Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4013

Search results for: isoelectric point

4013 Introduction of PMMA-Tag to VHH for Improving Recovery and Immobilization Rate of VHHS

Authors: Bongmun Kang, Kagnari Yamakawa, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Yuji Ito, Michimasa Kishimoto, Yoichi Kumada


The PMMA-tag was genetically fused with the C-terminal region of VHH molecules. This antibody, VHH, is known as a single-chain domain, which is devoid of light chains. The PMMA-tag, which could affect the isoelectric point (pI) changeable with a charge of amino acid in VHHs were closely related to the solubility of VHH molecules during refolding. The genetic fusion of PMMA-tag to C-terminal region of VHHs significantly affects the recovery of their soluble protein during refolding by 50 mM TAPS at pH 8.5. It could be refolded with a recovery of more than 95% by dialysis at pH 8.5. A marked difference in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state was significantly high in VHH-PM compared to the wild type of VHH. There are approximately 8-fold differences in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state between VHH-PM and VHH.

Keywords: VHH, PMMA-tag, isoelectric point, pH, Solubility, refolding, immobilization, ELISA

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4012 Electrokinetics and Stability of Solder Powders in Aqueous Media

Authors: Terence Lucero F. Menor, Manolo G. Mena, Herman D. Mendoza


Solder pastes are widely used in creating mechanical, thermal and electrical connection between electronic components. Continued miniaturization of consumer electronics drives manufacturers to achieve smaller, lighter, and faster electronic packages at low cost. This faces them to the difficult challenge of dispensing solder pastes in extremely precise and repeatable manner. The most common problem in solder paste dispensing is the clogging of dispensers which results from agglomeration and settling of solder powders leading to increase on the effective particle size and uneven distribution of particles in the mixture. In this work, microelectrophoresis was employed to investigate the effect of pH and KNO₃ concentration on the electrokinetic behavior and stability of SAC305, PbSn5Ag2.5 and Sn powders in aqueous media. Results revealed that the electrokinetic behavior of the three types of solder powders are similar, which was attributed to high SnO₂ content on the surface of the particles. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the zeta potentials of the solder powders are highly dependent on pH and KNO₃ concentration with isoelectric points ranging from 3.5 to 5.5. Results were verified using stability tests.

Keywords: electrokinetic behavior, isoelectric point, solder powder, stability, surface analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
4011 Extraction of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by Isoelectric Point Precipitation and Salting Out for Scale Up Processes

Authors: Velasco-Rendón María Del Carmen, Cuéllar-Bermúdez Sara Paulina, Parra-Saldívar Roberto


Phycocyanin is a blue pigment protein with fluorescent activity produced by cyanobacteria. It has been recently studied to determine its anticancer, antioxidant and antiinflamatory potential. Since 2014 it was approved as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) proteic pigment for the food industry. Therefore, phycocyanin shows potential for the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and diagnostics industry. Conventional phycocyanin extraction includes buffer solutions and ammonium sulphate followed by chromatography or ATPS for protein separation. Therefore, further purification steps are time-requiring, energy intensive and not suitable for scale-up processing. This work presents an alternative to conventional methods that also allows large scale application with commercially available equipment. The extraction was performed by exposing the dry biomass to mechanical cavitation and salting out with NaCl to use an edible reagent. Also, isoelectric point precipitation was used by addition of HCl and neutralization with NaOH. The results were measured and compared in phycocyanin concentration, purity and extraction yield. Results showed that the best extraction condition was the extraction by salting out with 0.20 M NaCl after 30 minutes cavitation, with a concentration in the supernatant of 2.22 mg/ml, a purity of 3.28 and recovery from crude extract of 81.27%. Mechanical cavitation presumably increased the solvent-biomass contact, making the crude extract visibly dark blue after centrifugation. Compared to other systems, our process has less purification steps, similar concentrations in the phycocyanin-rich fraction and higher purity. The contaminants present in our process edible NaCl or low pHs that can be neutralized. It also can be adapted to a semi-continuous process with commercially available equipment. This characteristics make this process an appealing alternative for phycocyanin extraction as a pigment for the food industry.

Keywords: extraction, phycocyanin, precipitation, scale-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
4010 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi


Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: hydrothermal growth, sol-gel, zinc dioxide, biosensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
4009 Potential Use of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa Leaf from Mexico as High-Quality Protein Source

Authors: Diana Karina Baigts Allende, Mariana Gonzalez Diaz, Luis Antonio Chel Guerrero, Mukthar Sandoval Peraza


Poverty and food insecurity are still incident problems in the developing countries, where population´s diet is based on cereals which are lack in protein content. Nevertheless, during last years the use of native plants has been studied as an alternative source of protein in order to improve the nutritional intake. Chaya crop also called Spinach tree, is a prehispanic plant native from Central America and South of Mexico (Mayan culture), which has been especially valued due to its high nutritional content particularly protein and some medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein isolation processing from Chaya leaf harvest in Yucatan, Mexico on its structure quality in order: i) to valorize the Chaya crop and ii) to produce low-cost and high-quality protein. Chaya leaf was extruded, clarified and recovered using: a) acid precipitation by decreasing the pH value until reach the isoelectric point (3.5) and b) thermal coagulation, by heating the protein solution at 80 °C during 30 min. Solubilized protein was re-dissolved in water and spray dried. The presence of Fraction I protein, known as RuBisCO (Rubilose-1,5-biphosfate carboxylase/oxygenase) was confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) where molecular weight bands of 55 KDa and 12 KDa were observed. The infrared spectrum showed changes in protein structure due to the isolation method. The use of high temperatures (thermal coagulation) highly decreased protein solubility in comparison to isoelectric precipitated protein, the nutritional properties according to amino acid profile was also disturbed, showing minor amounts of overall essential amino acids from 435.9 to 367.8 mg/g. Chaya protein isolate obtained by acid precipitation showed higher protein quality according to essential amino acid score compared to FAO recommendations, which could represent an important sustainable source of protein for human consumption.

Keywords: chaya leaf, nutritional properties, protein isolate, protein structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4008 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain


The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

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4007 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong


To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4006 Isolation, Preparation and Biological Properties of Soybean-Flaxseed Protein Co-Precipitates

Authors: Muhammad H. Alu’datt, Inteaz Alli


This study was conducted to prepare and evaluate the biological properties of protein co-precipitates from flaxseed and soybean. Protein was prepared by NaOH extraction through the mixing of soybean flour (Sf) and flaxseed flour (Ff) or mixtures of soybean extract (Se) and flaxseed extract (Fe). The protein co-precipitates were precipitated by isoelectric (IEP) and isoelectric-heating (IEPH) co-precipitation techniques. Effects of extraction and co-precipitation techniques on co-precipitate yield were investigated. Native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to study the molecular characterization. Content and antioxidant activity of extracted free and bound phenolic compounds were evaluated for protein co-precipitates. Removal of free and bound phenolic compounds from protein co-precipitates showed little effects on the electrophoretic behavior of the proteins or the protein subunits of protein co-precipitates. Results showed that he highest protein contents and yield were obtained in for Sf-Ff/IEP co-precipitate with values of 53.28 and 25.58% respectively as compared to protein isolates and other co-precipitates. Results revealed that the Sf-Ff/IEP showed a higher content of bound phenolic compounds (53.49% from total phenolic content) as compared to free phenolic compounds (46.51% from total phenolic content). Antioxidant activities of extracted bound phenolic compounds with and without heat treatment from Sf-Ff/IEHP were higher as compared to free phenolic compounds extracted from other protein co-precipitates (29.68 and 22.84%, respectively).

Keywords: antioxidant, phenol, protein co-precipitate, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4005 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
4004 Use the Null Space to Create Starting Point for Stochastic Programming

Authors: Ghussoun Al-Jeiroudi


Stochastic programming is one of the powerful technique which is used to solve real-life problems. Hence, the data of real-life problems is subject to significant uncertainty. Uncertainty is well studied and modeled by stochastic programming. Each day, problems become bigger and bigger and the need for a tool, which does deal with large scale problems, increase. Interior point method is a perfect tool to solve such problems. Interior point method is widely employed to solve the programs, which arise from stochastic programming. It is an iterative technique, so it is required a starting point. Well design starting point plays an important role in improving the convergence speed. In this paper, we propose a starting point for interior point method for multistage stochastic programming. Usually, the optimal solution of stage k+1 is used as starting point for the stage k. This point has the advantage of being close to the solution of the current program. However, it has a disadvantage; it is not in the feasible region of the current program. So, we suggest to take this point and modifying it. That is by adding to it a vector in the null space of the matrix of the unchanged constraints because the solution will change only in the null space of this matrix.

Keywords: interior point methods, stochastic programming, null space, starting points

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4003 Dimension Free Rigid Point Set Registration in Linear Time

Authors: Jianqin Qu


This paper proposes a rigid point set matching algorithm in arbitrary dimensions based on the idea of symmetric covariant function. A group of functions of the points in the set are formulated using rigid invariants. Each of these functions computes a pair of correspondence from the given point set. Then the computed correspondences are used to recover the unknown rigid transform parameters. Each computed point can be geometrically interpreted as the weighted mean center of the point set. The algorithm is compact, fast, and dimension free without any optimization process. It either computes the desired transform for noiseless data in linear time, or fails quickly in exceptional cases. Experimental results for synthetic data and 2D/3D real data are provided, which demonstrate potential applications of the algorithm to a wide range of problems.

Keywords: covariant point, point matching, dimension free, rigid registration

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4002 A New Fixed Point Theorem for Almost θ-Contraction

Authors: Hichem Ramoul


In this work, we introduce a new type of contractive maps and we establish a new fixed point theorem for the class of almost θ-contractions (more general than the class of almost contractions) in a complete generalized metric space. The major novelty of our work is to prove a new fixed point result by weakening some hypotheses imposed on the function θ which will change completely the classical technique used in the literature review to prove fixed point theorems for almost θ-contractions in a complete generalized metric space.

Keywords: almost contraction, almost θ-contraction, fixed point, generalized metric space

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4001 [Keynote Talk]: Existence of Random Fixed Point Theorem for Contractive Mappings

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


Random fixed point theory has received much attention in recent years, and it is needed for the study of various classes of random equations. The study of random fixed point theorems was initiated by the Prague school of probabilistic in the 1950s. The existence and uniqueness of fixed points for the self-maps of a metric space by altering distances between the points with the use of a control function is an interesting aspect in the classical fixed point theory. In a new category of fixed point problems for a single self-map with the help of a control function that alters the distance between two points in a metric space which they called an altering distance function. In this paper, we prove the results of existence of random common fixed point and its uniqueness for a pair of random mappings under weakly contractive condition for generalizing alter distance function in polish spaces using Random Common Fixed Point Theorem for Generalized Weakly Contractions.

Keywords: Polish space, random common fixed point theorem, weakly contractive mapping, altering function

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4000 Some Properties of Cut Locus of a Flat Torus

Authors: Pakkinee Chitsakul


In this article, we would like to show that there is no cut point of any point in a plane, but there exists the cut locus of a point in a flat torus. By the results, we would like to determine the structure of cut locus of a flat torus.

Keywords: cut locus, flat torus, geodesics

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3999 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres


This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

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3998 Polysaccharides as Pour Point Depressants

Authors: Ali M. EL-Soll


Physical properties of Sarir waxy crude oil was investigated, pour-point was determined using ASTM D-79 procedure, paraffin content and carbon number distribution of the paraffin was determined using gas liquid Chromatography(GLC), polymeric additives were prepared and their structures were confirmed using IR spectrophotometer. The molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution of these additives were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). the performance of the synthesized additives as pour-point depressants was evaluated, for the mentioned crude oil.

Keywords: sarir, waxy, crude, pour point, depressants

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
3997 Independent Control over Surface Charge and Wettability Using Polyelectrolyte Architecture

Authors: Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon Gee Neoh


Surface charge and wettability are two prominent physical factors governing cell adhesion and have been extensively studied in the literature. However, a comparison between the two driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting cell adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol which allows two-dimensional and independent control over both surface charge and wettability. This protocol enables the unambiguous comparison of the effects of these two properties on cell adhesion. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the relative thickness of polyion layers in the layer-by-layer assembly and the polyion side chain chemical structures. The 2D property matrix spans surface isoelectric point ranging from 5 to 9 and water contact angle from 35º to 70º, with other interferential factors (e.g. roughness) eliminated. The interplay between these two surface variables influences 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. The results show that both surface charge and wettability have an effect on its adhesion. The combined effects of positive charge and hydrophilicity led to the highest cell adhesion whereas negative charge and hydrophobicity led to the lowest cell adhesion. Our design strategy can potentially form the basis for studying the distinct behaviors of electrostatic force or wettability driven interfacial phenomena and serving as a reference in future studies assessing cell adhesion to surfaces with known charge and wettability within the property range studied here.

Keywords: cell adhesion, layer-by-layer, surface charge, surface wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
3996 Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud

Authors: Faisal Zaman, Ya Ping Wong, Boon Yian Ng


Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.

Keywords: point preprocessing, outlier removal, surface reconstruction, kernel density estimation

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3995 Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells

Authors: M. Altekin, R. F. Yükseler


Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.

Keywords: Bending, Nonlinear, Plate, Point support, Shell.

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3994 Mathematical Modeling for the Break-Even Point Problem in a Non-homogeneous System

Authors: Filipe Cardoso de Oliveira, Lino Marcos da Silva, Ademar Nogueira do Nascimento, Cristiano Hora de Oliveira Fontes


This article presents a mathematical formulation for the production Break-Even Point problem in a non-homogeneous system. The optimization problem aims to obtain the composition of the best product mix in a non-homogeneous industrial plant, with the lowest cost until the breakeven point is reached. The problem constraints represent real limitations of a generic non-homogeneous industrial plant for n different products. The proposed model is able to solve the equilibrium point problem simultaneously for all products, unlike the existing approaches that propose a resolution in a sequential way, considering each product in isolation and providing a sub-optimal solution to the problem. The results indicate that the product mix found through the proposed model has economical advantages over the traditional approach used.

Keywords: branch and bound, break-even point, non-homogeneous production system, integer linear programming, management accounting

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3993 Existence Solutions for Three Point Boundary Value Problem for Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Houas, Maamar Benbachir


In this paper, under weak assumptions, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a nonlinear fractional boundary value problem. New existence and uniqueness results are established using Banach contraction principle. Other existence results are obtained using scheafer and krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem. At the end, some illustrative examples are presented.

Keywords: caputo derivative, boundary value problem, fixed point theorem, local conditions

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3992 A Comparison of Design and Off-Design Performances of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Zeynep Aytaç, Nuri Yücel


Today, as the need for high efficiency and fuel-efficient engines have increased, centrifugal compressor designs are expected to be high-efficient and have high-pressure ratios than ever. The present study represents a design methodology of centrifugal compressor placed in a mini jet engine for the design and off-design points with the utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compares the performance characteristics at the mentioned two points. Although the compressor is expected to provide the required specifications at the design point, it is known that it is important for the design to deliver the required parameters at the off-design point also as it will not operate at the design point always. It was observed that the obtained mass flow rate, pressure ratio, and efficiency values are within the limits of the design specifications for the design and off-design points. Despite having different design inputs for the mentioned two points, they reveal similar flow characteristics in the general frame.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, computational fluid dynamics, design point, off-design point

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3991 Correlation Results Based on Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by in-situ and Ex-Situ Measurements as Indicators of Environmental Changes Due to the Fertilizer Industry

Authors: Nurin Amalina Widityani, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Twin Aji Kusumagiani, Eleonora Agustine


Fertilizer industry activities contribute to environmental changes. Changes to the environment became one of a few problems in this era of globalization. Parameters that can be seen as criteria to identify changes in the environment can be seen from the aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology. One aspect that can be assessed quickly and efficiently to describe environmental change is the aspect of physics, one of which is the value of magnetic susceptibility (χ). The rock magnetism method can be used as a proxy indicator of environmental changes, seen from the value of magnetic susceptibility. The rock magnetism method is based on magnetic susceptibility studies to measure and classify the degree of pollutant elements that cause changes in the environment. This research was conducted in the area around the fertilizer plant, with five coring points on each track, each coring point a depth of 15 cm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ measurements were carried out directly by using the SM30 tool by putting the tools on the soil surface at each measurement point and by that obtaining the value of the magnetic susceptibility. Meanwhile, ex-situ measurements are performed in the laboratory by using the Bartington MS2B tool’s susceptibility, which is done on a coring sample which is taken every 5 cm. In-situ measurement shows results that the value of magnetic susceptibility at the surface varies, with the lowest score on the second and fifth points with the -0.81 value and the highest value at the third point, with the score of 0,345. Ex-situ measurements can find out the variations of magnetic susceptibility values at each depth point of coring. At a depth of 0-5 cm, the value of the highest XLF = 494.8 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the third point, while the value of the lowest XLF = 187.1 (x10-8m³/kg) at first. At a depth of 6-10 cm, the highest value of the XLF was at the second point, which was 832.7 (x10-8m³/kg) while the lowest XLF is at the first point, at 211 (x10-8m³/kg). At a depth of 11-15 cm, the XLF’s highest value = 857.7 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the second point, whereas the value of the lowest XLF = 83.3 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the fifth point. Based on the in situ and exsit measurements, it can be seen that the highest magnetic susceptibility values from the surface samples are at the third point.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, fertilizer plant, Bartington MS2B, SM30

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3990 A Novel Computer-Generated Hologram (CGH) Achieved Scheme Generated from Point Cloud by Using a Lens Array

Authors: Wei-Na Li, Mei-Lan Piao, Nam Kim


We proposed a novel computer-generated hologram (CGH) achieved scheme, wherein the CGH is generated from a point cloud which is transformed by a mapping relationship of a series of elemental images captured from a real three-dimensional (3D) object by using a lens array. This scheme is composed of three procedures: mapping from elemental images to point cloud, hologram generation, and hologram display. A mapping method is figured out to achieve a virtual volume date (point cloud) from a series of elemental images. This mapping method consists of two steps. Firstly, the coordinate (x, y) pairs and its appearing number are calculated from the series of sub-images, which are generated from the elemental images. Secondly, a series of corresponding coordinates (x, y, z) are calculated from the elemental images. Then a hologram is generated from the volume data that is calculated by the previous two steps. Eventually, a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a green laser beam are utilized to display this hologram and reconstruct the original 3D object. In this paper, in order to show a more auto stereoscopic display of a real 3D object, we successfully obtained the actual depth data of every discrete point of the real 3D object, and overcame the inherent drawbacks of the depth camera by obtaining point cloud from the elemental images.

Keywords: elemental image, point cloud, computer-generated hologram (CGH), autostereoscopic display

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3989 Assessing an Instrument Usability: Response Interpolation and Scale Sensitivity

Authors: Betsy Ng, Seng Chee Tan, Choon Lang Quek, Peter Looker, Jaime Koh


The purpose of the present study was to determine the particular scale rating that stands out for an instrument. The instrument was designed to assess student perceptions of various learning environments, namely face-to-face, online and blended. The original instrument had a 5-point Likert items (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). Alternate versions were modified with a 6-point Likert scale and a bar scale rating. Participants consisted of undergraduates in a local university were involved in the usability testing of the instrument in an electronic setting. They were presented with the 5-point, 6-point and percentage-bar (100-point) scale ratings, in response to their perceptions of learning environments. The 5-point and 6-point Likert scales were presented in the form of radio button controls for each number, while the percentage-bar scale was presented with a sliding selection. Among these responses, 6-point Likert scale emerged to be the best overall. When participants were confronted with the 5-point items, they either chose 3 or 4, suggesting that data loss could occur due to the insensitivity of instrument. The insensitivity of instrument could be due to the discreet options, as evidenced by response interpolation. To avoid the constraint of discreet options, the percentage-bar scale rating was tested, but the participant responses were not well-interpolated. The bar scale might have provided a variety of responses without a constraint of a set of categorical options, but it seemed to reflect a lack of perceived and objective accuracy. The 6-point Likert scale was more likely to reflect a respondent’s perceived and objective accuracy as well as higher sensitivity. This finding supported the conclusion that 6-point Likert items provided a more accurate measure of the participant’s evaluation. The 5-point and bar scale ratings might not be accurately measuring the participants’ responses. This study highlighted the importance of the respondent’s perception of accuracy, respondent’s true evaluation, and the scale’s ease of use. Implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.

Keywords: usability, interpolation, sensitivity, Likert scales, accuracy

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3988 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA

Authors: Mohamed Amine Haraoubia, Abdelaziz Hamzaoui, Najib Essounbouli


The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic Controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.

Keywords: fuzzy logic controller, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, maximum power point, maximum power point tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3987 Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation

Authors: Chengming Li, Yong Yin, Peipei Guo, Xiaoli Liu


Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.

Keywords: POI, road network, selection method, spatial information expression, distribution pattern

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3986 On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas


Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.

Keywords: groundwater model, geostatistics, pilot point, parameterization step

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3985 Curve Designing Using an Approximating 4-Point C^2 Ternary Non-Stationary Subdivision Scheme

Authors: Muhammad Younis


A ternary 4-point approximating non-stationary subdivision scheme has been introduced that generates the family of $C^2$ limiting curves. The theory of asymptotic equivalence is being used to analyze the convergence and smoothness of the scheme. The comparison of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated using different examples with the existing 4-point ternary approximating schemes, which shows that the limit curves of the proposed scheme behave more pleasantly and can generate conic sections as well.

Keywords: ternary, non-stationary, approximation subdivision scheme, convergence and smoothness

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3984 Change Point Analysis in Average Ozone Layer Temperature Using Exponential Lomax Distribution

Authors: Amjad Abdullah, Amjad Yahya, Bushra Aljohani, Amani Alghamdi


Change point detection is an important part of data analysis. The presence of a change point refers to a significant change in the behavior of a time series. In this article, we examine the detection of multiple change points of parameters of the exponential Lomax distribution, which is broad and flexible compared with other distributions while fitting data. We used the Schwarz information criterion and binary segmentation to detect multiple change points in publicly available data on the average temperature in the ozone layer. The change points were successfully located.

Keywords: binary segmentation, change point, exponentialLomax distribution, information criterion

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