Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4329

Search results for: falling point of lubricant

4329 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain


The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

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4328 Effect of Realistic Lubricant Properties on Thermal Electrohydrodynamic Lubrication Behavior in Circular Contacts

Authors: Puneet Katyal, Punit Kumar


A great deal of efforts has been done in the field of thermal effects in electrohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) during the last five decades. The focus was primarily on the development of an efficient numerical scheme to deal with the computational challenges involved in the solution of TEHL model; however, some important aspects related to the accurate description of lubricant properties such as viscosity, rheology and thermal conductivity in EHL point contact analysis remain largely neglected. A few studies available in this regard are based upon highly complex mathematical models difficult to formulate and execute. Using a simplified thermal EHL model for point contacts, this work sheds some light on the importance of accurate characterization of the lubricant properties and demonstrates that the computed TEHL characteristics are highly sensitive to lubricant properties. It also emphasizes the use of appropriate mathematical models with experimentally determined parameters to account for correct lubricant behaviour.

Keywords: TEHL, shear thinning, rheology, conductivity

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4327 Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for ISO VG32 and VG46 Applications

Authors: M. Nuhu, M. S. Amina, A. H. Aminu, A. J. Abbas, N. Salahudeen, A. Z. Yusuf


Transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with the common polyol, trimethylolpropane (TMP) produced the TMP based ester which exhibits improved temperature properties. This paper discusses the physic-chemical properties of jatropha bio-lubricant base oil applicable for ISO VG32 and VG46 requirement. The catalyst employed for the JME was CaO synthesized in National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) that gives 100% conversion. The molar ratio of JME to TMP was 3.5:1 and the catalyst (NaOCH3) loading were found to be 0.8% of the weight of the total reactants. The final fractionated jatropha bio-lubricant base was found to contain 11.95% monoesters, 43.89% diesters and 44.16% triesters (desired product). In addition, it was found that the bio-lubricant base oil produced is comparable to the ISO VG46 commercial standards for light and industrial gears applications and other plant based bio-lubricant.

Keywords: biodegradability, methyl ester, pour point, transesterification, viscosity index

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4326 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh


Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity, wear

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4325 Tribological Behavior of Pongamia Oil Based Biodiesel Blended Lubricant at Different Load

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Amneesh Singla, Swapnil Bhurat


Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non toxic, and environmentally-friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of ponagamia biodiesel contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, Ponagamia oil based biodiesel were blended in the ratios 5, 10, and 20% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms was the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. The addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel with the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear rate during the test. It has been concluded that the PBO 5 and PBO 10 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil blend, sliding velocity, wear

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4324 Modeling of Oligomerization of Ethylene in a Falling film Reactor for the Production of Linear Alpha Olefins

Authors: Adil A. Mohammed, Seif-Eddeen K. Fateen, Tamer S. Ahmed, Tarek M. Moustafa


Falling film were widely used for gas-liquid absorption and reaction process. Modeling of falling film for oligomerization of ethylene reaction to linear alpha olefins is developed. Although there are many researchers discuss modeling of falling film in many processes, there has been no publish study the simulation of falling film for the oligomerization of ethylene reaction to produce linear alpha olefins. The Comsol multiphysics software was used to simulate the mass transfer with chemical reaction in falling film absorption process. The effect of concentration profile absorption of the products through falling thickness is discussed. The effect of catalyst concentration, catalyst/co-catalyst ratio, and temperature is also studied. For the effect of the temperature, as it increase the concentration of C4 increase. For catalyst concentration and catalyst/co-catalyst ratio as they increases the concentration of C4 increases, till it reached almost constant value.

Keywords: falling film, oligomerization, comsol mutiphysics, linear alpha olefins

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4323 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati


The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: disposal medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter

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4322 Development of Graph-Theoretic Model for Ranking Top of Rail Lubricants

Authors: Subhash Chandra Sharma, Mohammad Soleimani


Selection of the correct lubricant for the top of rail application is a complex process. In this paper, the selection of the proper lubricant for a Top-Of-Rail (TOR) lubrication system based on graph theory and matrix approach has been developed. Attributes influencing the selection process and their influence on each other has been represented through a digraph and an equivalent matrix. A matrix function which is called the Permanent Function is derived. By substituting the level of inherent contribution of the influencing parameters and their influence on each other qualitatively, a criterion called Suitability Index is derived. Based on these indices, lubricants can be ranked for their suitability. The proposed model can be useful for maintenance engineers in selecting the best lubricant for a TOR application. The proposed methodology is illustrated step–by-step through an example.

Keywords: lubricant selection, top of rail lubrication, graph-theory, Ranking of lubricants

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4321 Designing Self-Healing Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces for Corrosion Protection

Authors: Sami Khan, Kripa Varanasi


Corrosion is a widespread problem in several industries and developing surfaces that resist corrosion has been an area of interest since the last several decades. Superhydrophobic surfaces that combine hydrophobic coatings along with surface texture have been shown to improve corrosion resistance by creating voids filled with air that minimize the contact area between the corrosive liquid and the solid surface. However, these air voids can incorporate corrosive liquids over time, and any mechanical faults such as cracks can compromise the coating and provide pathways for corrosion. As such, there is a need for self-healing corrosion-resistance surfaces. In this work, the anti-corrosion properties of textured surfaces impregnated with a lubricant have been systematically studied. Since corrosion resistance depends on the area and physico-chemical properties of the material exposed to the corrosive medium, lubricant-impregnated surfaces (LIS) have been designed based on the surface tension, viscosity and chemistry of the lubricant and its spreading coefficient on the solid. All corrosion experiments were performed in a standard three-electrode cell using iron, which readily corrodes in a 3.5% sodium chloride solution. In order to obtain textured iron surfaces, thin films (~500 nm) of iron were sputter-coated on silicon wafers textured using photolithography, and subsequently impregnated with lubricants. Results show that the corrosion rate on LIS is greatly reduced, and offers an over hundred-fold improvement in corrosion protection. Furthermore, it is found that the spreading characteristics of the lubricant are significant in ensuring corrosion protection: a spreading lubricant (e.g., Krytox 1506) that covers both inside the texture, as well as the top of the texture, provides a two-fold improvement in corrosion protection as compared to a non-spreading lubricant (e.g., Silicone oil) that does not cover texture tops. To enhance corrosion protection of surfaces coated with a non-spreading lubricant, pyramid-shaped textures have been developed that minimize exposure to the corrosive solution, and a consequent twenty-fold increased in corrosion protection is observed. An increase in viscosity of the lubricant scales with greater corrosion protection. Finally, an equivalent cell-circuit model is developed for the lubricant-impregnated systems using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces find attractive applications in harsh corrosive environments, especially where the ability to self-heal is advantageous.

Keywords: lubricant-impregnated surfaces, self-healing surfaces, wettability, nano-engineered surfaces

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4320 Outstanding Lubricant Using Fluorographene as an Extreme Pressure Additive

Authors: Adriana Hernandez-Martinez, Edgar D. Ramon-Raygoza


Currently, there has been a great interest, during the last years, on graphene due to its lubricant properties on friction and antiwear processes. Likewise, fluorographene has also been gaining renown due to its excellent chemical and physical properties which have been mostly applied in the electronics industry. Nevertheless, its tribological properties haven’t been analyzed thoroughly. In this paper, fluorographene was examined as an extreme pressure additive and the nano lubricant made with a cutting fluid and fluorographene in the range of 0.01-0.5% wt, which proved to withstand 53.78% more pounds than the conventional product and 7.12% more than the nano lubricant with graphene in a range between 0.01-0.5% wt. Said extreme pressure test was carried out with a Pin and Vee Block Tribometer following an ASTM D3233A test. The fluorographene used has a low C/F ratio, which reflects a greater presence of atomic fluorine and its low oxygen percentage, supports the substitution of oxygen-containing groups by fluorine. XPS Spectra shows high atomic fluorine content of 56.12%, and SEM analysis details the formation of long and clear crystalline structures, in the fluorographene used.

Keywords: extreme pressure additive, fluorographene, nanofluids, nanolubricant

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4319 Performance Evaluation of Solid Lubricant Characteristics at Different Sliding Conditions

Authors: Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala, Rakesh Kumar Gunda


In modern industry, mechanical parts are subjected to friction and wear, leading to heat generation, which affects the reliability, life and power consumption of machinery. To overcome the tribological losses due to friction and wear, a significant portion of lubricant with high viscous properties allows very smooth relative motion between two sliding surfaces. Advancement in modern tribology has facilitated the use of applying solid lubricants in various industrial applications. Solid lubricant additives with high viscous thin film formation between the sliding surfaces can adequately wet and adhere to a work surface. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the tribological studies of various solid lubricants like MoS¬2, graphite, and boric acid at different sliding conditions. The base oil used in this study was SAE 40 oil with a viscosity of 220 cSt at 400C. The tribological properties were measured on pin-on-disc tribometer. An experimental set-up has been developed for effective supply of solid lubricants to the pin-disc interface zone. The results obtained from the experiments show that the friction coefficient increases with increase in applied load for all the considered environments. The tribological properties with MoS2 solid lubricant exhibit larger load carrying capacity than that of graphite and boric acid. The present research work also contributes to the understanding of the behavior of film thickness distribution of solid lubricant using potential contact technique under different sliding conditions. The results presented in this research work are expected to form a scientific basis for selecting the best solid lubricant in various industrial applications for possible minimization of friction and wear.

Keywords: friction, wear, temperature, solid lubricant

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4318 The Use of Superplastic Tin-Lead Alloy as A solid Lubricant in Free Upsetting of Aluminum and Brass

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Hebah B. Melhem, Ahmad Qandil


The main function of a lubricant in any forming process is to reduce friction between the work piece and the die set, hence reducing the force and energy requirement for forming process and to achieve homogeneous deformation. The free upsetting test is an important open forging test. In this paper, super plastic tin-lead alloy is used as solid lubricant in the free upsetting test of non-ferrous metals and compared with eight different lubricants using the following three criteria: one comparing the value of the reduction in height percentages, i.e. the engineering strain, in identical specimens of the same material under the effect of the same compressive force. The second is comparing the amount of barreling produced in each of the identical specimens, at each lubricant. The third criterion is using the specific energy, i.e. the energy per unit volume consumed in forming each material, using the different lubricants to produce the same reduction in height percentage of identical specimens from each of the two materials, namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work, under the same compression force among the different used lubricants.

Keywords: aluminum, brass, different lubricants, free upsetting, solid lubricants, superplastic tin-lead alloy

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4317 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji


Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: solid lubricant, graphite, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nano–particles

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4316 Combining Nitrocarburisation and Dry Lubrication for Improving Component Lifetime

Authors: Kaushik Vaideeswaran, Jean Gobet, Patrick Margraf, Olha Sereda


Nitrocarburisation is a surface hardening technique often applied to improve the wear resistance of steel surfaces. It is considered to be a promising solution in comparison with other processes such as flame spraying, owing to the formation of a diffusion layer which provides mechanical integrity, as well as its cost-effectiveness. To improve other tribological properties of the surface such as the coefficient of friction (COF), dry lubricants are utilized. Currently, the lifetime of steel components in many applications using either of these techniques individually are faced with the limitations of the two: high COF for nitrocarburized surfaces and low wear resistance of dry lubricant coatings. To this end, the current study involves the creation of a hybrid surface using the impregnation of a dry lubricant on to a nitrocarburized surface. The mechanical strength and hardness of Gerster SA’s nitrocarburized surfaces accompanied by the impregnation of the porous outermost layer with a solid lubricant will create a hybrid surface possessing both outstanding wear resistance and a low friction coefficient and with high adherence to the substrate. Gerster SA has the state-of-the-art technology for the surface hardening of various steels. Through their expertise in the field, the nitrocarburizing process parameters (atmosphere, temperature, dwelling time) were optimized to obtain samples that have a distinct porous structure (in terms of size, shape, and density) as observed by metallographic and microscopic analyses. The porosity thus obtained is suitable for the impregnation of a dry lubricant. A commercially available dry lubricant with a thermoplastic matrix was employed for the impregnation process, which was optimized to obtain a void-free interface with the surface of the nitrocarburized layer (henceforth called hybrid surface). In parallel, metallic samples without nitrocarburisation were also impregnated with the same dry lubricant as a reference (henceforth called reference surface). The reference and the nitrocarburized surfaces, with and without the dry lubricant were tested for their tribological behavior by sliding against a quenched steel ball using a nanotribometer. Without any lubricant, the nitrocarburized surface showed a wear rate 5x lower than the reference metal. In the presence of a thin film of dry lubricant ( < 2 micrometers) and under the application of high loads (500 mN or ~800 MPa), while the COF for the reference surface increased from ~0.1 to > 0.3 within 120 m, the hybrid surface retained a COF < 0.2 for over 400m of sliding. In addition, while the steel ball sliding against the reference surface showed heavy wear, the corresponding ball sliding against the hybrid surface showed very limited wear. Observations of the sliding tracks in the hybrid surface using Electron Microscopy show the presence of the nitrocarburized nodules as well as the lubricant, whereas no traces of the lubricant were found in the sliding track on the reference surface. In this manner, the clear advantage of combining nitrocarburisation with the impregnation of a dry lubricant towards forming a hybrid surface has been demonstrated.

Keywords: dry lubrication, hybrid surfaces, improved wear resistance, nitrocarburisation, steels

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4315 Multiaxial Fatigue in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts with Asperities and Slip

Authors: Carl-Magnus Everitt, Bo Alfredsson


Contact mechanics and tribology have been combined with fundamental fatigue and fracture mechanics to form the asperity mechanism which supplies an explanation for the surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue damage, called pitting or spalling. The cracks causing the pits initiates at one surface point and thereafter they slowly grow into the material before chipping of a material piece to form the pit. In the current study, the lubrication aspects on fatigue initiation are simulated by passing a single asperity through a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubricated, TEHL, contact. The physics of the lubricant was described with Reynolds equation and the lubricants pressure-viscosity relation was modeled by Roelands equation, formulated to include temperature dependence. A pressure dependent shear limit was incorporated. To capture the full phenomena of the sliding contact the temperature field was resolved through the incorporation of the energy flow. The heat was mainly generated due to shearing of the lubricant and from dry friction where metal contact occurred. The heat was then transported, and conducted, away by the solids and the lubricant. The fatigue damage caused by the asperities was evaluated through Findley’s fatigue criterion. The results show that asperities, in the size of surface roughness found in applications, may cause surface initiated fatigue damage and crack initiation. The simulations also show that the asperities broke through the lubricant in the inlet, causing metal to metal contact with high friction. When the asperities thereafter moved through the contact, the sliding provided the asperities with lubricant releasing the metal contact. The release of metal contact was possible due to the high viscosity the lubricant obtained from the high pressure. The metal contact in the inlet caused higher friction which increased the risk of fatigue damage. Since the metal contact occurred in the inlet it increased the fatigue risk more for asperities subjected to negative slip than positive slip. Therefore the fatigue evaluations showed that the asperities subjected to negative slip yielded higher fatigue stresses than the asperities subjected to positive slip of equal magnitude. This is one explanation for why pitting is more common in the dedendum than the addendum on pinion gear teeth. The simulations produced further validation for the asperity mechanism by showing that asperities cause surface initiated fatigue and crack initiation.

Keywords: fatigue, rolling, sliding, thermal elastohydrodynamic

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4314 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.


Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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4313 Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Authors: K. Yathish, K. G. Binu, B. S. Shenoy, D. S. Rao, R. Pai


Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil

Keywords: journal bearing, TiO2 nanoparticles, viscosity model, Reynold's equation, load carrying capacity

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4312 Experimental Challenges and Solutions in Design and Operation of the Test Rig for Water Lubricated Journal Bearing

Authors: Ravindra Mallya, B. Satish Shenoy, B. Raghuvir Pai


The study deals with the challenges in developing a test rig to test the performance of water lubricated journal bearing. The test rig is designed to simulate the working conditions of the bearing in order to understand their performance before they are put in operation. The bearing that is studied is the commercially available water lubricated bearing which has a rubber liner bonded with a rigid metal shell. The lubricant enters the bearing axially through a pressurized inlet tank and exits to an outlet tank which is at sufficiently low pressure. The load on the bearing is applied through the dead weight system which acts both in upward and downward direction so that net load acts on the bearing. The issues in feeding the lubricant into the bearing from the inlet side and preventing the leakage of the lubricant is discussed. The application of the load on the test bearing while maintaining the bearing afloat is also discussed.

Keywords: axial groove, hydrodynamic pressure, journal bearing, test rig, water lubrication

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4311 Cellulose Nanocrystals Suspensions as Water-Based Lubricants for Slurry Pump Gland Seals

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shariatzadeh, Dana Grecov


The tribological tests were performed on a new tribometer, in order to measure the coefficient of friction of a gland seal packing material on stainless steel shafts in presence of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) suspension as a sustainable, environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant. To simulate the real situation from the slurry pumps, silica sands were used as slurry particles. The surface profiles after tests were measured by interferometer microscope to characterize the surface wear. Moreover, the coefficient of friction and surface wear were measured between stainless steel shaft and chrome steel ball to investigate the tribological effects of CNC in boundary lubrication region. Alignment of nanoparticles in the CNC suspensions are the main reason for friction and wear reduction. The homogeneous concentrated suspensions showed fingerprint patterns of a chiral nematic liquid crystal. These properties made CNC a very good lubricant additive in water.

Keywords: gland seal, lubricant additives, nanocrystalline cellulose, water-based lubricants

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4310 Influence of Flight Design on Discharging Profiles of Granular Material in Rotary Dryer

Authors: I. Benhsine, M. Hellou, F. Lominé, Y. Roques


During the manufacture of fertilizer, it is necessary to add water for granulation purposes. The water content is then removed or reduced using rotary dryers. They are commonly used to dry wet granular materials and they are usually fitted with lifting flights. The transport of granular materials occurs when particles cascade from the lifting flights and fall into the air stream. Each cascade consists of a lifting and a falling cycle. Lifting flights are thus of great importance for the transport of granular materials along the dryer. They also enhance the contact between solid particles and the air stream. Optimization of the drying process needs an understanding of the behavior of granular materials inside a rotary dryer. Different approaches exist to study the movement of granular materials inside the dryer. Most common of them are based on empirical formulations or on study the movement of the bulk material. In the present work, we are interested in the behavior of each particle in the cross section of the dryer using Discrete Element Method (DEM) to understand. In this paper, we focus on studying the hold-up, the cascade patterns, the falling time and the falling length of the particles leaving the flights. We will be using two segment flights. Three different profiles are used: a straight flight (180° between both segments), an angled flight (with an angle of 150°), and a right-angled flight (90°). The profile of the flight affects significantly the movement of the particles in the dryer. Changing the flight angle changes the flight capacity which leads to different discharging profile of the flight, thus affecting the hold-up in the flight. When the angle of the flight is reduced, the range of the discharge angle increases leading to a more uniformed cascade pattern in time. The falling length and the falling time of the particles also increase up to a maximum value then they start decreasing. Moreover, the results show an increase in the falling length and the falling time up to 70% and 50%, respectively, when using a right-angled flight instead of a straight one.

Keywords: discrete element method, granular materials, lifting flight, rotary dryer

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4309 Tribological Behaviour Improvement of Lubricant Using Copper (II) Oxide Nanoparticles as Additive

Authors: M. A. Hassan, M. H. Sakinah, K. Kadirgama, D. Ramasamy, M. M. Noor, M. M. Rahman


Tribological properties that include nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the tribological behaviour of lubricating oil, which has been investigated by many researchers for the past few decades. Various nanostructures can be used as additives for tribological improvement. However, this also depends on the characteristics of the nanoparticles. In this study, tribological investigation was performed to examine the effect of CuO nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of Syntium 800 SL 10W−30. Three parameters used in the analysis using the wear tester (piston ring) were load, revolutions per minute (rpm), and concentration. The specifications of the nanoparticles, such as size, concentration, hardness, and shape, can affect the tribological behaviour of the lubricant. The friction and wear experiment was conducted using a tribo-tester and the Response Surface Methodology method was used to analyse any improvement of the performance. Therefore, two concentrations of 40 nm nanoparticles were used to conduct the experiments, namely, 0.005 wt % and 0.01 wt % and compared with base oil 0 wt % (control). A water bath sonicator was used to disperse the nanoparticles in base oil, while a tribo-tester was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. In addition, the thermal properties of the nanolubricant were also measured. The results have shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanolubricant was increased when compared with the base oil. Therefore, the results indicated that CuO nanoparticles had improved the tribological behaviour as well as the thermal properties of the nanolubricant oil.

Keywords: concentration, improvement, tribological, copper (II) oxide, nano lubricant

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4308 Journal Bearing with Controllable Radial Clearance, Design and Analysis

Authors: Majid Rashidi, Shahrbanoo Farkhondeh Biabnavi


The hydrodynamic instability phenomenon in a journal bearing may occur by either a reduction in the load carried by journal bearing, by an increase in the journal speed, by change in the lubricant viscosity, or a combination of these factors. The previous research and development work done to overcome the instability issue of journal bearings, operating in hydrodynamic lubricate regime, can be categorized as follows: A) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve by using piezo actuator, b) Inclusion of strategically located and shaped internal grooves within inner surface of the bearing sleeve, c) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve using an electromagnetic actuator, d)Actively and externally pressurizing the lubricant within a journal bearing set, and e)Incorporating tilting pads within the inner surface of the bearing sleeve that assume different equilibrium angular position in response to changes in the bearing design parameter such as speed and load. This work presents an innovative design concept for a 'smart journal bearing' set to operate in a stable hydrodynamic lubrication regime, despite variations in bearing speed, load, and its lubricant viscosity. The proposed bearing design allows adjusting its radial clearance for an attempt to maintain a stable bearing operation under those conditions that may cause instability for a bearing with a fixed radial clearance. The design concept allows adjusting the radial clearance at small increments in the order of 0.00254 mm. This is achieved by axially moving two symmetric conical rigid cavities that are in close contact with the conically shaped outer shell of a sleeve bearing. The proposed work includes a 3D model of the bearing that depicts the structural interactions of the bearing components. The 3D model is employed to conduct finite element Analyses to simulate the mechanical behavior of the bearing from a structural point of view. The concept of controlling of the radial clearance, as presented in this work, is original and has not been proposed and discuss in previous research. A typical journal bearing was analyzed under a set of design parameters, namely r =1.27 cm (journal radius), c = 0.0254 mm (radial clearance), L=1.27 cm (bearing length), w = 445N (bearing load), μ = 0.028 Pascale (lubricant viscosity). A shaft speed as 3600 r.p.m was considered, and the mass supported by the bearing, m, is set to be 4.38kg. The Summerfield Number associated with the above bearing design parameters turn to be, S=0.3. These combinations resulted in stable bearing operation. Subsequently, the speed was postulated to increase from 3600 r.p.mto 7200 r.p.m; the bearing was found to be unstable under the new increased speed. In order to regain stability, the radial clearance was increased from c = 0.0254 mm to0.0358mm. The change in the radial clearance was shown to bring the bearing back to stable an operating condition.

Keywords: adjustable clearance, bearing, hydrodynamic, instability, journal

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4307 The Role of European Union in Global Governance

Authors: Yrfet Shkreli


Despite all the wide research and literature on the subject, changing and challenging times often present themselves with new objectives, fluid politics and everlasting point of views. Much is said about the subject and the trend nowadays is watching every EU intervention as a form of neo colonialism or a form of establishing new markets. The paper will try to establish a new perspective on EU influences, policies and impacts analyzed from multidimensional point of view, not limiting itself on a narrow external dimension, focusing on a broader understanding of it diverse contribution to global governance and peace keeping. Tending to be critical, this paper, tend to fall out of extremes, nether holding a Eurocentric position, nor falling for cheap critic to the whole failures and impact of EU policies. The ambition is to show EU as a contributing factor while keeping in mind its nature as a multi layered actor and with not necessarily coinciding interests among its member states.

Keywords: European Union, global governance, globalization, normative power

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
4306 A Comparative Analysis of Heuristics Applied to Collecting Used Lubricant Oils Generated in the City of Pereira, Colombia

Authors: Diana Fajardo, Sebastián Ortiz, Oscar Herrera, Angélica Santis


Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.

Keywords: Heuristics, optimization Model, savings algorithm, used vehicular oil, V.R.P.

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4305 Influence of Dry-Film Lubricants on Bond Strength and Corrosion Behaviour of 6xxx Aluminium Alloy Adhesive Joints for Automotive Industry

Authors: Ralph Gruber, Martina Hafner, Theresia Greunz, Christian Reisecker, David Stifter


The application of dry lubricant on aluminium for automotive industry is indispensable for a high-quality forming behaviour. To provide a short production time those forming aids will not be removed during the joining step. The aim of this study was the characterization of the influence of dry lubricants on the bond strength and the corrosion resistance of an 6xxx aluminium alloy for automotive applications. For this purpose, samples with a well-defined surface were lubricated with 1 g/m² dry lubricant and joined with a commercial thermosetting 1K-epoxy structural adhesive. The bond strength was characterized by means of lap shear test. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the adhered aluminium samples an immersion test in 5 w% NaCl-solution was used. Based on fracture pattern analysis, the corrosion behaviour could be described. Dissolved corrosion products were examined using ICP-MS and NMR. By means of SEM/EDX the elementary composition of precipitated solids was determined. The results showed a dry lubricant independent bond strength for standard testing conditions. However, a significant effect of the forming aid, regarding the corrosion resistance of adhered aluminium samples against corrosive infiltration of the metal-adhesive-interface, was observed

Keywords: aluminium alloys, dry film lubricants, automotive industry, adhesive bonding, corrosion

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4304 Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults

Authors: L. Lindsay, S. A. Coleman, D. Kerr, B. J. Taylor, A. Moorhead


Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.

Keywords: classification, falls, health risk factors, machine learning, older adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4303 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
4302 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh


Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
4301 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim


This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
4300 The Effect of Bunch in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Alireza Sohrabi, Hamid Mohammadi


The pistachio fruit is a strategic product in Iran. One of the problems caused the reduction of pistachio proceeds is related to biennial- bearing or alternative bearing. Biennial- bearing is very important and is happened because of the fallen female bloom buds in vintage year. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results are shown that if the bunch numbers are increased, the possibility of falling is increased in bloom buds. The least possibility of falling of bloom buds is specified in trimming of one bunch and has significant difference with other trimming.

Keywords: alternate bearing, pistachio, cluster, bud

Procedia PDF Downloads 326