Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5942

Search results for: surface reconstruction

5942 Towards Automated Remanufacturing of Marine and Offshore Engineering Components

Authors: Aprilia, Wei Liang Keith Nguyen, Shu Beng Tor, Gerald Gim Lee Seet, Chee Kai Chua

Abstract:

Automated remanufacturing process is of great interest in today’s marine and offshore industry. Most of the current remanufacturing processes are carried out manually and hence they are error prone, labour-intensive and costly. In this paper, a conceptual framework for automated remanufacturing is presented. This framework involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization, adaptive surface reconstruction, additive manufacturing and machining operation. Each operation is operated and interconnected automatically as one system. The feasibility of adaptive surface reconstruction on marine and offshore engineering components is also discussed. Several engineering components were evaluated and the results showed that this proposed system is feasible. Conclusions are drawn and further research work is discussed.

Keywords: adaptive surface reconstruction, automated remanufacturing, automatic repair, reverse engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5941 Multiresolution Mesh Blending for Surface Detail Reconstruction

Authors: Honorio Salmeron Valdivieso, Andy Keane, David Toal

Abstract:

In the area of mechanical reverse engineering, processes often encounter difficulties capturing small, highly localized surface information. This could be the case if a physical turbine was 3D scanned for lifecycle management or robust design purposes, with interest on eroded areas or scratched coating. The limitation partly is due to insufficient automated frameworks for handling -localized - surface information during the reverse engineering pipeline. We have developed a tool for blending surface patches with arbitrary irregularities into a base body (e.g. a CAD solid). The approach aims to transfer small surface features while preserving their shape and relative placement by using a multi-resolution scheme and rigid deformations. Automating this process enables the inclusion of outsourced surface information in CAD models, including samples prepared in mesh handling software, or raw scan information discarded in the early stages of reverse engineering reconstruction.

Keywords: application lifecycle management, multiresolution deformation, reverse engineering, robust design, surface blending

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
5940 3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization

Authors: Mohamed Othmani, Yassine Khlifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.

Keywords: 3d object, optimization, parametrization, polywog wavelets, reconstruction, wavelet networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
5939 A Fast and Robust Protocol for Reconstruction and Re-Enactment of Historical Sites

Authors: Sanaa I. Abu Alasal, Madleen M. Esbeih, Eman R. Fayyad, Rami S. Gharaibeh, Mostafa Z. Ali, Ahmed A. Freewan, Monther M. Jamhawi

Abstract:

This research proposes a novel reconstruction protocol for restoring missing surfaces and low-quality edges and shapes in photos of artifacts at historical sites. The protocol starts with the extraction of a cloud of points. This extraction process is based on four subordinate algorithms, which differ in the robustness and amount of resultant. Moreover, they use different -but complementary- accuracy to some related features and to the way they build a quality mesh. The performance of our proposed protocol is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms and toolkits. The statistical analysis shows that our algorithm significantly outperforms its rivals in the resultant quality of its object files used to reconstruct the desired model.

Keywords: meshes, point clouds, surface reconstruction protocols, 3D reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
5938 Towards a Robust Patch Based Multi-View Stereo Technique for Textureless and Occluded 3D Reconstruction

Authors: Ben Haines, Li Bai

Abstract:

Patch based reconstruction methods have been and still are one of the top performing approaches to 3D reconstruction to date. Their local approach to refining the position and orientation of a patch, free of global minimisation and independent of surface smoothness, make patch based methods extremely powerful in recovering fine grained detail of an objects surface. However, patch based approaches still fail to faithfully reconstruct textureless or highly occluded surface regions thus though performing well under lab conditions, deteriorate in industrial or real world situations. They are also computationally expensive. Current patch based methods generate point clouds with holes in texturesless or occluded regions that require expensive energy minimisation techniques to fill and interpolate a high fidelity reconstruction. Such shortcomings hinder the adaptation of the methods for industrial applications where object surfaces are often highly textureless and the speed of reconstruction is an important factor. This paper presents on-going work towards a multi-resolution approach to address the problems, utilizing particle swarm optimisation to reconstruct high fidelity geometry, and increasing robustness to textureless features through an adapted approach to the normalised cross correlation. The work also aims to speed up the reconstruction using advances in GPU technologies and remove the need for costly initialization and expansion. Through the combination of these enhancements, it is the intention of this work to create denser patch clouds even in textureless regions within a reasonable time. Initial results show the potential of such an approach to construct denser point clouds with a comparable accuracy to that of the current top-performing algorithms.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, multiview stereo, particle swarm optimisation, photo consistency

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
5937 Surface Induced Alteration of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina

Authors: A. Katsman, L. Bloch, Y. Etinger, Y. Kauffmann, B. Pokroy

Abstract:

Various nanosized amorphous alumina thin films in the range of (2.4 - 63.1) nm were deposited onto amorphous carbon and amorphous Si3N4 membrane grids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to probe the size effect on the short range order and the amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature. It was found that the short-range order changes as a function of size: the fraction of tetrahedral Al sites is greater in thinner amorphous films. This result correlates with the change of amorphous alumina density with the film thickness demonstrated by the reflectivity experiments: the thinner amorphous films have the less density. These effects are discussed in terms of surface reconstruction of the amorphous alumina films. The average atomic binding energy in the thin film layer decreases with decease of the thickness, while the average O-Al interatomic distance increases. The reconstruction of amorphous alumina is induced by the surface reconstruction, and the short range order changes being dependent on the density. Decrease of the surface energy during reconstruction is the driving force of the alumina reconstruction (density change) followed by relaxation process (short range order change). The amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature measured by DSC rises with the decrease in thickness from 997.6°C for 13.9 nm to 1020.4 °C for 2.7 nm thick. This effect was attributed to the different film densities: formation of nanovoids preceding and accompanying crystallization process influences the crystallization rate, and by these means, the temperature of crystallization peak.

Keywords: amorphous alumina, density, short range order, size effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
5936 Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud

Authors: Faisal Zaman, Ya Ping Wong, Boon Yian Ng

Abstract:

Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.

Keywords: point preprocessing, outlier removal, surface reconstruction, kernel density estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5935 Digital Reconstruction of Museum's Statue Using 3D Scanner for Cultural Preservation in Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Zaini, F. Muhammad Reza Hadafi, Surya Sumpeno, Muhtadin, Mochamad Hariadi

Abstract:

The lack of information about museum’s collection reduces the number of visits of museum. Museum’s revitalization is an urgent activity to increase the number of visits. The research's roadmap is building a web-based application that visualizes museum in the virtual form including museum's statue reconstruction in the form of 3D. This paper describes implementation of three-dimensional model reconstruction method based on light-strip pattern on the museum statue using 3D scanner. Noise removal, alignment, meshing and refinement model's processes is implemented to get a better 3D object reconstruction. Model’s texture derives from surface texture mapping between object's images with reconstructed 3D model. Accuracy test of dimension of the model is measured by calculating relative error of virtual model dimension compared against the original object. The result is realistic three-dimensional model textured with relative error around 4.3% to 5.8%.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, light pattern structure, texture mapping, museum

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
5934 Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Human Knee Joint

Authors: R. Ranjith Kumar

Abstract:

Computer modeling and simulation of human movement is playing an important role in sports and rehabilitation. Accurate modeling and analysis of human knee join is more complex because of complicated structure whose geometry is not easily to represent by a solid model. As part of this project, from the number of CT scan images of human knee join surface reconstruction is carried out using 3D slicer software, an open source software. From this surface reconstruction model, using mesh lab (another open source software) triangular meshes are created on reconstructed surface. This final triangular mesh model is imported to Solid Works, 3D mechanical CAD modeling software. Finally this CAD model is imported to ABAQUS, finite element analysis software for analyzing the knee joints. The results obtained are encouraging and provides an accurate way of modeling and analysis of biological parts without human intervention.

Keywords: solid works, CATIA, Pro-e, CAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5933 Sparse-View CT Reconstruction Based on Nonconvex L1 − L2 Regularizations

Authors: Ali Pour Yazdanpanah, Farideh Foroozandeh Shahraki, Emma Regentova

Abstract:

The reconstruction from sparse-view projections is one of important problems in computed tomography (CT) limited by the availability or feasibility of obtaining of a large number of projections. Traditionally, convex regularizers have been exploited to improve the reconstruction quality in sparse-view CT, and the convex constraint in those problems leads to an easy optimization process. However, convex regularizers often result in a biased approximation and inaccurate reconstruction in CT problems. Here, we present a nonconvex, Lipschitz continuous and non-smooth regularization model. The CT reconstruction is formulated as a nonconvex constrained L1 − L2 minimization problem and solved through a difference of convex algorithm and alternating direction of multiplier method which generates a better result than L0 or L1 regularizers in the CT reconstruction. We compare our method with previously reported high performance methods which use convex regularizers such as TV, wavelet, curvelet, and curvelet+TV (CTV) on the test phantom images. The results show that there are benefits in using the nonconvex regularizer in the sparse-view CT reconstruction.

Keywords: computed tomography, non-convex, sparse-view reconstruction, L1-L2 minimization, difference of convex functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
5932 Synthetic Dermal Template Use in the Reconstruction of a Chronic Scalp Wound

Authors: Stephanie Cornish

Abstract:

The use of synthetic dermal templates, also known as dermal matrices, such as PolyNovo® Biodegradable Temporising Matrix (BTM), has been well established in the reconstruction of acute wounds with a full thickness defect of the skin. Its use has become common place in the treatment of full thickness burns and is not unfamiliar in the realm of necrotising fasciitis, free flap donor site reconstruction, and the management of acute traumatic wounds. However, the use of dermal templates for more chronic wounds is rare. The authors present the successful use of BTM in the reconstruction of a chronic scalp wound following the excision of a malignancy and multiple previous failed attempts at repair, thus demonstrating the potential for an increased scope of use.

Keywords: dermal template, BTM, chronic, scalp wound, reconstruction

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5931 Development of a Few-View Computed Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm Using Multi-Directional Total Variation

Authors: Chia Jui Hsieh, Jyh Cheng Chen, Chih Wei Kuo, Ruei Teng Wang, Woei Chyn Chu

Abstract:

Compressed sensing (CS) based computed tomographic (CT) reconstruction algorithm utilizes total variation (TV) to transform CT image into sparse domain and minimizes L1-norm of sparse image for reconstruction. Different from the traditional CS based reconstruction which only calculates x-coordinate and y-coordinate TV to transform CT images into sparse domain, we propose a multi-directional TV to transform tomographic image into sparse domain for low-dose reconstruction. Our method considers all possible directions of TV calculations around a pixel, so the sparse transform for CS based reconstruction is more accurate. In 2D CT reconstruction, we use eight-directional TV to transform CT image into sparse domain. Furthermore, we also use 26-directional TV for 3D reconstruction. This multi-directional sparse transform method makes CS based reconstruction algorithm more powerful to reduce noise and increase image quality. To validate and evaluate the performance of this multi-directional sparse transform method, we use both Shepp-Logan phantom and a head phantom as the targets for reconstruction with the corresponding simulated sparse projection data (angular sampling interval is 5 deg and 6 deg, respectively). From the results, the multi-directional TV method can reconstruct images with relatively less artifacts compared with traditional CS based reconstruction algorithm which only calculates x-coordinate and y-coordinate TV. We also choose RMSE, PSNR, UQI to be the parameters for quantitative analysis. From the results of quantitative analysis, no matter which parameter is calculated, the multi-directional TV method, which we proposed, is better.

Keywords: compressed sensing (CS), low-dose CT reconstruction, total variation (TV), multi-directional gradient operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5930 Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake

Authors: Ikaputra

Abstract:

This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction Post Disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in general post disaster reconstruction. The discussion will begin by addressing issues on House Reconstruction Post Disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; Social Capital Post Java Earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong—community mutual self-help, and Approach and Strategy towards Community-based Reconstruction.

Keywords: community empowerment, Gotong Royong, post disaster, reconstruction, social capital, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5929 Operative Tips of Strattice Based Breast Reconstruction

Authors: Cho Ee Ng, Hazem Khout, Tarannum Fasih

Abstract:

Acellular dermal matrices are increasingly used to reinforce the lower pole of the breast during implant breast reconstruction. There is no standard technique described in literature for the use of this product. In this article, we share our operative method of fixation.

Keywords: strattice, acellular dermal matric, breast reconstruction, implant

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
5928 3D Human Face Reconstruction in Unstable Conditions

Authors: Xiaoyuan Suo

Abstract:

3D object reconstruction is a broad research area within the computer vision field involving many stages and still open problems. One of the existing challenges in this field lies with micromotion, such as the facial expressions on the appearance of the human or animal face. Similar literatures in this field focuses on 3D reconstruction in stable conditions such as an existing image or photos taken in a rather static environment, while the purpose of this work is to discuss a flexible scan system using multiple cameras that can correctly reconstruct 3D stable and moving objects -- human face with expression in particular. Further, a mathematical model is proposed at the end of this literature to automate the 3D object reconstruction process. The reconstruction process takes several stages. Firstly, a set of simple 2D lines would be projected onto the object and hence a set of uneven curvy lines can be obtained, which represents the 3D numerical data of the surface. The lines and their shapes will help to identify object’s 3D construction in pixels. With the two-recorded angles and their distance from the camera, a simple mathematical calculation would give the resulting coordinate of each projected line in an absolute 3D space. This proposed research will benefit many practical areas, including but not limited to biometric identification, authentications, cybersecurity, preservation of cultural heritage, drama acting especially those with rapid and complex facial gestures, and many others. Specifically, this will (I) provide a brief survey of comparable techniques existing in this field. (II) discuss a set of specialized methodologies or algorithms for effective reconstruction of 3D objects. (III)implement, and testing the developed methodologies. (IV) verify findings with data collected from experiments. (V) conclude with lessons learned and final thoughts.

Keywords: 3D photogrammetry, 3D object reconstruction, facial expression recognition, facial recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
5927 The Impact of COVID-19 on Reconstructive Breast Surgery and Future Prospective

Authors: Amenah Galo, Mohammed Farid, Kareem Alsharkawy, Robert Warner, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Haitham Khalil, Ruth Waters

Abstract:

Introduction: The cessation of elective surgery, particularly breast reconstruction, continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The restructuring of medical services and staff redeployment severely affected the ability to return to normality for surgical specialties. The aim of this study is to determine the decline in breast reconstruction affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary center. Methods: A retrospective review of breast reconstruction cases (autologous, non-autologous) or mastectomies Pre- COVID (March 2019-March 2020) and during COVID (March 2020- March 2021) at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, were collated. Data included patient demographics, BMI, previous and recent reconstruction, length of hospital stay, and mastectomies, including risk-reducing. Results: The number of patients who had breast reconstruction was significantly lower during COVID (n=62) compared to pre-COVID (n=199). The mean age (pre-COVID 51, COVID 59 years), BMI (Pre-COVID and COVID = 27), previous reconstruction (pre-COVID n=101, 51%, COVID n=33, 53%) and length hospital stay was less during COVID (3 days) compared to Pre-COVID (4 days). The proportion of risk-reducing mastectomies and reconstruction during COVID (32%, n=20) were higher than pre-COVID (21%, n=41). A higher proportion rate of autologous reconstruction (DIEP 56, TRAM 17) Pre-COVID compared to COVID (DIEP 22, TRAM 7). Implant reconstructions were higher during COVID (n=19, 31%) than pre-COVID (n=31, 16%). Conclusion: The lack of regular provision for breast reconstruction continues to decline during the pandemic. This will have a tremendous impact on waiting lists without a timeline for reconstruction to offer patients. An international survey highlights the disparities in offering breast reconstruction and strategies to rectify this issue.

Keywords: breast reconstruction, COVID-19 pandemic, mastectomy, autologous, implant

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
5926 Mean Shift-Based Preprocessing Methodology for Improved 3D Buildings Reconstruction

Authors: Nikolaos Vassilas, Theocharis Tsenoglou, Djamchid Ghazanfarpour

Abstract:

In this work we explore the capability of the mean shift algorithm as a powerful preprocessing tool for improving the quality of spatial data, acquired from airborne scanners, from densely built urban areas. On one hand, high resolution image data corrupted by noise caused by lossy compression techniques are appropriately smoothed while at the same time preserving the optical edges and, on the other, low resolution LiDAR data in the form of normalized Digital Surface Map (nDSM) is upsampled through the joint mean shift algorithm. Experiments on both the edge-preserving smoothing and upsampling capabilities using synthetic RGB-z data show that the mean shift algorithm is superior to bilateral filtering as well as to other classical smoothing and upsampling algorithms. Application of the proposed methodology for 3D reconstruction of buildings of a pilot region of Athens, Greece results in a significant visual improvement of the 3D building block model.

Keywords: 3D buildings reconstruction, data fusion, data upsampling, mean shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5925 Complex Technology of Virtual Reconstruction: The Case of Kazan Imperial University of XIX-Early XX Centuries

Authors: L. K. Karimova, K. I. Shariukova, A. A. Kirpichnikova, E. A. Razuvalova

Abstract:

This article deals with technology of virtual reconstruction of Kazan Imperial University of XIX - early XX centuries. The paper describes technologies of 3D-visualization of high-resolution models of objects of university space, creation of multi-agent system and connected with these objects organized database of historical sources, variants of use of technologies of immersion into the virtual environment.

Keywords: 3D-reconstruction, multi-agent system, database, university space, virtual reconstruction, virtual heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5924 Accidental Electrocution, Reconstruction of Events

Authors: Y. P. Raghavendra Babu

Abstract:

Electrocution is a common cause of morbidity and mortality as electricity is an indispensible part of today’s World. Deaths due to electrocution which are witnessed do not pose a problem at the manner and cause of death. However un-witnessed deaths can raise suspicion of manner of death. A case of fatal electrocution is reported here which was diagnosed to be accidental in manner with the help of reconstruction of events by proper investigation.

Keywords: electrocution, manner of death, reconstruction of events, health information

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
5923 Efficient High Fidelity Signal Reconstruction Based on Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks

Abstract:

This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide high fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals; these strategies circumvent the problem of exponentially increasing number of samples as the bit-depth is increased and hence are highly efficient. Specifically, the results indicate that the distribution of the intervals between samples is one of the key factors in the quality of signal reconstruction; including samples with short intervals do not improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction, whilst samples with large intervals lead to numerical instability. The proposed sampling method, termed reduced conventional level crossing (RCLC) sampling, exploits redundancy between samples to improve the efficiency of the sampling without compromising performance. A reconstruction technique is also proposed that enhances the numerical stability through linear interpolation of samples separated by large intervals. Interpolation is demonstrated to improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction in addition to the numerical stability. We further demonstrate that the RCLC and interpolation methods can give useful levels of signal recovery even if the average sampling rate is less than the Nyquist rate.

Keywords: level crossing sampling, numerical stability, speech processing, trigonometric polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
5922 The Effect of the Acquisition and Reconstruction Parameters in Quality of Spect Tomographic Images with Attenuation and Scatter Correction

Authors: N. Boutaghane, F. Z. Tounsi

Abstract:

Many physical and technological factors degrade the SPECT images, both qualitatively and quantitatively. For this, it is not always put into leading technological advances to improve the performance of tomographic gamma camera in terms of detection, collimation, reconstruction and correction of tomographic images methods. We have to master firstly the choice of various acquisition and reconstruction parameters, accessible to clinical cases and using the attenuation and scatter correction methods to always optimize quality image and minimized to the maximum dose received by the patient. In this work, an evaluation of qualitative and quantitative tomographic images is performed based on the acquisition parameters (counts per projection) and reconstruction parameters (filter type, associated cutoff frequency). In addition, methods for correcting physical effects such as attenuation and scatter degrading the image quality and preventing precise quantitative of the reconstructed slices are also presented. Two approaches of attenuation and scatter correction are implemented: the attenuation correction by CHANG method with a filtered back projection reconstruction algorithm and scatter correction by the subtraction JASZCZAK method. Our results are considered as such recommandation, which permits to determine the origin of the different artifacts observed both in quality control tests and in clinical images.

Keywords: attenuation, scatter, reconstruction filter, image quality, acquisition and reconstruction parameters, SPECT

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5921 Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light

Authors: Ashwani Kumar

Abstract:

Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.

Keywords: NIR light, tissue, blurring, Monte Carlo simulation

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5920 Impact of Obesity on Outcomes in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Adriana C. Panayi, Riaz A. Agha, Brady A. Sieber, Dennis P. Orgill

Abstract:

Background: Increased rates of both breast cancer and obesity have resulted in more women seeking breast reconstruction. These women may be at increased risk for perioperative complications. A systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes in obese women who have undergone breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Methods: Cochrane, PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases were screened and data was extracted from included studies. The clinical outcomes assessed were surgical complications, medical complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, reoperation rate and patient satisfaction. Results: 33 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and 29 provided enough data to be included in the meta-analysis (71368 patients, 20061 of which were obese). Obese women were 2.3 times more likely to experience surgical complications (95 percent CI 2.19 to 2.39; P < 0.00001), 2.8 times more likely to have medical complications (95 percent CI 2.41 to 3.26; P < 0.00001) and had a 1.9 times higher risk of reoperation (95 percent CI 1.75 to 2.07; P < 0.00001). The most common complication, wound dehiscence, was 2.5 times more likely in obese women (95 percent CI 1.80 to 3.52; P < 0.00001). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that obese women were more likely to experience surgical complications (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.22–2.52; P < 0.00001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that obesity increases the risk of complications in both implant and autologous reconstruction. Additional prospective and observational studies are needed to determine if weight reduction prior to reconstruction reduces the perioperative risks associated with obesity.

Keywords: autologous reconstruction, breast cancer, breast reconstruction, literature review, obesity, oncology, prosthetic reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5919 Surface Characterization of Zincblende and Wurtzite Semiconductors Using Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Hendradi Hardhienata, Tony Sumaryada, Sri Setyaningsih

Abstract:

Current progress in the field of nonlinear optics has enabled precise surface characterization in semiconductor materials. Nonlinear optical techniques are favorable due to their nondestructive measurement and ability to work in nonvacuum and ambient conditions. The advance of the bond hyperpolarizability models opens a wide range of nanoscale surface investigation including the possibility to detect molecular orientation at the surface of silicon and zincblende semiconductors, investigation of electric field induced second harmonic fields at the semiconductor interface, detection of surface impurities, and very recently, study surface defects such as twin boundary in wurtzite semiconductors. In this work, we show using nonlinear optical techniques, e.g. nonlinear bond models how arbitrary polarization of the incoming electric field in Rotational Anisotropy Spectroscopy experiments can provide more information regarding the origin of the nonlinear sources in zincblende and wurtzite semiconductor structure. In addition, using hyperpolarizability consideration, we describe how the nonlinear susceptibility tensor describing SHG can be well modelled using only few parameter because of the symmetry of the bonds. We also show how the third harmonic intensity feature shows considerable changes when the incoming field polarization angle is changed from s-polarized to p-polarized. We also propose a method how to investigate surface reconstruction and defects in wurtzite and zincblende structure at the nanoscale level.

Keywords: surface characterization, bond model, rotational anisotropy spectroscopy, effective hyperpolarizability

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
5918 Text Mining Analysis of the Reconstruction Plans after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Minami Ito, Akihiro Iijima

Abstract:

On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. It is important to build a sustainable society through the reconstruction process rather than simply restoring the infrastructure. To compare the goals of reconstruction plans of quake-stricken municipalities, Japanese language morphological analysis was performed by using text mining techniques. Frequently-used nouns were sorted into four main categories of “life”, “disaster prevention”, “economy”, and “harmony with environment”. Because Soma City is affected by nuclear accident, sentences tagged to “harmony with environment” tended to be frequent compared to the other municipalities. Results from cluster analysis and principle component analysis clearly indicated that the local government reinforces the efforts to reduce risks from radiation exposure as a top priority.

Keywords: eco-friendly reconstruction, harmony with environment, decontamination, nuclear disaster

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5917 The Voice Rehabilitation Program Following Ileocolon Flap Transfer for Voice Reconstruction after Laryngectomy

Authors: Chi-Wen Huang, Hung-Chi Chen

Abstract:

Total laryngectomy affects swallowing, speech functions and life quality in the head and neck cancer. Voice restoration plays an important role in social activities and communication. Several techniques have been developed for voice restoration and reported to improve the life quality. However, the rehabilitation program for voice reconstruction by using the ileocolon flap still unclear. A retrospective study was done, and the patients' data were drawn from the medical records between 2010 and 2016 who underwent voice reconstruction by ileocolon flap after laryngectomy. All of them were trained to swallow first; then, the voice rehabilitation was started. The outcome of voice was evaluated after 6 months using the 4-point scoring scale. In our result, 9.8% patients could give very clear voice so everyone could understand their speech, 61% patients could be understood well by families and friends, 20.2% patients could only talk with family, and 9% patients had difficulty to be understood. Moreover, the 57% patients did not need a second surgery, but in 43% patients voice was made clear by a second surgery. In this study, we demonstrated that the rehabilitation program after voice reconstruction with ileocolon flap for post-laryngectomy patients is important because the anatomical structure is different from the normal larynx.

Keywords: post-laryngectomy, ileocolon flap, rehabilitation, voice reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
5916 Debt Reconstruction, Career Development and Famers Household Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Yothin Sawangdee, Piyawat Katewongsa, Chutima Yousomboon, Kornkanok Pongpradit, Sakapas Saengchai, Phusit Khantikul

Abstract:

Debts reconstruction under some of moratorium projects is one of important method that highly benefits to both the Banks and farmers. The method can reduce probabilities for nonprofits loan. This paper discuss about debts reconstruction and career development training for farmers in Thailand between 2011 and 2013. The research designed is mix-method between quantitative survey and qualitative survey. Sample size for quantitative method is 1003 cases. Data gathering procedure is between October and December 2013. Main results affirmed that debts reconstruction is needed. And there are numerous benefits from farmers’ career development training. Many of farmers who attend field school activities able to bring knowledge learned to apply for the farms’ work. They can reduce production costs. Framers’ quality of life and their household well-being also improve. This program should apply in any countries where farmers have highly debts and highly risks for not return the debts.

Keywords: career development, debts reconstruction, farmers household well-being, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5915 The Customization of 3D Last Form Design Based on Weighted Blending

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Chu-Hsuan Lee, Rong-Qi Chen

Abstract:

When it comes to last, it is regarded as the critical foundation of shoe design and development. Not only the last relates to the comfort of shoes wearing but also it aids the production of shoe styling and manufacturing. In order to enhance the efficiency and application of last development, a computer aided methodology for customized last form designs is proposed in this study. The reverse engineering is mainly applied to the process of scanning for the last form. Then the minimum energy is used for the revision of surface continuity, the surface of the last is reconstructed with the feature curves of the scanned last. When the surface of a last is reconstructed, based on the foundation of the proposed last form reconstruction module, the weighted arithmetic mean method is applied to the calculation on the shape morphing which differs from the grading for the control mesh of last, and the algorithm of subdivision is used to create the surface of last mesh, thus the feet-fitting 3D last form of different sizes is generated from its original form feature with functions remained. Finally, the practicability of the proposed methodology is verified through later case studies.

Keywords: 3D last design, customization, reverse engineering, weighted morphing, shape blending

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
5914 Virtual and Visual Reconstructions in Museum Expositions

Authors: Ekaterina Razuvalova, Konstantin Rudenko

Abstract:

In this article the most successful examples of international visual and virtual reconstructions of historical and culture objects, which are based on informative and communicative technologies, are represented. 3D reconstructions can demonstrate outward appearance, visualize different hypothesis, connected to represented object. Virtual reality can give us any daytime and season, any century and environment. We can see how different people from different countries and different era lived; we can get different information about any object; we can see historical complexes in real city environment, which are damaged or vanished. These innovations confirm the fact, that 3D reconstruction is important in museum development. Considering the most interesting examples of visual and virtual reconstructions, we can notice, that visual reconstruction is a 3D image of different objects, historical complexes, buildings and phenomena. They are constant and we can see them only as momentary objects. And virtual reconstruction is some environment with its own time, rules and phenomena. These reconstructions are continuous; seasons, daytime and natural conditions can change there. They can demonstrate abilities of virtual world existence. In conclusion: new technologies give us opportunities to expand the boundaries of museum space, improve abilities of museum expositions, create emotional atmosphere of game immersion, which can interest visitor. Usage of network sources allows increasing the number of visitors and virtual reconstruction opportunities show creative side of museum business.

Keywords: computer technologies, historical reconstruction, museums, museum expositions, virtual reconstruction

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5913 Multimodal Direct Neural Network Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction

Authors: William Whiteley, Jens Gregor

Abstract:

In recent developments of direct neural network based positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction, two prominent architectures have emerged for converting measurement data into images: 1) networks that contain fully-connected layers; and 2) networks that primarily use a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. In this paper, we present a multi-modal direct PET reconstruction method called MDPET, which is a hybrid approach that combines the advantages of both types of networks. MDPET processes raw data in the form of sinograms and histo-images in concert with attenuation maps to produce high quality multi-slice PET images (e.g., 8x440x440). MDPET is trained on a large whole-body patient data set and evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively against target images reconstructed with the standard PET reconstruction benchmark of iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization. The results show that MDPET outperforms the best previously published direct neural network methods in measures of bias, signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity.

Keywords: deep learning, image reconstruction, machine learning, neural network, positron emission tomography

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