existing researches rely only on the spatial appearance information from either one or multiple person images. Actually, the real person re-id framework is a multi-shot scenario. However, to efficiently model a person’s appearance and to choose the best samples to remain a challenging problem. In this work, an extensive comparison of descriptors of state of the art associated with the proposed frame selection method is studied. Specifically, we evaluate the samples selection approach using multiple proposed descriptors. We show the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method by extensive comparisons with related state-of-the-art approaches using two standard datasets PRID2011 and iLIDS-VID.

Keywords: camera network, descriptor, model, multi-shot, person re-identification, selection

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79 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah


The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
78 Creation of a Test Machine for the Scientific Investigation of Chain Shot

Authors: Mark McGuire, Eric Shannon, John Parmigiani


Timber harvesting increasingly involves mechanized equipment. This has increased the efficiency of harvesting, but has also introduced worker-safety concerns. One such concern arises from the use of harvesters. During operation, harvesters subject saw chain to large dynamic mechanical stresses. These stresses can, under certain conditions, cause the saw chain to fracture. The high speed of harvester saw chain can cause the resulting open chain loop to fracture a second time due to the dynamic loads placed upon it as it travels through space. If a second fracture occurs, it can result in a projectile consisting of one-to-several chain links. This projectile is referred to as a chain shot. It has speeds similar to a bullet but typically has greater mass and is a significant safety concern. Numerous examples exist of chain shots penetrating bullet-proof barriers and causing severe injury and death. Improved harvester-cab barriers can help prevent injury however a comprehensive scientific understanding of chain shot is required to consistently reduce or prevent it. Obtaining this understanding requires a test machine with the capability to cause chain shot to occur under carefully controlled conditions and accurately measure the response. Worldwide few such test machine exist. Those that do focus on validating the ability of barriers to withstand a chain shot impact rather than obtaining a scientific understanding of the chain shot event itself. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, fabrication, and use of a test machine capable of a comprehensive scientific investigation of chain shot. The capabilities of this machine are to test all commercially-available saw chains and bars at chain tensions and speeds meeting and exceeding those typically encountered in harvester use and accurately measure the corresponding key technical parameters. The test machine was constructed inside of a standard shipping container. This provides space for both an operator station and a test chamber. In order to contain the chain shot under any possible test conditions, the test chamber was lined with a base layer of AR500 steel followed by an overlay of HDPE. To accommodate varying bar orientations and fracture-initiation sites, the entire saw chain drive unit and bar mounting system is modular and capable of being located anywhere in the test chamber. The drive unit consists of a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel. Standard Ponsse harvester head components are used to bar mounting and chain tensioning. Chain lubrication is provided by a separate peristaltic pump. Chain fracture is initiated through ISO standard 11837. Measure parameters include shaft speed, motor vibration, bearing temperatures, motor temperature, motor current draw, hydraulic fluid pressure, chain force at fracture, and high-speed camera images. Results show that the machine is capable of consistently causing chain shot. Measurement output shows fracture location and the force associated with fracture as a function of saw chain speed and tension. Use of this machine will result in a scientific understanding of chain shot and consequently improved products and greater harvester operator safety.

Keywords: chain shot, safety, testing, timber harvesters

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77 Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study

Authors: Anuj Pathare, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery


Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.

Keywords: ACL, biomechanics, knee injury, racquet sport

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76 One-Shot Text Classification with Multilingual-BERT

Authors: Hsin-Yang Wang, K. M. A. Salam, Ying-Jia Lin, Daniel Tan, Tzu-Hsuan Chou, Hung-Yu Kao


Detecting user intent from natural language expression has a wide variety of use cases in different natural language processing applications. Recently few-shot training has a spike of usage on commercial domains. Due to the lack of significant sample features, the downstream task performance has been limited or leads to an unstable result across different domains. As a state-of-the-art method, the pre-trained BERT model gathering the sentence-level information from a large text corpus shows improvement on several NLP benchmarks. In this research, we are proposing a method to change multi-class classification tasks into binary classification tasks, then use the confidence score to rank the results. As a language model, BERT performs well on sequence data. In our experiment, we change the objective from predicting labels into finding the relations between words in sequence data. Our proposed method achieved 71.0% accuracy in the internal intent detection dataset and 63.9% accuracy in the HuffPost dataset. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by NCKU-B109-K003, which is the collaboration between National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, and SoftBank Corp., Tokyo.

Keywords: OSML, BERT, text classification, one shot

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75 Characterization of A390 Aluminum Alloy Produced at Different Slow Shot Speeds Using Assisted Vacuum High-Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Wenbo Yu, Zihao Yuan, Zhipeng Guo, Shoumei Xiong


Under different slow shot speeds in vacuum assisted high pressure die casting (VHPDC) process, plate-shaped specimens of hypereutectic A390 aluminum alloy were produced. According to the results, the vacuum pressure inside the die cavity increased linearly with the increasing slow shot speed at the beginning of mold filling. Meanwhile, it was found that the tensile properties of vacuum die castings were deteriorated by the porosity content. In addition, the average primary Si size varies between 14µm to 23µm, which has a binary functional relationship with the slow shot speeds. Due to the vacuum effect, the castings were treated by T6 heat treatment. After heat treatment, microstructural morphologies revealed that needle-shaped and thin-flaked eutectic Si particles became rounded while Al2Cu dissolved into α-Al matrix. For the as-received sample in-situ tensile test, microcracks firstly initiate at the primary Si particles and propagated along Al matrix with a transgranular fracture mode. In contrast, for the treated sample, the crack initiated at the Al2Cu particles and propagated along Al grain boundaries with an intergranular fracture mode. In-situ three bending test, microcracks firstly formed in the primary Si particles for both samples. Subsequently, the cracks between primary Si linked along Al grain boundaries in as received sample. In contrast, the cracks in primary Si linked through the solid lines in Al matrix. Furthermore, the fractography revealed that the fracture mechanism has evolved from brittle transgranular fracture to a fracture mode with many dimples after heat treatment.

Keywords: A390 aluminum, vacuum assisted high pressure die casting, heat treatment, mechanical properties

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74 Composition, Velocity, and Mass of Projectiles Generated from a Chain Shot Event

Authors: Eric Shannon, Mark J. McGuire, John P. Parmigiani


A hazard associated with the use of timber harvesters is chain shot. Harvester saw chain is subjected to large dynamic mechanical stresses which can cause it to fracture. The resulting open loop of saw chain can fracture a second time and create a projectile consisting of several saw-chain links referred to as a chain shot. Its high kinetic energy enables it to penetrate operator enclosures and be a significant hazard. Accurate data on projectile composition, mass, and speed are needed for the design of both operator enclosures resistant to projectile penetration and for saw chain resistant to fracture. The work presented here contributes to providing this data through the use of a test machine designed and built at Oregon State University. The machine’s enclosure is a standard shipping container. To safely contain any anticipated chain shot, the container was lined with both 9.5 mm AR500 steel plates and 50 mm high-density polyethylene (HDPE). During normal operation, projectiles are captured virtually undamaged in the HDPE enabling subsequent analysis. Standard harvester components are used for bar mounting and chain tensioning. Standard guide bars and saw chains are used. An electric motor with flywheel drives the system. Testing procedures follow ISO Standard 11837. Chain speed at break was approximately 45.5 m/s. Data was collected using both a 75 cm solid bar (Oregon 752HSFB149) and 90 cm solid bar (Oregon 902HSFB149). Saw chains used were 89 Drive Link .404”-18HX loops made from factory spools. Standard 16-tooth sprockets were used. Projectile speed was measured using both a high-speed camera and a chronograph. Both rotational and translational kinetic energy are calculated. For this study 50 chain shot events were executed. Results showed that projectiles consisted of a variety combinations of drive links, tie straps, and cutter links. Most common (occurring in 60% of the events) was a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link combination having a mass of approximately 10.33 g. Projectile mass varied from a minimum of 2.99 g corresponding to a drive link only to a maximum of 18.91 g corresponding to a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link / cutter-link / drive-link combination. Projectile translational speed was measured to be approximately 270 m/s and rotational speed of approximately 14000 r/s. The calculated translational and rotational kinetic energy magnitudes each average over 600 J. This study provides useful information for both timber harvester manufacturers and saw chain manufacturers to design products that reduce the hazards associated with timber harvesting.

Keywords: chain shot, timber harvesters, safety, testing

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73 Stabilizing Additively Manufactured Superalloys at High Temperatures

Authors: Keivan Davami, Michael Munther, Lloyd Hackel


The control of properties and material behavior by implementing thermal-mechanical processes is based on mechanical deformation and annealing according to a precise schedule that will produce a unique and stable combination of grain structure, dislocation substructure, texture, and dispersion of precipitated phases. The authors recently developed a thermal-mechanical technique to stabilize the microstructure of additively manufactured nickel-based superalloys even after exposure to high temperatures. However, the mechanism(s) that controls this stability is still under investigation. Laser peening (LP), also called laser shock peening (LSP), is a shock based (50 ns duration) post-processing technique used for extending performance levels and improving service life of critical components by developing deep levels of plastic deformation, thereby generating high density of dislocations and inducing compressive residual stresses in the surface and deep subsurface of components. These compressive residual stresses are usually accompanied with an increase in hardness and enhance the material’s resistance to surface-related failures such as creep, fatigue, contact damage, and stress corrosion cracking. While the LP process enhances the life span and durability of the material, the induced compressive residual stresses relax at high temperatures (>0.5Tm, where Tm is the absolute melting temperature), limiting the applicability of the technology. At temperatures above 0.5Tm, the compressive residual stresses relax, and yield strength begins to drop dramatically. The principal reason is the increasing rate of solid-state diffusion, which affects both the dislocations and the microstructural barriers. Dislocation configurations commonly recover by mechanisms such as climbing and recombining rapidly at high temperatures. Furthermore, precipitates coarsen, and grains grow; virtually all of the available microstructural barriers become ineffective.Our results indicate that by using “cyclic” treatments with sequential LP and annealing steps, the compressive stresses survive, and the microstructure is stable after exposure to temperatures exceeding 0.5Tm for a long period of time. When the laser peening process is combined with annealing, dislocations formed as a result of LPand precipitates formed during annealing have a complex interaction that provides further stability at high temperatures. From a scientific point of view, this research lays the groundwork for studying a variety of physical, materials science, and mechanical engineering concepts. This research could lead to metals operating at higher sustained temperatures enabling improved system efficiencies. The strengthening of metals by a variety of means (alloying, work hardening, and other processes) has been of interest for a wide range of applications. However, the mechanistic understanding of the often complex processes of interactionsbetween dislocations with solute atoms and with precipitates during plastic deformation have largely remained scattered in the literature. In this research, the elucidation of the actual mechanisms involved in the novel cyclic LP/annealing processes as a scientific pursuit is investigated through parallel studies of dislocation theory and the implementation of advanced experimental tools. The results of this research help with the validation of a novel laser processing technique for high temperature applications. This will greatly expand the applications of the laser peening technology originally devised only for temperatures lower than half of the melting temperature.

Keywords: laser shock peening, mechanical properties, indentation, high temperature stability

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72 Predicting Shot Making in Basketball Learnt Fromadversarial Multiagent Trajectories

Authors: Mark Harmon, Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Patrick Lucey, Diego Klabjan


In this paper, we predict the likelihood of a player making a shot in basketball from multiagent trajectories. Previous approaches to similar problems center on hand-crafting features to capture domain-specific knowledge. Although intuitive, recent work in deep learning has shown, this approach is prone to missing important predictive features. To circumvent this issue, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach where we initially represent the multiagent behavior as an image. To encode the adversarial nature of basketball, we use a multichannel image which we then feed into a CNN. Additionally, to capture the temporal aspect of the trajectories, we use “fading.” We find that this approach is superior to a traditional FFN model. By using gradient ascent, we were able to discover what the CNN filters look for during training. Last, we find that a combined FFN+CNN is the best performing network with an error rate of 39%.

Keywords: basketball, computer vision, image processing, convolutional neural network

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71 A Measurement and Motor Control System for Free Throw Shots in Basketball Using Gyroscope Sensor

Authors: Niloofar Zebarjad


This research aims at finding a tool to provide basketball players with real-time audio feedback on their shooting form in free throw shots. Free throws played a pivotal role in taking the lead in fierce competitions. The major problem in performing an accurate free throw seems to be improper training. Since the arm movement during the free throw shot is complex, the coach or the athlete might miss the movement details during practice. Hence, there is a necessity to create a system that measures arm movements' critical characteristics and control for improper kinematics. The proposed setup in this study quantifies arm kinematics and provides real-time feedback as an audio signal consisting of a gyroscope sensor. Spatial shoulder angle data are transmitted in a mobile application in real-time and can be saved and processed for statistical and analysis purposes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable, and real-time applicable. Objectives: This research aims to modify and control the free throw using audio feedback and determine if and to what extent the new setup reduces errors in arm formations during throws and finally assesses the successful throw rate. Methods: One group of elite basketball athletes and two novice athletes (control and study group) participated in this study. Each group contains 5 participants being studied in three separate sessions over a week. Results: Empirical results showed enhancements in the free throw shooting style, shot pocket (SP), and locked position (LP). The mean values of shoulder angle were controlled on 25° and 45° for SP and LP, respectively, recommended by valid FIBA references. Conclusion: Throughout the experiments, the system helped correct and control the shoulder angles toward the targeted pattern of shot pocket (SP) and locked position (LP). According to the desired results for arm motion, adding another sensor to measure and control the elbow angle is recommended.

Keywords: audio-feedback, basketball, free-throw, locked-position, motor-control, shot-pocket

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70 Application of Seismic Refraction Method in Geotechnical Study

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed M. Musbahi


The study area lies in Al-Falah area on Airport-Tripoli in Zone (16) Where planned establishment of complex multi-floors for residential and commercial, this part was divided into seven subzone. In each sup zone, were collected Orthogonal profiles by using Seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this project is to investigate the applicability of Seismic refraction method is a commonly used traditional geophysical technique to determine depth-to-bedrock, competence of bedrock, depth to the water table, or depth to other seismic velocity boundaries The purpose of the work is to make engineers and decision makers recognize the importance of planning and execution of a pre-investigation program including geophysics and in particular seismic refraction method. The overall aim with this thesis is achieved by evaluation of seismic refraction method in different scales, determine the depth and velocity of the base layer (bed-rock). Calculate the elastic property in each layer in the region by using the Seismic refraction method. The orthogonal profiles was carried out in every subzones of (zone 16). The layout of the seismic refraction set up is schematically, the geophones are placed on the linear imaginary line whit a 5 m spacing, the three shot points (in beginning of layout–mid and end of layout) was used, in order to generate the P and S waves. The 1st and last shot point is placed about 5 meters from the geophones and the middle shot point is put in between 12th to 13th geophone, from time-distance curve the P and S waves was calculated and the thickness was estimated up to three-layers. As we know any change in values of physical properties of medium (shear modulus, bulk modulus, density) leads to change waves velocity which passing through medium where any change in properties of rocks cause change in velocity of waves. because the change in properties of rocks cause change in parameters of medium density (ρ), bulk modulus (κ), shear modulus (μ). Therefore, the velocity of waves which travel in rocks have close relationship with these parameters. Therefore we can estimate theses parameters by knowing primary and secondary velocity (p-wave, s-wave).

Keywords: application of seismic, geotechnical study, physical properties, seismic refraction

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