Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15356

Search results for: interior point methods

15356 Use the Null Space to Create Starting Point for Stochastic Programming

Authors: Ghussoun Al-Jeiroudi

Abstract:

Stochastic programming is one of the powerful technique which is used to solve real-life problems. Hence, the data of real-life problems is subject to significant uncertainty. Uncertainty is well studied and modeled by stochastic programming. Each day, problems become bigger and bigger and the need for a tool, which does deal with large scale problems, increase. Interior point method is a perfect tool to solve such problems. Interior point method is widely employed to solve the programs, which arise from stochastic programming. It is an iterative technique, so it is required a starting point. Well design starting point plays an important role in improving the convergence speed. In this paper, we propose a starting point for interior point method for multistage stochastic programming. Usually, the optimal solution of stage k+1 is used as starting point for the stage k. This point has the advantage of being close to the solution of the current program. However, it has a disadvantage; it is not in the feasible region of the current program. So, we suggest to take this point and modifying it. That is by adding to it a vector in the null space of the matrix of the unchanged constraints because the solution will change only in the null space of this matrix.

Keywords: interior point methods, stochastic programming, null space, starting points

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15355 Solving Linear Systems Involved in Convex Programming Problems

Authors: Yixun Shi

Abstract:

Many interior point methods for convex programming solve an (n+m)x(n+m)linear system in each iteration. Many implementations solve this system in each iteration by considering an equivalent mXm system (4) as listed in the paper, and thus the job is reduced into solving the system (4). However, the system(4) has to be solved exactly since otherwise the error would be entirely passed onto the last m equations of the original system. Often the Cholesky factorization is computed to obtain the exact solution of (4). One Cholesky factorization is to be done in every iteration, resulting in higher computational costs. In this paper, two iterative methods for solving linear systems using vector division are combined together and embedded into interior point methods. Instead of computing one Cholesky factorization in each iteration, it requires only one Cholesky factorization in the entire procedure, thus significantly reduces the amount of computation needed for solving the problem. Based on that, a hybrid algorithm for solving convex programming problems is proposed.

Keywords: convex programming, interior point method, linear systems, vector division

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15354 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao

Abstract:

The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

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15353 A Methodological Approach to the Betterment of the Retail Store's Interior Design: The Example of Dereboyu Street, Nicosia

Authors: Nazanin Reza Nejad, Kamil Guley

Abstract:

Shopping is one of the most entertaining activities of daily life. In parallel to this, the successful settings of the stores impress the customers and made it more appealing for the users. The design of the atmosphere is the language of the interior space, and this design directly affects users’ emotions and perceptions. One of the goals of interior design is to increase the quality of the designed space. A well-designed venue satisfies the user and ensures happiness and safety. Thus, customers are turned into frequent users of the store. Spaces without the right designs negatively influence the user. The accurate interior design of the stores becomes crucial at this point. This study aims to act as a guideline for the betterment of the interior design of a newly designed or already existing clothing store located on the shopping streets of the cities. In light of the relevant literature review, the most important point in interior store design is the design and ambiance factors and how these factors are used in the interior space of the stores. Within the scope of this study, 27 clothing stores located on Dereboyu, the largest shopping street in Nicosia, the capital of North Cyprus, were examined. The examined stores were grouped as brand stores and non-brand stores which sell products from different production sites. The observation regarding the interiors of the selected stores was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative research methods. The arrangements of the sub-functions in the stores were analyzed through various reading methods over the plan schemes and recorded images. The sub-functions of all examined stores are compared against the ambiance and design factors in the literature, and results were interpreted accordingly. At the end of the study, the differences among stores that belong to a brand with an identity and stores which have not yet established an identity were identified and compared. The results of the comparisons were used to offer implications for the betterment of the interior design on a future or already existing store on the street. Thus, the study was concluded to be a guideline for people interested in interior store design.

Keywords: atmosphere, ambiance factors, clothing store, identity, interior design

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15352 System Identification in Presence of Outliers

Authors: Chao Yu, Qing-Guo Wang, Dan Zhang

Abstract:

The outlier detection problem for dynamic systems is formulated as a matrix decomposition problem with low-rank, sparse matrices and further recast as a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem. A fast algorithm is presented to solve the resulting problem while keeping the solution matrix structure and it can greatly reduce the computational cost over the standard interior-point method. The computational burden is further reduced by proper construction of subsets of the raw data without violating low rank property of the involved matrix. The proposed method can make exact detection of outliers in case of no or little noise in output observations. In case of significant noise, a novel approach based on under-sampling with averaging is developed to denoise while retaining the saliency of outliers and so-filtered data enables successful outlier detection with the proposed method while the existing filtering methods fail. Use of recovered “clean” data from the proposed method can give much better parameter estimation compared with that based on the raw data.

Keywords: outlier detection, system identification, matrix decomposition, low-rank matrix, sparsity, semidefinite programming, interior-point methods, denoising

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15351 The Design, Control and Dynamic Performance of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Wind Power System

Authors: Olusegun Solomon

Abstract:

This paper describes the concept for the design and maximum power point tracking control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine system. Two design concepts are compared to outline the effect of magnet design on the performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous generator. An approximate model that includes the effect of core losses has been developed for the machine to simulate the dynamic performance of the wind energy system. An algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking control is included to describe the process for maximum power extraction.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous generator, wind power system, wind turbine

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15350 Solving Optimal Control of Semilinear Elliptic Variational Inequalities Obstacle Problems using Smoothing Functions

Authors: El Hassene Osmani, Mounir Haddou, Naceurdine Bensalem

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate optimal control problems governed by semilinear elliptic variational inequalities involving constraints on the state, and more precisely, the obstacle problem. We present a relaxed formulation for the problem using smoothing functions. Since we adopt a numerical point of view, we first relax the feasible domain of the problem, then using both mathematical programming methods and penalization methods, we get optimality conditions with smooth Lagrange multipliers. Some numerical experiments using IPOPT algorithm (Interior Point Optimizer) are presented to verify the efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: complementarity problem, IPOPT, Lagrange multipliers, mathematical programming, optimal control, smoothing methods, variationally inequalities

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15349 Research on Renovation of Existing Interior Space Based on Post Occupancy Evaluation: A Case Study of the Atrium Space of Zhejiang University Library in Hangzhou

Authors: Qin Dai

Abstract:

The renovation of existing interior space is big issue for architects in today’s China. However the traditional way of space renovation in China mostly focuses on the object itself, and the method also focuses on subjective level without the support of specific data. This research focuses the application of renovation of existing interior space based on post occupancy evaluation by a case study of a typical interior space. The research hopes to give a more scientific method of interior space renovation for architects and help promoting and guiding renovation practice. This research studies the post occupancy evaluation of the atrium space of Zhejiang University Library including subjective satisfaction and physical environmental satisfaction. The result provides necessary data support to conclude the design principles and strategies of renovation. Then the research uses simulation software to verify the availability of the strategy given based on the study. In conclusion, the research summarizes the application process of design methods of renovation of existing interior space based on the post-occupancy evaluation, and testifies to the practical significance of the renovation of existing interior space.

Keywords: existing interior space, physical environmental satisfaction, post occupancy evaluation, renovation of space, subjective satisfaction of space

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15348 ΕSW01: A Methodology for Approaching the Design of Interior Spaces

Authors: Eirini Krasaki

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of designing spaces in a consistently changing environment. Space is considered as a totality of forces that coexist in the same place. Forces form the identity of space and characterize the entities that coexist within the same totality. Interior space is considered as a totality of forces which develop within an envelope. This research focuses on the formation of the tripole space-forces-totality and studies the relation of this tripole to the interior space. The point of departure for this investigation has been set the historic center of Athens, a city center where the majority of building mass is unused. The objective of the study is to connect the development of interior spaces to the alterations of the conceptions that form the built environment. The research focuses on Evripidou street, an axis around which expand both commercial and residential centers. Along Evripidou street, three case studies elaborate: a) In case study 01, Evripidou street is examined as a megastructure in which totalities of interior spaces develop. b) In case study 02, a particular group of entities (polykatoikia) that expand in Evripidou street is investigated. c) In case study 03, a particular group of entities (apartment) that derives from a specific envelope is investigated. Throughout the studies and comparisons of different scales, a design methodology that addresses the design of interior space in relation to the dynamics of the built environment is evolved.

Keywords: methodology, research by design, interior, envelope, dynamics

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15347 The Influence of Interior Decoration on Customer's Perception of Hotels in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Enemuo, A. A. Onubuogu

Abstract:

This work evaluated the influence of interior of decoration on customer perception of hotels in Uyo Akwa Ibom State. Specifically the study identified the various interior decoration used in hotels in the study area, determined the interior decoration used in hotels that appeal to the customer more, ascertained the influence of interior decoration on the level of patronage in the hotel in the study area and suggested ways of improving the interior decoration of hotels in the study area for sustainability. The study was guided by four research questions and two hypotheses. It adopted survey research design; structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The samples for the study were four hundred (400) staff and managers from the various hotels in the study area. Data generated were analyzed using mean and standard deviation analyses of variance (ANOVA) derived from regression analyses to test the hypotheses. The result of the finding showed that satisfactory interior decoration has a positive influence on the sustainability of the hospitality establishments in Uyo. The hypothesis showed that there was a significant relationship between the gender perception on the influence of interior decoration in the hotel and significant relationship between the gender perceptions on the influence of interior decoration in the hotels. From the finding, it was recommended that the hotels should design interior decorative service delivery system which has an impact on customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry and practiced healthy decorative environment and increased customer satisfaction.

Keywords: influence, interior decoration, customer’s perception, hotels

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15346 On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas

Abstract:

Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.

Keywords: groundwater model, geostatistics, pilot point, parameterization step

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15345 The Importance of Contemporary Interior Design in today's Day and Age

Authors: Rabab Bamboat, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

Today, contemporary modular interior design components provide us the ease to rethink or change our spaces with flexibility. Specifically, contemporary design is perfect for all those people who feel the need to “change” to feel at home again. The variables such as color, furniture, furnishings, fixtures are some of the elements that are changed and re-furnished at periodic intervals. With contemporary interior design, one can customize the interiors to suit the respective personality and passions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to understand how contemporary interior design and its variables play an important role and should be applied while designing an interior space in today's time. Thus, helping us understand better the needs of people and what they would prefer whilst one keeps practicality and functionality in mind. Based on the analysis and extensive literature review, the study develops an understanding of how contemporary interior design should be applied in today's day and age, making living more practical easy but also stylish. The findings provide a more sustainable, functional, simple, and classy way of living while having customed furniture, color, art in an interior space. These variables provided solutions for effective ideation to support the functionality in a minimal and contemporary interior space. This concludes in providing a better understanding to the designers to incorporate a minimalist or contemporary lifestyle while keeping their requirements and other factors in mind.

Keywords: contemporary, minimal, practicality, personality

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15344 Comparison between the Conventional Methods and PSO Based MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Ramdan B. A. Koad, Ahmed F. Zobaa

Abstract:

Since the output characteristics of Photovoltaic (PV) system depends on the ambient temperature, solar radiation and load impedance, its maximum Power Point (MPP) is not constant. Under each condition PV module has a point at which it can produce its MPP. Therefore, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is needed to uphold the PV panel operating at its MPP. This paper presents comparative study between the conventional MPPT methods used in (PV) system: Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IncCond), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for (MPPT) of (PV) system. To evaluate the study, the proposed PSO MPPT is implemented on a DC-DC converter and has been compared with P&O and INcond methods in terms of their tracking speed, accuracy and performance by using the Matlab tool Simulink. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm is simple, and is superior to the P&O and IncCond methods.

Keywords: photovoltaic systems, maximum power point tracking, perturb and observe method, incremental conductance, methods and practical swarm optimization algorithm

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15343 Identification of the Interior Noise Sources of Rail Vehicles

Authors: Hyo-In Koh, Anders Nordborg, Alex Sievi, Chun-Kwon Park

Abstract:

The noise source for the interior room of the high speed train is constituted by the rolling contact between the wheel and the rail, aerodynamic noise and structure-borne sound generated through the vibrations of bogie, connection points to the carbody. Air-borne sound is radiated through the panels and structures into the interior room of the trains. The high-speed lines are constructed with slab track systems and many tunnels. The interior noise level and the frequency characteristics vary according to types of the track structure and the infrastructure. In this paper the main sound sources and the transfer paths are studied to find out the contribution characteristics of the sources to the interior noise of a high-speed rail vehicle. For the identification of the acoustic power of each parts of the rolling noise sources a calculation model of wheel/rail noise is developed and used. For the analysis of the transmission of the sources to the interior noise noise and vibration are measured during the operation of the vehicle. According to operation speeds, the mainly contributed sources and the paths could be analyzed. Results of the calculations on the source generation and the results of the measurement with a high-speed train are shown and discussed.

Keywords: rail vehicle, high-speed, interior noise, noise source

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15342 Methodology of Personalizing Interior Spaces in Public Libraries

Authors: Baharak Mousapour

Abstract:

Creating public spaces which are tailored for the specific demands of the individuals is one of the challenges for the contemporary interior designers. Improving the general knowledge as well as providing a forum for all walks of life to exploit is one of the objectives of a public library. In this regard, interior design in consistent with the demands of the individuals is of paramount importance. Seemingly, study spaces, in particular, those in close relation to the personalized sector, have proven to be challenging, according to the literature. To address this challenge, attributes of individuals, namely, perception of people from public spaces and their interactions with the so-called spaces, should be analyzed to provide interior designers with something to work on. This paper follows the analytic-descriptive research methodology by outlining case study libraries which have personalized public libraries with the investigation of the type of personalization as its primary objective and (I) recognition of physical schedule and the know-how of the spatial connection in indoor design of a library and (II) analysis of each personalized space in relation to other spaces of the library as its secondary objectives. The significance of the current research lies in the concept of personalization as one of the most recent methods of attracting people to libraries. Previous research exists in this regard, but the lack of data concerning personalization makes this topic worth investigating. Hence, this study aims to put forward approaches through real-case studies for the designers to deal with this concept.

Keywords: interior design, library, library design, personalization

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15341 The Paradox of Design Aesthetics and the Sustainable Design

Authors: Asena Demirci, Gozen Guner Aktaş, Nur Ayalp

Abstract:

Nature provides a living space for humans, also in contrast it is destroyed by humans for their personal needs and ambitions. For decreasing these damages against nature, solutions are started to generate and to develop. Moreover, precautions are implemented. After 1960s, especially when the ozone layer got harmed and got thinner by toxic substances coming from man made structures, environmental problems which effected human’s activities of daily living. Thus, this subject about environmental solutions and precautions is becoming a priority issue for scientists. Most of the environmental problems are caused by buildings and factories which are built without any concerns about protecting nature. This situation creates awareness about environmental issues and also the terms like sustainability, Renewable energy show up in building, Construction and architecture sectors to provide environmental protection. In this perspective, the design disciplines also should be respectful to nature and the sustainability. Designs which involve the features like sustainability, renewability and being ecologic have specialties to be less detrimental to the environment rather than the designs which do not involve. Furthermore, these designs produce their own energy for consuming, So they do not use the natural resources. They do not contain harmful substances and they are made of recyclable materials. Thus, they are becoming environmentally friendly structures. There is a common concern among designers about the issue of sustainable design. They believe that the idea of sustainability inhibits the creativity. All works of design resemble each other from the point of aesthetics and technological matters. In addition, there is a concern about design ethics which aesthetic designs cannot be accepted as a priority. For these reasons, there are few designs included the features of being eco-friendly and well-designed and also had design concerns around the world. Despite the other design disciplines, The concept of sustainability is getting more important each day in interior architecture and interior design. As it is known that human being spends 90 % of his life in interior spaces, The importance of that concept in interior spaces is obvious. Aesthetic is another vital concern in interior space design also. Most of the time sustainable materials and sustainable interior design applications conflicts with personal aesthetic parameters. This study aims to discuss the great paradox between the design aesthetic and the sustainable design. Does the sustainable approach in interior design disturbs the design aesthetic? This is one of the most popular questions that have been discussed for a while. With this paper this question will be evaluated with a case study which analyzes the aesthetic perceptions and preferences of the users and designers in sustainable interior spaces.

Keywords: aesthetics, interior design, sustainable design, sustainability

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15340 Interior Design Pedagogy in the 21st Century: Personalised Design Process

Authors: Roba Zakariah Shaheen

Abstract:

In the 21st-century Interior, design pedagogy has developed rapidly due to social and economical factors. Socially, this paper presents research findings that shows a significant relationship between educators and students in interior design education. It shows that students’ personal traits, design process, and thinking process are significantly interrelated. Constructively, this paper presented how personal traits can guide educators in the interior design education domain to develop students’ thinking process. In the same time, it demonstrated how students should use their own personal traits to create their own design process. Constructivism was the theory underneath this research, as it supports the grounded theory, which is the methodological approach of this research. Moreover, Mayer’s Briggs Type Indicator strategy was used to investigate the personality traits scientifically, as a psychological strategy that related to cognitive ability. Conclusions from this research strongly recommends that educators and students should utilize their personal traits to foster interior design education.

Keywords: interior design, pedagogy, constructivism, grounded theory, personality traits, creativity

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15339 Alternative General Formula to Estimate and Test Influences of Early Diagnosis on Cancer Survival

Authors: Li Yin, Xiaoqin Wang

Abstract:

Background and purpose: Cancer diagnosis is part of a complex stochastic process, in which patients' personal and social characteristics influence the choice of diagnosing methods, diagnosing methods, in turn, influence the initial assessment of cancer stage, the initial assessment, in turn, influences the choice of treating methods, and treating methods in turn influence cancer outcomes such as cancer survival. To evaluate diagnosing methods, one needs to estimate and test the causal effect of a regime of cancer diagnosis and treatments. Recently, Wang and Yin (Annals of statistics, 2020) derived a new general formula, which expresses these causal effects in terms of the point effects of treatments in single-point causal inference. As a result, it is possible to estimate and test these causal effects via point effects. The purpose of the work is to estimate and test causal effects under various regimes of cancer diagnosis and treatments via point effects. Challenges and solutions: The cancer stage has influences from earlier diagnosis as well as on subsequent treatments. As a consequence, it is highly difficult to estimate and test the causal effects via standard parameters, that is, the conditional survival given all stationary covariates, diagnosing methods, cancer stage and prognosis factors, treating methods. Instead of standard parameters, we use the point effects of cancer diagnosis and treatments to estimate and test causal effects under various regimes of cancer diagnosis and treatments. We are able to use familiar methods in the framework of single-point causal inference to accomplish the task. Achievements: we have applied this method to stomach cancer survival from a clinical study in Sweden. We have studied causal effects under various regimes, including the optimal regime of diagnosis and treatments and the effect moderation of the causal effect by age and gender.

Keywords: cancer diagnosis, causal effect, point effect, G-formula, sequential causal effect

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15338 The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park

Abstract:

Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development

Keywords: automotive interior material, sound absorbing, optimization design, nonwoven fabric

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15337 Impact Position Method Based on Distributed Structure Multi-Agent Coordination with JADE

Authors: YU Kaijun, Liang Dong, Zhang Yarong, Jin Zhenzhou, Yang Zhaobao

Abstract:

For the impact monitoring of distributed structures, the traditional positioning methods are based on the time difference, which includes the four-point arc positioning method and the triangulation positioning method. But in the actual operation, these two methods have errors. In this paper, the Multi-Agent Blackboard Coordination Principle is used to combine the two methods. Fusion steps: (1) The four-point arc locating agent calculates the initial point and records it to the Blackboard Module.(2) The triangulation agent gets its initial parameters by accessing the initial point.(3) The triangulation agent constantly accesses the blackboard module to update its initial parameters, and it also logs its calculated point into the blackboard.(4) When the subsequent calculation point and the initial calculation point are within the allowable error, the whole coordination fusion process is finished. This paper presents a Multi-Agent collaboration method whose agent framework is JADE. The JADE platform consists of several agent containers, with the agent running in each container. Because of the perfect management and debugging tools of the JADE, it is very convenient to deal with complex data in a large structure. Finally, based on the data in Jade, the results show that the impact location method based on Multi-Agent coordination fusion can reduce the error of the two methods.

Keywords: impact monitoring, structural health monitoring(SHM), multi-agent system(MAS), black-board coordination, JADE

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15336 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation

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15335 Measuring Sustainable Interior Design

Authors: Iman Ibrahim

Abstract:

The interest of this paper is to review the sustainability measuring tools in Interior Design in UAE. To examine the ability of creating sustainable interior designed buildings satisfying the community social culture needs related to the world eco systems and how much it’s affected by humans, as the research will focus on sustainability as a multi-dimensional concept including environmental, social and economic dimensions. The aim of this research is to reach the most suitable sustainable rating method criteria for buildings in UAE, in a trial to develop it to match the community culture. Developing such criteria is gaining significance in UAE as a result of increased awareness of the environmental, economic and social issues. This will allow an exploration of the suitable criteria for developing a sustainable rating method for buildings in UAE. The final research findings will be presented as suitable criteria for developing a sustainable building assessment method for UAE in terms of environmental, economic, social and cultural perspectives.

Keywords: rating methods, sustainability tools, UAE, local conditions

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15334 Real-Time Path Planning for Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Improved Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Iterative Trajectory Optimization

Authors: A. Ramalho, L. Romeiro, R. Ventura, A. Suleman

Abstract:

A real-time path planning framework for Unmanned Air Vehicles, and in particular multi-rotors is proposed. The framework is designed to provide feasible trajectories from the current UAV position to a goal state, taking into account constraints such as obstacle avoidance, problem kinematics, and vehicle limitations such as maximum speed and maximum acceleration. The framework computes feasible paths online, allowing to avoid new, unknown, dynamic obstacles without fully re-computing the trajectory. These features are achieved using an iterative process in which the robot computes and optimizes the trajectory while performing the mission objectives. A first trajectory is computed using a modified Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, that provides trajectories that respect a maximum curvature constraint. The trajectory optimization is accomplished using the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT) as a solver. The framework has proven to be able to compute a trajectory and optimize to a locally optimal with computational efficiency making it feasible for real-time operations.

Keywords: interior point optimization, multi-rotors, online path planning, rapidly exploring random trees, trajectory optimization

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15333 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: distribution system, loss, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method

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15332 Topology Optimization of the Interior Structures of Beams under Various Load and Support Conditions with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Method

Authors: Omer Oral, Y. Emre Yilmaz

Abstract:

Topology optimization is an approach that optimizes material distribution within a given design space for a certain load and boundary conditions by providing performance goals. It uses various restrictions such as boundary conditions, set of loads, and constraints to maximize the performance of the system. It is different than size and shape optimization methods, but it reserves some features of both methods. In this study, interior structures of the parts were optimized by using SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) method. The volume of the part was preassigned parameter and minimum deflection was the objective function. The basic idea behind the theory was considered, and different methods were discussed. Rhinoceros 3D design tool was used with Grasshopper and TopOpt plugins to create and optimize parts. A Grasshopper algorithm was designed and tested for different beams, set of arbitrary located forces and support types such as pinned, fixed, etc. Finally, 2.5D shapes were obtained and verified by observing the changes in density function.

Keywords: Grasshopper, lattice structure, microstructures, Rhinoceros, solid isotropic material with penalization method, TopOpt, topology optimization

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15331 An Optimization Model for Maximum Clique Problem Based on Semidefinite Programming

Authors: Derkaoui Orkia, Lehireche Ahmed

Abstract:

The topic of this article is to exploring the potentialities of a powerful optimization technique, namely Semidefinite Programming, for solving NP-hard problems. This approach provides tight relaxations of combinatorial and quadratic problems. In this work, we solve the maximum clique problem using this relaxation. The clique problem is the computational problem of finding cliques in a graph. It is widely acknowledged for its many applications in real-world problems. The numerical results show that it is possible to find a maximum clique in polynomial time, using an algorithm based on semidefinite programming. We implement a primal-dual interior points algorithm to solve this problem based on semidefinite programming. The semidefinite relaxation of this problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: semidefinite programming, maximum clique problem, primal-dual interior point method, relaxation

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15330 Comparative Evaluation of EBT3 Film Dosimetry Using Flat Bad Scanner, Densitometer and Spectrophotometer Methods and Its Applications in Radiotherapy

Authors: K. Khaerunnisa, D. Ryangga, S. A. Pawiro

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, film dosimetry has become a tool which is used in various radiotherapy modalities, either for clinical quality assurance (QA) or dose verification. The response of the film to irradiation is usually expressed in optical density (OD) or net optical density (netOD). While the film's response to radiation is not linear, then the use of film as a dosimeter must go through a calibration process. This study aimed to compare the function of the calibration curve of various measurement methods with various densitometer, using a flat bad scanner, point densitometer and spectrophotometer. For every response function, a radichromic film calibration curve is generated from each method by performing accuracy, precision and sensitivity analysis. netOD is obtained by measuring changes in the optical density (OD) of the film before irradiation and after irradiation when using a film scanner if it uses ImageJ to extract the pixel value of the film on the red channel of three channels (RGB), calculate the change in OD before and after irradiation when using a point densitometer, and calculate changes in absorbance before and after irradiation when using a spectrophotometer. the results showed that the three calibration methods gave readings with a netOD precision of doses below 3% for the uncertainty value of 1σ (one sigma). while the sensitivity of all three methods has the same trend in responding to film readings against radiation, it has a different magnitude of sensitivity. while the accuracy of the three methods provides readings below 3% for doses above 100 cGy and 200 cGy, but for doses below 100 cGy found above 3% when using point densitometers and spectrophotometers. when all three methods are used for clinical implementation, the results of the study show accuracy and precision below 2% for the use of scanners and spectrophotometers and above 3% for precision and accuracy when using point densitometers.

Keywords: Callibration Methods, Film Dosimetry EBT3, Flat Bad Scanner, Densitomete, Spectrophotometer

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15329 Development of a Multi-Factorial Instrument for Accident Analysis Based on Systemic Methods

Authors: C. V. Pietreanu, S. E. Zaharia, C. Dinu

Abstract:

The present research is built on three major pillars, commencing by making some considerations on accident investigation methods and pointing out both defining aspects and differences between linear and non-linear analysis. The traditional linear focus on accident analysis describes accidents as a sequence of events, while the latest systemic models outline interdependencies between different factors and define the processes evolution related to a specific (normal) situation. Linear and non-linear accident analysis methods have specific limitations, so the second point of interest is mirrored by the aim to discover the drawbacks of systemic models which becomes a starting point for developing new directions to identify risks or data closer to the cause of incidents/accidents. Since communication represents a critical issue in the interaction of human factor and has been proved to be the answer of the problems made by possible breakdowns in different communication procedures, from this focus point, on the third pylon a new error-modeling instrument suitable for risk assessment/accident analysis will be elaborated.

Keywords: accident analysis, multi-factorial error modeling, risk, systemic methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
15328 Impact of Blended Learning in Interior Architecture Programs in Academia: A Case Study of Arcora Garage Academy from Turkey

Authors: Arzu Firlarer, Duygu Gocmen, Gokhan Uysal

Abstract:

There is currently a growing trend among universities towards blended learning. Blended learning is becoming increasingly important in higher education, with the aims of better accomplishing course learning objectives, meeting students’ changing needs and promoting effective learning both in a theoretical and practical dimension like interior architecture discipline. However, the practical dimension of the discipline cannot be supported in the university environment. During the undergraduate program, the practical training which is tried to be supported by two different internship programs cannot fully meet the requirements of the blended learning. The lack of education program frequently expressed by our graduates and employers is revealed in the practical knowledge and skills dimension of the profession. After a series of meetings for curriculum studies, interviews with the chambers of profession, meetings with interior architects, a gap between the theoretical and practical training modules is seen as a problem in all interior architecture departments. It is thought that this gap can be solved by a new education model which is formed by the cooperation of University-Industry in the concept of blended learning. In this context, it is considered that theoretical and applied knowledge accumulation can be provided by the creation of industry-supported educational environments at the university. In the application process of the Interior Architecture discipline, the use of materials and technical competence will only be possible with the cooperation of industry and participation of students in the production/manufacture processes as observers and practitioners. Wood manufacturing is an important part of interior architecture applications. Wood productions is a sustainable structural process where production details, material knowledge, and process details can be observed in the most effective way. From this point of view, after theoretical training about wooden materials, wood applications and production processes are given to the students, practical training for production/manufacture planning is supported by active participation and observation in the processes. With this blended model, we aimed to develop a training model in which theoretical and practical knowledge related to the production of wood works will be conveyed in a meaningful, lasting way by means of university-industry cooperation. The project is carried out in Ankara with Arcora Architecture and Furniture Company and Başkent University Department of Interior Design where university-industry cooperation is realized. Within the scope of the project, every week the video of that week’s lecture is recorded and prepared to be disseminated by digital medias such as Udemy. In this sense, the program is not only developed by the project participants, but also other institutions and people who are trained and practiced in the field of design. Both academicians from University and at least 15-year experienced craftsmen in the wood metal and dye sectors are preparing new training reference documents for interior architecture undergraduate programs. These reference documents will be a model for other Interior Architecture departments of the universities and will be used for creating an online education module.

Keywords: blended learning, interior design, sustainable training, effective learning.

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
15327 Curvature Based-Methods for Automatic Coarse and Fine Registration in Dimensional Metrology

Authors: Rindra Rantoson, Hichem Nouira, Nabil Anwer, Charyar Mehdi-Souzani

Abstract:

Multiple measurements by means of various data acquisition systems are generally required to measure the shape of freeform workpieces for accuracy, reliability and holisticity. The obtained data are aligned and fused into a common coordinate system within a registration technique involving coarse and fine registrations. Standardized iterative methods have been established for fine registration such as Iterative Closest Points (ICP) and its variants. For coarse registration, no conventional method has been adopted yet despite a significant number of techniques which have been developed in the literature to supply an automatic rough matching between data sets. Two main issues are addressed in this paper: the coarse registration and the fine registration. For coarse registration, two novel automated methods based on the exploitation of discrete curvatures are presented: an enhanced Hough Transformation (HT) and an improved Ransac Transformation. The use of curvature features in both methods aims to reduce computational cost. For fine registration, a new variant of ICP method is proposed in order to reduce registration error using curvature parameters. A specific distance considering the curvature similarity has been combined with Euclidean distance to define the distance criterion used for correspondences searching. Additionally, the objective function has been improved by combining the point-to-point (P-P) minimization and the point-to-plane (P-Pl) minimization with automatic weights. These ones are determined from the preliminary calculated curvature features at each point of the workpiece surface. The algorithms are applied on simulated and real data performed by a computer tomography (CT) system. The obtained results reveal the benefit of the proposed novel curvature-based registration methods.

Keywords: discrete curvature, RANSAC transformation, hough transformation, coarse registration, ICP variant, point-to-point and point-to-plane minimization combination, computer tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 364