Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Najib Essounbouli

20 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA

Authors: Mohamed Amine Haraoubia, Abdelaziz Hamzaoui, Najib Essounbouli

Abstract:

The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic Controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Logic Controller, maximum power point tracking, maximum power point

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19 Fast Terminal Synergetic Converter Control

Authors: N. Essounbouli, A. Hamzaoui, M. N. Harmas, Z. Bouchama

Abstract:

A new robust finite time synergetic controller is presented based on recently developed synergetic control methodology and a terminal attractor technique. A Fast Terminal Synergetic Control (FTSC) is proposed for controlling DC-DC buck converter. Unlike Synergetic Control (SC) and sliding mode control, the proposed control scheme has the characteristics of finite time convergence and chattering free phenomena. Simulation of stabilization and reference tracking for buck converter systems illustrates the approach effectiveness while stability is assured in the Lyapunov sense and converse Lyapunov results involving scalar differential inequalities are given for finite-time stability.

Keywords: dc-dc buck converter, synergetic control, finite time convergence, terminal synergetic control, fast terminal synergetic control, Lyapunov

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18 An Experimental Analysis of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 a Wrought Al Alloy

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Najib Souissi, Chedly Bradai

Abstract:

A Taguchi design investigation has been made into the relationship between the ductility and process variables in a squeeze cast 2017A wrought aluminium alloy. The considered process parameters were: squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die preheating temperature. An orthogonal array (OA), main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of casting parameters. The results have shown that the selected parameters significantly affect the ductility of 2017A wrought Al alloy castings. Optimal squeeze cast process parameters were provided to illustrate the proposed approach and the results were proven to be trustworthy through practical experiments.

Keywords: Microstructure, process parameters, Ductility, Taguchi method, squeeze casting

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17 Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia

Authors: Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Johana Johari, Nur Haffiza Rahaman

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took part in the survey via random sampling. The depression, anxiety, and stress scales were utilized to measure stress while The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure the quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that there were significant correlations between variables in the study. The findings show a significant negative relation between stress and quality of life, and significant positive correlations between support from family as well as support from friends with the quality of life. Stress and support from family were found to be significant predictors and influences the quality of life among flood victims.

Keywords: Quality of Life, stress, Social Support, flood victims

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16 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: Pesticide residue, non-destructive, detect, leaf mustard

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15 An Analysis of Conversation Structure of Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber Utterances on The Oprah Winfrey Show

Authors: Najib Khumaidillah

Abstract:

A conversation needs skills to create the good flow of it. The skills also need to be paid attention by a host like Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber as an artist. This study is aimed at describing turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs used by the speakers. The data are from one segment of The Oprah Winfrey Show’s transcription with Justin Bieber. Those are analyzed by Stenstorm’s turn taking theories and adjacency pairs theories. From the analysis, it was found that both speakers use various turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs. These findings are hoped to be an example for non-native English speaker in doing English conversation and advance people’s comprehension of how to organize good conversation structure.

Keywords: adjacency pairs, conversation structure, the Oprah Winfrey show, turn taking

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14 Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia

Authors: Fety Nurlia Muzayanah, Arif Imam Suroso, Mukhamad Najib

Abstract:

The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Consumer behavior, Organic Food, market education

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13 Influence of Thermal Radiation on MHD Micropolar Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer over Vertical Flat Plate

Authors: Alouaoui Redha, Ferhat Samira, Bouaziz Mohamed Najib

Abstract:

In this work, we examine the thermal radiation effect on heat and mass transfer in steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous micropolar fluid over a vertical plate, with the presence of a magnetic field. Rosseland approximation is applied to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically. Many results are obtained and representative set is displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of the various parameters on different profiles. The conclusion is drawn that the flow field, temperature, concentration and microrotation as well as the skin friction coefficient and the both local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers are significantly influenced by Magnetic parameter, material parameter and thermal radiation parameter.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, MHD, Thermal radiation, boundary layer, micropolar fluid

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12 Identification and Force Control of a Two Chambers Pneumatic Soft Actuator

Authors: Najib K. Dankadai, Ahmad 'Athif Mohd Faudzi, Khairuddin Osman, Muhammad Rusydi Muhammad Razif, IIi Najaa Aimi Mohd Nordin

Abstract:

Researches in soft actuators are now growing rapidly because of their adequacy to be applied in sectors like medical, agriculture, biological and welfare. This paper presents system identification (SI) and control of the force generated by a two chambers pneumatic soft actuator (PSA). A force mathematical model for the actuator was identified experimentally using data acquisition card and MATLAB SI toolbox. Two control techniques; a predictive functional control (PFC) and conventional proportional integral and derivative (PID) schemes are proposed and compared based on the identified model for the soft actuator flexible mechanism. Results of this study showed that both of the proposed controllers ensure accurate tracking when the closed loop system was tested with the step, sinusoidal and multi step reference input through MATLAB simulation although the PFC provides a better response than the PID.

Keywords: System Identification, predictive functional control (PFC), proportional integral and derivative (PID), soft actuator

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11 Changes in Religious Belief after Flood Disasters

Authors: Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Sapora Sipon, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Husni Mohd Radzi, Salhah Abdullah

Abstract:

Flood disasters occur throughout the world including Malaysia. The major flood disaster that hit Malaysia in the 2014-2015 episodes proved the psychosocial and mental health consequences such as vivid images of destruction, upheaval, death and loss of lives. Flood, flood survivors reported that flood has changed one looks at their religious belief. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the changes in religious belief after the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood disaster. The total population of 1300 respondents who experienced the 2014-2015 Malaysia flood were surveyed a month after the disaster. The questionnaires were used to measure religiosity and stress. The results provide compelling evidence that religion played an important role in the lives of Malaysia flood disasters’ survivor where more than half of the respondents (>75%) experiencing the strengthening of their religious belief. It was also reported the victims’ strengthening of their religious belief proved to be a powerful factor in reducing stress in the aftermath of the flood.

Keywords: Society, Humanity, religious belief, flood disaster

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10 Avatar Creation for E-Learning

Authors: Hanafizan Hussain, M. Najib Osman, Sri Kusuma Wati Mohd Daud

Abstract:

Avatar was used as user’s symbol of identity in online communications such as Facebook, Twitter, online game, and portal community between unknown people. The development of this symbol is the use of animated character or avatar, which can engage learners in a way that draws them into the e-Learning experience. Immersive learning is one of the most effective learning techniques, and animated characters can help create an immersive environment. E-learning is an ideal learning environment using modern means of information technology, through the effective integration of information technology and the curriculum to achieve, a new learning style which can fully reflect the main role of the students to reform the traditional teaching structure thoroughly. Essential in any e-learning is the degree of interactivity for the learner, and whether the learner is able to study at any time, or whether there is a need for the learner to be online or in a classroom with other learners at the same time (synchronous learning). Ideally, e-learning should engage the learners, allowing them to interact with the course materials, obtaining feedback on their progress and assistance whenever it is required. However, the degree of interactivity in e-learning depends on how the course has been developed and is dependent on the software used for its development, and the way the material is delivered to the learner. Therefore, users’ accessibility that allows access to information at any time and places and their positive attitude towards e-learning such as having interacting with a good teacher and the creation of a more natural and friendly environment for e-learning should be enhanced. This is to motivate their learning enthusiasm and it has been the responsibility of educators to incorporate new technology into their ways of teaching.

Keywords: Higher Education, e-Learning, avatar, students' perception

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9 The Effect of AMBs Number of a Dynamics Behavior of a Spur Gear Reducer in Non-Stationary Regime

Authors: Slim Souissi, Najib Belhadj Messaoud

Abstract:

The non-linear dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer is studied in this paper in transient regime. Driving and driver rotors are, respectively, powered by a motor torque Cm and loaded by a resistive torque Cr. They are supported by two identical Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiff-ness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Three models of AMBs were used with four, six and eight magnets. They are operated by P.D controller and powered by control and bias currents. The dynamic parameters of the AMBs are modeled by stiffness and damping matrices computed by the derivation of the electromagnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved iteratively using Newmark time integration method. In the first part of the study, the model is powered by an electric motor and by a four strokes four cylinders diesel engine in the second part. The numerical results of the dynamic responses of the system come to confirm the significant effect of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition. Results also confirm the influence of the magnet number by AMBs on the dynamic behavior of the system. Indeed, vibrations were more important in the case of gear reducer supported by AMBs with four magnets.

Keywords: Gear, Stiffness, torque, fluctuation, motor, acyclism

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8 Zakariya Multaniand and his Role in the Spread of Islam and Suhrawardiyya in the Subcontinent

Authors: Mahdi Momeni

Abstract:

The arrival of Mysticism to the subcontinent can be generally divided into two periods. The first period, was the Sporadic arrival of Sufis whom were traveling to the subcontinent according to the tradition of disquisition and the second period was; when the Sufi dynasties were sending missionaries and caliphs to guide and promote people from different direction to that land. Among the Sufi dynasty that entered to India in the thirteenth century, two dynasties of Chishti and Suhrawardîya were more successful than other Sufi dynasties. And thus they are very important in the spread of Islam and Mysticism to the subcontinent. Suhrawardiyya dynasty was founded by Sheikh Ziauddin Abu Najib Suhrawardi and was developed and spread by his nephew Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi Abo hafs Omar. Sheikh Shahabuddin sent many Caliphs and missionaries to India. Among these missionaries were People like Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Seyyed Noureddin Mobarak Ghaznavi, Sheikh Jalal al-din Tabrizi and Sheikh Zakariya Multani. Since Suhrawardiyya doctrine relies on Asceticism and Sharia, so one of the important elements among Suhrawardiyya missionaries was inviting people to Islam. Accordingly Sheikh Shahab Caliphs had a great role in the spread of Islam and Mysticism in different territories, especially India. Such that it can be pointed out is the the role of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Multani, the founder of Suhrawardiyya Dynasty in India. Sheikh Zakaria Multani after working in three areas, establishing monasteries, training managers, having numerous trips to different places, participating to social affairs provided the spread of Islam and Mysticism in subcontinent. This paper studies his role and actions in the subcontinent.

Keywords: Islam, Sufism, Suhrawardiyya, subcontinent, Multan

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7 A Constrained Model Predictive Control Scheme for Simultaneous Control of Temperature and Hygrometry in Greenhouses

Authors: Soumia El Hani, Ayoub Moufid, Najib Bennis

Abstract:

The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the culture development and to minimize the production costs. A greenhouse is an open system to external environment and the challenge is to regulate the internal climate despite the strong meteorological disturbances. The internal state of greenhouse considered in this work is defined by too relevant and coupled variables, namely inside temperature and hygrometry. These two variables are chosen to describe the internal state of greenhouses due to their importance in the development of plants and their sensitivity to external climatic conditions, sources of weather disturbances. A multivariable model is proposed and validated by considering a greenhouse as black-box system and the least square method is applied to parameters identification basing on collected experimental measures. To regulate the internal climate, we propose a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. This one considers the measured meteorological disturbances and the physical and operational constraints on the control and state variables. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented, and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between internal and external variables and the strong external meteorological disturbances. The inside temperature and hygrometry are tracking nearly the desired trajectories. A comparison study with an On/Off control applied to the same greenhouse confirms the efficiency of the MPC approach to inside climate control.

Keywords: Optimization, Identification, Greenhouse, Constraints, Model Predictive Control, Climate Control

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6 Texture Characterization and Mineralogical Composition of the 1982-1983 Second Phase Galunggung Eruption, West Java Regency, Indonesia

Authors: Rifaldy, Khalid Rizky, Ricky Aryanto, M. Alfiyan Bagus, Fahri Septianto, Firman Najib Wibisana, Excobar Arman, M. Hanif Irsyada, Arif Lutfi Namury, Syahreza S. Angkasa

Abstract:

Galunggung Mountain is an active volcano in Indonesia, precisely on the island of Java. This area is included in the Sunda Sunda arc formed by the tendency of the Australian oceanic plate to Eurasian continental plate. This research was conducted to determine the characteristics and document the mineralogical composition of the Galunggung eruption of the second phase 1982-1983. In fragment samples, petrographic analysis is carried out under a qualitative and quantitative polarizing microscope. This sample was obtained from the second phase eruption in the Cibanjanj formation. Based on the analysis results obtained filter texture characteristics, olivine parallel growth, lamellar structure, glass inclusion, plagioclase zonation and obtained special texture in the gabbroic cummulate. The mineral composition consists of phenocryst plagioclase (41vol%), pyroxene (26vol%), olivin (4vol%) and mineral opaque (29vol%). Microlite minerals consist of plagioclase (31.95vol%), pyroxene (12.09vol%), opaque minerals (55.96vol%). This research is expected to be developed by further researchers to be able to explain in more detail related to Galunggung mountain with 3 phases of eruption that are so intense. Also, it is expected to explain the structural characteristics and mineralogical composition that can be used to determine the origin of all the results of the Galunggung eruption 1982-1983.

Keywords: mineralogical composition, Galunggung eruption, texture characterization, gabbroic cumulate

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5 Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Behavior and Performance of Youth Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Najib Mansor, Nur Syamilah Md. Noor, Abdul Rahim Anuar, Shazida Jan Mohd Khan, Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim, Badariah Hj Din, Abu Sufian Abu Bakar, Kalsom Kayat, Wan Nurmahfuzah Jannah Wan Mansor

Abstract:

This study aimed and focused on the behavior of youth entrepreneurs’ especially entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the performance in micro SMEs in Malaysia. Entrepreneurship development calls for support from various quarters, and mostly the need exists to initiate a youth entrepreneurship culture and drive amongst the youth in the society. Although backed up by the government and non-government organizations, micro-entrepreneurs are still facing challenges which greatly delay their progress, growth and consequently their input towards economic advancement. Micro-entrepreneurs are confronted with unique difficulties such as uncertainty, innovation, and evolution. Reviews on the development of entrepreneurial characteristics such as need for achievement, internal locus of control, risk-taking and innovation and have been recognized as highly associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The data in this study was obtained from the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. A random sampling of 830 respondents was distributed to 14 states that involve of micro-entrepreneurs. The study adopted a quantitative approach whereby a set of questionnaire was used to gather data. Multiple regression analysis was chosen as a method of analysis testing. The result of this study is expected to provide insight into the factor affecting entrepreneurial behavior and performance of youth entrepreneurs in micro SMEs. The finding showed that the Malaysian youth entrepreneurs do not have the entrepreneurial self-efficacy within themselves in order to accomplish greater success in their business venture. The establishment of entrepreneurial schools to allow our youth to be exposed to entrepreneurship from an early age and the development of special training focuses on the creation of business network so that the continuous entrepreneurial culture is crafted.

Keywords: youth entrepreneurs, micro entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial performance

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4 Failure to React Positively to Flood Early Warning Systems: Lessons Learned by Flood Victims from Flash Flood Disasters: the Malaysia Experience

Authors: Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohd Najib Marzuki, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Sapora Sipon, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Shazwani Shafiai

Abstract:

This paper describes the issues relating to the role of the flash flood early warning system provided by the Malaysian Government to the communities in Malaysia, specifically during the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Normally, flash flood disasters can occur as a result of heavy rainfall in an area, and that water may possibly cause flooding via streams or narrow channels. For this study, the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands occurred on 23 October 2013, and as a result the Sungai Bertam overflowed after the release of water from the Sultan Abu Bakar Dam. This release of water from the dam caused flash flooding which led to damage to properties and also the death of residents and livestock in the area. Therefore, the effort of this study is to identify the perceptions of the flash flood victims on the role of the flash flood early warning system. For the purposes of this study, data collection was gathered from those flood victims who were willing to participate in this study through face-to-face interviews. This approach helped the researcher to glean in-depth information about their feeling and perceptions on the role of the flash flood early warning system offered by the government. The data were analysed descriptively and the findings show that the respondents of 22 flood victims believe strongly that the flash flood early warning system was confusing and dysfunctional, and communities had failed to response positively to it. Therefore, most of the communities were not well prepared for the releasing of water from the dam that caused property damage and 3 people were killed in Cameron Highland flash flood disaster.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Early Warning System, communities affected, flash flood disaster

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3 Landslide and Liquefaction Vulnerability Analysis Using Risk Assessment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process Implication: Suitability of the New Capital of the Republic of Indonesia on Borneo Island

Authors: Rifaldy, Misbahudin, Khalid Rizky, Ricky Aryanto, M. Alfiyan Bagus, Fahri Septianto, Firman Najib Wibisana, Excobar Arman

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that has a high level of disaster because it is on the ring of fire, and there are several regions with three major plates meeting in the world. So that disaster analysis must always be done to see the potential disasters that might always occur, especially in this research are landslides and liquefaction. This research was conducted to analyze areas that are vulnerable to landslides and liquefaction hazards and their relationship with the assessment of the issue of moving the new capital of the Republic of Indonesia to the island of Kalimantan with a total area of 612,267.22 km². The method in this analysis uses the Analytical Hierarchy Process and consistency ratio testing as a complex and unstructured problem-solving process into several parameters by providing values. The parameters used in this analysis are the slope, land cover, lithology distribution, wetness index, earthquake data, peak ground acceleration. Weighted overlay was carried out from all these parameters using the percentage value obtained from the Analytical Hierarchy Process and confirmed its accuracy with a consistency ratio so that a percentage of the area obtained with different vulnerability classification values was obtained. Based on the analysis results obtained vulnerability classification from very high to low vulnerability. There are (0.15%) 918.40083 km² of highly vulnerable, medium (20.75%) 127,045,44815 km², low (56.54%) 346,175.886188 km², very low (22.56%) 138,127.484832 km². This research is expected to be able to map landslides and liquefaction disasters on the island of Kalimantan and provide consideration of the suitability of regional development of the new capital of the Republic of Indonesia. Also, this research is expected to provide input or can be applied to all regions that are analyzing the vulnerability of landslides and liquefaction or the suitability of the development of certain regions.

Keywords: vulnerability analysis, analytic hierarchy process, Borneo Island, landslide and liquefaction

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2 Populism and National Unity: A Discourse Analysis of Poverty Eradication Strategies of Three Malaysian Prime Ministers

Authors: Khairil Ahmad, Jenny Gryzelius, Mohd Helmi Mohd Sobri

Abstract:

With the waning support for centrist ‘third-way’ politics across the Western world, there has been an increase in political parties and individual candidates relying on populist political discourse and rhetoric in order to capitalize on the sense of frustration apparent within the electorate. What is of note is the divergence in the discourses employed. On the one hand, there is a polarization between a growing wave of populist right-wing parties and politicians, employing a mixture of economic populism with divisive nationalistic ideals such as restricted immigration, for example, the UK’s UKIP and Donald Trump in the US. On the other hand, there are resurgent, often grassroots-led, left-wing movements and politicians, such as Podemos in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, focusing on anti-austerity measures and inclusive policies. In general, the concept of populism is often ascribed in a pejorative way. This is despite the success of populist left-wing governments across Latin America in recent times, especially in terms of reducing poverty. Nonetheless, recently, scholars such as Ernesto Laclau have tried to rethink populism as a social scientific concept which is essential in helping us make sense of contemporary political articulations. Using Laclau’s framework, this paper seeks to analyze poverty reduction policies in different iterations in the context of the tenures of three Prime Ministers of Malaysia. The first is Abdul Razak Hussein’s New Economic Policy, which focused on uplifting the economic position of Malaysia’s majority Malay population. The second is Mahathir Mohamad’s state-led neo-liberalization of the Malaysian economy, which focused on the creation of a core group of crony elites in order to spearhead economic development. The third is current Prime Minister Najib Razak’s targeted poverty eradication strategy through a focused program which directly provides benefits to recipients such as through direct cash transfers. The paper employs a discursive approach to trace elements of populism in these cases and highlight instances of how their strategies are articulated in ways that seek to appeal towards particular visions of national unity.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Populism, Malaysia, poverty eradication

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1 The Rise and Effects of Social Movement on Ethnic Relations in Malaysia: The Bersih Movement as a Case Study

Authors: Nur Rafeeda Daut

Abstract:

The significance of this paper is to provide an insight on the role of social movement in building stronger ethnic relations in Malaysia. In particular, it focuses on how the BERSIH movement have been able to bring together the different ethnic groups in Malaysia to resist the present political administration that is seen to manipulate the electoral process and oppress the basic freedom of expression of Malaysians. Attention is given on how and why this group emerged and its mobilisation strategies. Malaysia which is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society gained its independence from the British in 1957. Like many other new nations, it faces the challenges of nation building and governance. From economic issues to racial and religious tension, Malaysia is experiencing high level of corruption and income disparity among the different ethnic groups. The political parties in Malaysia are also divided along ethnic lines. BERSIH which is translated as ‘clean’ is a movement which seeks to reform the current electoral system in Malaysia to ensure equality, justice, free and fair elections. It was originally formed in 2007 as a joint committee that comprised leaders from political parties, civil society groups and NGOs. In April 2010, the coalition developed as an entirely civil society movement unaffiliated to any political party. BERSIH claimed that the electoral roll in Malaysia has been marred by fraud and other irregularities. In 2015, the BERSIH movement organised its biggest rally in Malaysia which also includes 38 other rallies held internationally. Supporters of BERSIH that participated in the demonstration were comprised of all the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. In this paper, two social movement theories are used: resource mobilization theory and political opportunity structure to explain the emergence and mobilization of the BERSIH movement in Malaysia. Based on these two theories, corruption which is believed to have contributed to the income disparity among Malaysians has generated the development of this movement. The rise of re-islamisation values propagated by certain groups in Malaysia and the shift in political leadership has also created political opportunities for this movement to emerge. In line with the political opportunity structure theory, the BERSIH movement will continue to create more opportunities for the empowerment of civil society and the unity of ethnic relations in Malaysia. Comparison is made on the degree of ethnic unity in the country before and after BERSIH was formed. This would include analysing the level of re-islamisation values and also the level of corruption in relation to economic income under the premiership of the former Prime Minister Mahathir and the present Prime Minister Najib Razak. The country has never seen such uprisings like BERSIH where ethnic groups which over the years have been divided by ethnic based political parties and economic disparity joined together with a common goal for equality and fair elections. As such, the BERSIH movement is a unique case where it illustrates the change of political landscape, ethnic relations and civil society in Malaysia.

Keywords: Ethnic Relations, Malaysia, political opportunity structure, resource mobilization theory and social movement

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