Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: intoxication

52 The Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche’s Dream and Intoxication: Through Analyzing the “Steppenwolf” by Hermann Hesse

Authors: Mengjie Liu


This essay mainly analyses the representation of the Apollo and Dionysus spirits in Hermann Hesse’s novel “Steppenwolf.” This analysis adopts a theoretical approach based on Fredrich Nietzsche’s theory of the two separate art worlds, dream and intoxication, which corresponds to the two art deities, Apollo and Dionysus. The essay will discuss Friedrich Nietzsche’s art and aesthetic theory of dream and intoxication in the first part. Then the essay will elaborate on the representation of the Apollo spirit and dream in “Steppenwolf” in the second section from two aspects: (1) Harry Haller’s (the main character) self-recognition and semblance with Hermina. (2) The realization of Hermina’s prophecy of the dream. Then the essay will analyze the representation of the Dionysus spirit and the intoxication in the third part by demonstrating Harry Haller’s self-forgetting and melting into the crowd. The essay will combine the two spirits in the fourth section and discuss the relationship between dream and intoxication as the stimulator (dream) and the realizing (intoxication). This essay takes Nietzsche’s theory as the basic foundation while also drawing sources from psychological analysis theories and other literature sources.

Keywords: dream, intoxication, Nietzsche, Steppenwolf

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51 Preventive Effects of Silymarin in Retinal Intoxication with Methanol in Rat: Transmission Electron Microscope Study

Authors: A. Zarenezhad, A. Esfandiari, E. Zarenezhad, M. Mardkhoshnood


The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effect of silymarin against the methanol toxicity. Fifteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Control group, Experimental group I (received 4g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days), Experimental group II (received 4 g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days and received 250 mg/kg silymarin orally for three months). At the end of the experiment, the eyes were removed; retina was separated near the optic disc and studied by transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the retina in the experimental group I exhibited loss of outer segments and disorganization in inner segment. Increased extra cellular space, disappearance of outer limiting membrane and pyknotic nuclei were seen in this group. But normal outer segment, organized inner segment and normal outer limiting membrane were obvious after treatment with silymarin in experimental group II. These findings show that methanol causes damage in the photoreceptor layer of the rat retina and silymarin can protect the damage to retina against the methanol intoxication.

Keywords: ultra-structure, photoreceptor layer, methanol intoxication, silymarin, rat

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50 Ethanol in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Focus on Delayed Neuropsychological Sequelae

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min


Background: In carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication, the pathophysiology of delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) is very complex and remains poorly understood. And predicting whether patients who exhibit resolved acute symptoms have escaped or will experience DNS represents a very important clinical issue. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been conducted to assess the severity of brain damage as an objective method to predict prognosis. And co-ingestion of a second poison in patients with intentional CO poisoning occurs in almost one-half of patients. Among patients with co-ingestions, 66% ingested ethanol. We assessed the effects of ethanol on neurologic sequelae prevalence in acute CO intoxication by means of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Method: This study was conducted retrospectively by collecting data for patients who visited an emergency medical center during a period of 5 years. The enrollment criteria were diagnosis of acute CO poisoning and the measurement of the serum ethanol level and history of taking a brain MR during admission period. Official readout data by radiologist are used to decide whether abnormal lesion is existed or not. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups: patients with abnormal lesion and without abnormal lesion in Brain MR. A standardized extraction using medical record was performed; Mann Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Result: A total of 112 patients were enrolled, and 68 patients presented abnormal brain lesion on MR. The abnormal brain lesion group had lower serum ethanol level (mean, 20.14 vs 46.71 mg/dL) (p-value<0.001). In addition, univariate logistic regression analysis showed the serum ethanol level (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 -1.00) was independently associated with the development of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Conclusion: Ethanol could have neuroprotective effect in acute CO intoxication by sedative effect in stressful situation and mitigative effect in neuro-inflammatory reaction.

Keywords: carbon monoxide, delayed neuropsychological sequelae, ethanol, intoxication, magnetic resonance

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49 The Investigation of Endogenous Intoxication and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Giardiasis Before and After Treatment

Authors: R. H. Begaydarova, B. Zh. Kultanov, B. T. Esilbaeva, G. E. Nasakaeva, Y. Yukhnevich, G. K. Alshynbekova, A. E. Dyusembaeva


Background: The level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) allows to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease and is a criterion for the effectiveness of the treatment. The detection the products of lipidperoxidation cascade, such as conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde in biological material, has an important role in the development of pathogenesis, the diagnosis and prognosis in different parasitic diseases. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of endogenous intoxication and indicators of lipid peroxidation in patients with giardiasis before and after treatment. Materials and methods: Endogenous intoxication was evaluated in patients with giardiasis in the level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) in the blood. The amount of MMP and products of lipid peroxidation were determined in the blood of 198 patients with giardiasis, 129 of them were women (65%), 69 were men (35%). The MMP level was detected for comparison in the blood of 84 healthy volunteers. The lipid peroxidation were determined in 40 healthy men and women without giardiasis and history of chronic diseases. Data were processed by conventional methods of variation statistics, we calculated the arithmetic mean (M) and standard dispersion (m). t-test (t) was used to assess differences. Results: The level of MMP in the blood was significantly higher in patients with giardiasis in comparison with group of healthy men and women. MMP concentration in the blood of women with Giardia was 2.5 times greater than that of the comparison groups of women. The level of MMP exceeds more than 6 times in men with giardiasis. The decrease in the intensity of endogenous intoxication was two weeks after antigiardia therapy, both men and women. According to the study, a statistically significant increase in the level of all the studied parameters lipid peroxidation cascade was observed in the blood of men with giardiasis, with the exception of the total primary production (NGN). The treatment of giardiasis helped to stabilize the level of almost all metabolites of lipid peroxidation cascade. The exception was level of malondialdehyde, it was significantly elevated to compare with the control group and after treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the MMP level was significantly higher in blood of patients with giardiasis than in comparison group. This is evidence of severe endogenous intoxication caused by giardia infection. The accumulation of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in the blood of men and women. These processes tend to be more active in men than in women. Antigiardiasis therapy contributed to the normalization of almost all the studied indicators of lipid peroxidation in the blood of participants, except the level malondialdehyde in the blood of men.

Keywords: enzymes of antioxidant protection, giardiasis, blood, treatment

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48 Efficiency of Treatment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Destructive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Intravenous Chemotherapy

Authors: M. Kuzhko, M. Gumeniuk, D. Butov, T. Tlustova, O. Denysov, T. Sprynsian


Background: The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of chemotherapy using intravenous antituberculosis drugs compared with their oral administration during the intensive phase of treatment. Methods: 152 tuberculosis patients were randomized into 2 groups: Main (n=65) who received isoniazid, ethambutol and sodium rifamycin intravenous + pyrazinamide per os and control (n=87) who received all the drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide) orally. Results: After 2 weeks of treatment symptoms of intoxication disappeared in 59 (90.7±3.59 %) of patients of the main group and 60 (68.9±4.9 %) patients in the control group, p<0.05. The mean duration of symptoms of intoxication in patients main group was 9.6±0.7 days, in control group – 13.7±0.9 days. After completing intensive phase sputum conversion was found in all the patients main group and 71 (81.6±4.1 %) patients control group p < 0.05. The average time of sputum conversion in main group was 1.6±0.1 months and 1.9±0.1 months in control group, p > 0.05. In patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis time to sputum conversion was 1.7±0.1 months in main group and 2.2±0.2 months in control group, p < 0.05. The average time of cavities healing in main group was 2.9±0.2 months and 3.9±0.2 months in the control group, p < 0.05. Conclusions: In patients with newly diagnosed destructive pulmonary tuberculosis use of isoniazid, ethambutol and sodium rifamycin intravenous in the intensive phase of chemotherapy resulted in a significant reduction in terms of the disappearance of symptoms of intoxication and sputum conversion.

Keywords: intravenous chemotherapy, tuberculosis, treatment efficiency, tuberculosis drugs

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47 Young People, Well-Being and Risk-Taking: Doing Gender in Relation to Health and Heavy Drinking

Authors: Jukka Torronen


Introduction: Alcohol consumption and health are areas where gender binaries have persisted. By intoxication, men have displayed their masculinity as strong, while matters of health have formed a feminine undertaking. However, in recent years young people’s alcohol consumption has declined and been challenged by competing activities, including the rising health trend. This makes the comparison of young people’s masculinities and femininities in health and heavy drinking an important case to study. Methods: The data consists of semi-structured interviews about alcohol, health, and leisure activities among young people aged between 15 and 19 (N=56). By drawing on Butler’s work on “gender as performative” and Connell’s understanding of gendered identities as “configurations of practices,” the paper analyzes how the interviewees are doing masculinities and femininities in relation to health and heavy drinking, and how their gender performances are dichotomous, naturalized and contested. Results: The interviewees approach health from two perspectives, which are called “social health” and “physical health” approaches. They are both gendered. Especially in the “social health” approach, in which intoxication and risk-taking are used to increase well-being, the interviewees perform stereotypical gender binaries. The interviewees’ gendered performances in the “physical health” approach show more variability and are more reflective and critical. In contrast to intoxication, in relation to which the interviewees perform biologically driven gender binaries, they perform culturally driven genders in relation to health. Conclusions: Health seems to provide for the interviewees a field in which they feel more liberated to perform flexible and alternative genders.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking, qualitative interviews, gender, health, risk-taking

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46 ‘Social Health’, ‘Physical Health’ and Wellbeing: Analyzing the Interplay between the Practices of Heavy Drinking and Exercise among Young People with Bourdieusian Concepts

Authors: Jukka Törrönen


In the article, we examine the interplay between the practices of heavy drinking and exercise among young people as patterned around the ‘social’ and ‘physical health’ approaches. The comparison helps us to clarify why young people are currently drinking less than earlier and how the neoliberal healthism discourse, as well as the feminine tradition of taking care of one’s body, are modifying young people’s heavy drinking practices. The data is based on interviews (n = 56) in Sweden among 15-16-year-olds and 18˗19-year-olds. By drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we examine what kinds of resources of wellbeing young people accumulate in the fields of heavy drinking and exercise, how these resources carry symbolic value for distinction, and what kind of health-related habitus they imply. The analysis suggests that as heavy drinking is no longer able to stand as a practice through which one may acquire capital that is more valuable than the capital acquired in other fields, this lessens peer pressure to drink among young people. Our analysis further shows that the healthism discourse modifies young people’s heavy drinking practices both from inside and from outside. The interviewees translate the symbolic value of healthism discourse to social vulnerability and deploy it for the purposes of increasing one’s social status among peers. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates that the social spaces and positions in intoxication and exercise are shaped by gendered dualisms of masculine dominance. However, while the interviewees naturalize the gender binaries in intoxication as based on biological drives, they understand gender binaries in exercise as normative social constructions of neoliberal society. As these binaries emphasize the struggle for recognition of the symbolic value of bodily look, they may shift young men’s attention from risk-taking to issues that traditionally have been female concerns.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking , health, intoxication, exercise, Bourdieu

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45 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu


Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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44 Lipid Emulsion versus DigiFab in a Rat Model of Acute Digoxin Toxicity

Authors: Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Kemal Aygun, Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur


Although the mechanism of action is not well known, Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that ILE probably separate the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high dose free fatty acids activating the voltage gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, the effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose which are frequently observed in emergency departments was searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival. The study was carried out at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine-Experimental Animals Research Center Labs in December 2015. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g were divided into 5 groups randomly. As the pre-treatment, the first group received saline, the second group received lipid, the third group received DigiFab, and the fourth group received DigiFab and lipid. Following that, digoxin was infused to all groups until death except the control group. First arrhythmia and cardiac arrest occurrence times were recorded. As no medication causing arrhythmia was infused, Group 5 was excluded from the statistical analysis performed for the comparisons of first arrhythmia and death time. According to the results although there was no significant difference in the statistical analysis comparing the four groups, as the rats, only exposed to digoxin intoxication were compared with the rats pre-treated with ILE in terms of first arrhythmia time and cardiac arrest occurrence times, significant difference was observed between the groups. According to our results, using DigiFab treatment, intralipid treatment, intralipid and DigiFab treatment for the rats exposed to digoxin intoxication makes no significant difference in terms of the first arrhythmia and death occurrence time. However, it is not possible to say that at the doses we use in the study, ILE treatment might be successful at least as a known antidote. The fact that the statistical significance between the two groups is not observed in the inter-comparisons of all the groups, the study should be repeated in the larger groups.

Keywords: arrhytmia, cardiac arrest, DigiFab, digoxin intoxication

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43 An Inexhaustible Will of Infinite, or the Creative Will in the Psychophysiological Artistic Practice: An Analysis through Nietzsche's Will to Power

Authors: Filipa Cruz, Grecia P. Matos


An Inexhaustible Will of Infinite is ongoing practice-based research focused on a psychophysiological conception of body and on the creative will that seeks to examine the possibility of art being simultaneously a pacifier and an intensifier in a physiological artistic production. This is a study where philosophy and art converge in a commentary on the affection of the concept of will to power in the art world through Nietzsche’s commentaries, through the analysis of case studies and a reflection arising from artistic practice. Through Nietzsche, it is sought to compare concepts that communicate with the artistic practice since creation is an intensification and engenders perspectives. It is also a practice highly embedded in the body, in the non-verbal, in the physiology of art and in the coexistence between the sensorial and the thought. It is questioned if the physiology of art could be thought of as a thinking-feeling with no primacy of the thought over the sensorial. Art as a manifestation of the will to power participates in a comprehension of the world. In this article, art is taken as a privileged way of communication – implicating corporeal-sensorial-conceptual – and of connection between humans. Problematized is the dream and the drunkenness as intensifications and expressions of life’s comprehension. Therefore, art is perceived as suggestion and invention, where the artistic intoxication breaks limits in the experience of life, and the artist, dominated by creative forces, claims, orders, obeys, proclaims love for life. The intention is also to consider how one can start from pain to create and how one can generate new and endless artistic forms through nightmares, daydreams, impulses, intoxication, enhancement, intensification in a plurality of subjects and matters. It is taken into consideration the fact that artistic creation is something that is intensified corporeally, expanded, continuously generated and acting on bodies. It is inextinguishable and a constant movement intertwining Apollonian and Dionysian instincts of destruction and creation of new forms. The concept of love also appears associated with conquering, that, in a process of intensification and drunkenness, impels the artist to generate and to transform matter. Just like a love relationship, love in Nietzsche requires time, patience, effort, courage, conquest, seduction, obedience, and command, potentiating the amplification of knowledge of the other / the world. Interlacing Nietzsche's philosophy, not with Modern Art, but with Contemporary Art, it is argued that intoxication, will to power (strongly connected with the creative will) and love still have a place in the artistic production as creative agents.

Keywords: artistic creation, body, intensification, psychophysiology, will to power

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42 L-Carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic Acid Intoxication: A Systemic Review

Authors: Byung Keun Yang, Jae Eun Ku, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee


The purpose of this study is to review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety between L-carnitine and extracorporeal elimination therapy in the management of acute valproic acid L-carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic acid Intoxication. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, KoreaMed, KMbase, and KISS were searched, using the terms carnitine and valproic acid. All studies, regardless of design, reporting efficacy or safety endpoints were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Both English and Korean languages were included. Two authors extracted primary data elements including poisoning severity, presenting features, clinical management, and outcomes. Thirty two articles including 33 cases were identified. Poisoning severity was classified as 3 mild, 11 moderate, and 19 severe cases. Nine cases were treated with L-carnitine while 24 cases received extracorporeal therapy without L-carnitine. All patients except one expired patient treated with hemodialysis recovered clinically and no adverse effects were noted. A case report comparing two patients who ingested the same amount of valproic acid showed increased ICU stay (3 vs. 11 days) in case of delayed extracorporeal therapy. Published evidence comparing L-carnitine with extracorporeal therapy is limited. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to consider L-carnitine for patients with acute valproic acid overdose. In case of severe poisoning, extracorporeal therapy would also be considered in the early phase of treatment.

Keywords: carnitine, overdose, poisoning, renal dialysis, valproic acid

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41 Self-reported Acute Pesticide Intoxication in Ethiopia

Authors: Amare Nigatu, Mågne Bratveit, Bente E. Moen


Background: Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications are related to working there or not. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5-12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 hours of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those, who had experienced this and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model. Results: The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26%, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42%) compared to those living far away (11%), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56%) than those living close & did not work there (16%), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56%) than those not working there (13%,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95% CI: 2.9-5.6. Conclusion: The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher prevalence of API than those living 5-12 kilometers away. This increased risk of API was associated with work at the flower farm.

Keywords: acute pesticide intoxications, self-reported symptoms, flower farm workers, living proximity

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40 Debating the Ethical Questions of the Super Soldier

Authors: Jean-François Caron


The current attempts to develop what we can call 'super soldiers' are problematic in many regards. This is what this text will try to explore by concentrating primarily on the repercussions of this technology and medical research on the physical and psychological integrity of soldiers. It argues that medicines or technologies may affect soldiers’ psychological and mental features and deprive them of their capacity to reflect upon their actions as autonomous subjects and that such a possibility entails serious moral as well as judicial consequences.

Keywords: military research, super soldiers, involuntary intoxication, criminal responsibility

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39 Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Nebulized Chemotherapy in Treatment of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Comparison to Standard Antimycobacterial Therapy

Authors: M. Kuzhko, M. Gumeniuk, D. Butov, T. Tlustova, O. Denysov, T. Sprynsian


Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison with standard antimycobacterial therapy. Materials and methods: The study involved 68 patients aged between 20 and 70 years with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were allocated to two groups. The first (main, n=21) group of patients received standard chemotherapy and further 0.15 g of isoniazid and rifampicin 0.15 g inhaled through a nebulizer, also they received salmeterol 50 mcg + fluticasone propionate 250 mcg at 2 breaths twice a day for 2 months. The second (control, n=47) group of patients received standard chemotherapy, consisting of orally administered isoniazid (0.3 g), rifampicin (0.6 g), pyrazinamide (2 g), ethambutol (1.2 g) with a dose reduction after the intensive phase of the therapy. The anti-TB drugs were procured through the Ukraine’s centralized national supply system. Results: Intoxication symptoms in the first group reduced following 1.39±0.18 months, whereas in the second group, intoxication symptoms reduced following 2.7±0.1 months, p<.001. Moreover, respiratory symptoms regression in the first group was observed following 1.6±0.2 months, whereas in the second group – following 2.5±0.2 months, p<0.05. Bacillary excretion period evaluated within 1 month was reduced, as it was shown by 66.6±10.5% in the main group compared to 27.6±6.5%, p<0.05, in the control group. In addition, period of cavities healing was reduced to 2.9±0.2 months in the main group compared to 3.7±0.1 months, p<0.05, in the control group. Residual radiological lung damage findings (large residual changes) were observed in 22 (23.8±9.5 %) patients of the main group versus 24 (51.0±7.2 %) patients in the control group, p<0.05. After completion of treatment scar stenosis of the bronchi II-III art. diagnosed in 3 (14.2±7.8%) patients in main group and 17 (68.0±6.8%) - control group, p<0.05. The duration of hospital treatment was 2.4±0.4 months in main group and 4.1±0.4 months in control group, p<0.05. Conclusion: Administration of of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis resulted in a comparatively quick reduction of disease manifestation.

Keywords: inhaled nebulized chemotherapy, pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculosis, treatment of tuberculosis

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38 Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Outbreak in North-Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Fatima Meirkhankyzy Shaizadina, Alua Oralovna Omarova, Praskovya Mikhailovna Britskaya, Nessipkul Oryntayevna Alysheva


In recent years in the Republic of Kazakhstan there have been registered outbreaks of measles among the population. The objective of work was the analysis of outbreak of measles in 2014 among the population of North-Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the analysis of the measles outbreak descriptive and analytical research, techniques were used and threshold levels of morbidity were calculated. The increase of incidence was noted from March to July. The peak was registered in May and made 9.0 per 100000 population. High rates were registered in April – 5.7 per 100000 population, and in June and July they made 5.7 and 3.1 respectively. Duration of the period of increase made 5 months. The analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality. Across the territory it was established that 69.2% of cases were registered in the city, 29.1% in rural areas and 1.7% of cases were brought in from other regions of Kazakhstan. The registered cases and threshold values of measles during the outbreak revealed that from 12 to 24 week, and also during the 40th week the cases exceeding the threshold levels are registered. Thus, for example, for the analyzed 1 week the number of the revealed patients made 4, which exceeds the calculated threshold value (3) by 33.3%. The data exceeding the threshold values confirm the emergence of a disease outbreak or the beginning of epidemic rise in morbidity. Epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed throughout 2014. The risk group includes 0-4 year-old children, who made 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The analysis of measles cases registration by gender revealed that women are registered 1.1 times more often than men. The ratio of women to men made 1:0.87. In social and professional groups often ill are unorganized children – 23.3% and students – 19.8%. Studying clinical manifestations of measles in the hospitalized patients, the typical beginning of a disease with expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established. In individual cases expressed intoxication symptoms, hemorrhagic and dyspeptic syndromes, complications in the form of overlay of a secondary bacterial infection, which defined high severity of the illness, were registered both in adults and in children. The average duration of stay of patients in the hospital made 6.9 days. The average duration of time between date of getting the disease and date of delivery of health care made 3.6 days. Thus, the analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality, the peak of which was registered in May. Urban dwellers are ill more often (69.2%), while in rural areas people are ill more rarely (29.1%). Throughout 2014 an epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed. Risk group includes: children under 4 – 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The ratio of women and men made 1:0.87. The typical beginning of a disease in all hospitalized with the expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established.

Keywords: epidemiological analysis, measles, morbidity, outbreak

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37 Honey Intoxication: A Unique Cause of Sudden Cardiac Collapse

Authors: Bharat Rawat, Shekhar Rajbhandari, Yadav Bhatta, Jay Prakash Jaiswal, Shivaji Bikram Silwal, Rajiv Shrestha, Shova Sunuwar


Introduction: The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhobdodendron species containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey. Grayanotoxin is found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species growing on the mountains of the Black Sea region of Turkey and also in Japan, Nepal, Brazil, parts of North America, and Europe. Although the incidence of grayanotoxin poisoning is rare, there is concern that the number of cases per year will rise with the increasing demand for organic products. Mad honey intoxication might present with mild symptoms of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neurological systems or might also present with a life-threatening form with AV block and cardiovascular collapse. In this article, we describe the summary of five cases, which came to our hospital with mad honey related cardiac complications. Findings: In last one year, five cases presented in the emergency department with sudden onset of Loss of consciousness, dizziness, shortness of breath. They felt difficulty after the consumption of 1-3 teaspoonful of wild honey. The honey was brought from most of the rural parts of Nepal like khotang. Some of them also came with vomiting, dizziness, and loose stool. On examination, most of them had severe bradycardia and low blood pressure. No abnormalities were detected on systemic examinations. In one patient, ECG and cardiac enzymes showed features of the acute coronary syndrome, but his treadmill test done few days later was normal. All patients were managed with inj. Atropine, I/V normal saline, and other supportive measures and discharged in a stable condition within one or two days. Conclusions: Rhododendrons is the national flower of Nepal. The specific species of rhododendron found in Nepal which contains the toxin is not known. Bees feeding on these rhododendrons are known to transfer the grayanotoxin to the honey they produce. Most symptoms are mild and resolve themselves without medical intervention. Signs and symptoms of grayanotoxin poisoning rarely last more than 24 hours and are usually not fatal. Some signs of mad honey poisoning include Bradycardia, Cardiac arrhythmia, Hypotension, Nausea and Vomiting. They respond to close monitoring and appropriate supportive treatment. Normally, patients recover completely with no residual damage to the heart or its conduction system.

Keywords: rhobdodendron, honey, grayanotoxin, bradycardia

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36 Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

Authors: Sara Ataei, Mohammad Bagher Oghazian, Mania Radfar


We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH) vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

Keywords: vitamin D, hypercalcemia, vitamin D toxicity, parathyroid hormone

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35 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: removal, metal, heavy oil, nickel, vanadium

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34 Civil Protection in Mass Methanol Poisoning in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková, Jiří Barta, Otakar J. Mika, Jan Hrdlička, Josef Kellner


The paper is focused on the method to solutions the crisis situation in the Czech Republic associated with the mass methanol poisoning. The emphasis is put on tasks of individual state bodies and of Integrated Rescue System during the handling of the crisis. The theoretical part describes poisonings, ways of intoxication, types of intoxicants and cases of mass poisoning by dangerous substances in the world. The practical part describes the development, causes and solutions of extraordinary event, mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic. The main emphasis was put on the crisis management of the Czech Republic in solving this situation.

Keywords: crisis management, poisoning, methanol, hazardous substances, extraordinary event

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33 Rapid and Culture-Independent Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus by PCR Based Protocols

Authors: V. Verma, Syed Riyaz-ul-Hassan


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria and is hard to eliminate from the human environment. It is responsible for many nosocomial infections, besides being the main causative agent of food intoxication by virtue of its variety of enterotoxins. Routine detection of S. aureus in food is usually carried out by traditional methods based on morphological and biochemical characterization. These methods are time-consuming and tedious. In addition, misclassifications with automated susceptibility testing systems or commercially available latex agglutination kits have been reported by several workers. Consequently, there is a need for methods to specifically discriminate S. aureus from other staphylococci as quickly as possible. Data on protocols developed using molecular means like PCR technology will be presented for rapid and specific detection of this pathogen in food, clinical and environmental samples, especially milk.

Keywords: food Pathogens, PCR technology, rapid and specific detection, staphylococcus aureus

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32 Improved Food Security and Alleviation of Cyanide Intoxication through Commercialization and Utilization of Cassava Starch by Tanzania Industries

Authors: Mariam Mtunguja, Henry Laswai, Yasinta Muzanilla, Joseph Ndunguru


Starchy tuberous roots of cassava provide food for people but also find application in various industries. Recently there has been the focus of concentrated research efforts to fully exploit its potential as a sustainable multipurpose crop. High starch yield is the important trait for commercial cassava production for the starch industries. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava root poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Farming communities where cassava is a staple food, prefer bitter (high cyanogenic) varieties as protection from predators and thieves. As a result, food insecure farmers prefer growing bitter cassava. This has led to cyanide intoxication to this farming communities. Cassava farmers can benefit from marketing cassava to starch producers thereby improving their income and food security. This will decrease dependency on cassava as staple food as a result of increased income and be able to afford other food sources. To achieve this, adequate information is required on the right cassava cultivars and appropriate harvesting period so as to maximize cassava production and profitability. This study aimed at identifying suitable cassava cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production. Six commonly grown cultivars were identified and planted in a complete random block design and further analysis was done to assess variation in physicochemical characteristics, starch yield and cyanogenic potentials across three environments. The analysis showed that there is a difference in physicochemical characteristics between landraces (p ≤ 0.05), and can be targeted to different industrial applications. Among landraces, dry matter (30-39%), amylose (11-19%), starch (74-80%) and reducing sugars content (1-3%) varied when expressed on a dry weight basis (p ≤ 0.05); however, only one of the six genotypes differed in crystallinity and mean starch granule particle size, while glucan chain distribution and granule morphology were the same. In contrast, the starch functionality features measured: swelling power, solubility, syneresis, and digestibility differed (p ≤ 0.05). This was supported by Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which highlighted the divergence among the cassavas based on starch functionality, permitting suggestions for the targeted uses of these starches in diverse industries. The study also illustrated genotypic difference in starch yield and cyanogenic potential. Among landraces, Kiroba showed potential for maximum starch yield (12.8 t ha-1) followed by Msenene (12.3 t ha-1) and third was Kilusungu (10.2 t ha-1). The cyanide content of cassava landraces was between 15 and 800 ppm across all trial sites. GGE biplot analysis further confirmed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu had the highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore it can also be suitable for use in starch production.

Keywords: cyanogen, cassava starch, food security, starch yield

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31 Atypical Intoxication Due to Fluoxetine Abuse with Symptoms of Amnesia

Authors: Ayse Gul Bilen


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressants that are used clinically for the treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorders and eating disorders. The first SSRI, fluoxetine (sold under the brand names Prozac and Sarafem among others), had an adverse effect profile better than any other available antidepressant when it was introduced because of its selectivity for serotonin receptors. They have been considered almost free of side effects and have become widely prescribed, however questions about the safety and tolerability of SSRIs have emerged with their continued use. Most SSRI side effects are dose-related and can be attributed to serotonergic effects such as nausea. Continuous use might trigger adverse effects such as hyponatremia, tremor, nausea, weight gain, sleep disturbance and sexual dysfunction. Moderate toxicity can be safely observed in the hospital for 24 hours, and mild cases can be safely discharged (if asymptomatic) from the emergency department once cleared by Psychiatry in cases of intentional overdose and after 6 to 8 hours of observation. Although fluoxetine is relatively safe in terms of overdose, it might still be cardiotoxic and inhibit platelet secretion, aggregation, and plug formation. There have been reported clinical cases of seizures, cardiac conduction abnormalities, and even fatalities associated with fluoxetine ingestions. While the medical literature strongly suggests that most fluoxetine overdoses are benign, emergency physicians need to remain cognizant that intentional, high-dose fluoxetine ingestions may induce seizures and can even be fatal due to cardiac arrhythmia. Our case is a 35-year old female patient who was sent to ER with symptoms of confusion, amnesia and loss of orientation for time and location after being found wandering in the streets unconsciously by police forces that informed 112. Upon laboratory examination, no pathological symptom was found except sinus tachycardia in the EKG and high levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Diffusion MRI and computed tomography (CT) of the brain all looked normal. Upon physical and sexual examination, no signs of abuse or trauma were found. Test results for narcotics, stimulants and alcohol were negative as well. There was a presence of dysrhythmia which required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The patient gained back her conscience after 24 hours. It was discovered from her story afterward that she had been using fluoxetine due to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for 6 months and that she had attempted suicide after taking 3 boxes of fluoxetine due to the loss of a parent. She was then transferred to the psychiatric clinic. Our study aims to highlight the need to consider toxicologic drug use, in particular, the abuse of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have been widely prescribed due to presumed safety and tolerability, for diagnosis of patients applying to the emergency room (ER).

Keywords: abuse, amnesia, fluoxetine, intoxication, SSRI

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30 Protective Approach of Mentha Piperita against Cadmium Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj


Cadmium is the second most hazardous heavy metal occurring in both elemental as well as compound forms. It is a highly toxic metal with a very high bio-concentration factor (BCF>100). WHO permitted groundwater cadmium concentration is 0.005 mg/L only, but reality is far away from this limit. A number of natural and anthropogenic industrial activities contribute to the spread of cadmium into the environment. The present study had been designated to find out the renal changes at functional level after cadmium intoxication and protection against these changes offered by Mentha piperata. For the purpose, albino rats were selected as the model organism. Cadmium significantly increases the serum level of serum proteins and nitrogenous wastes showing reduced filtration rate of kidneys. Pretreatment with Mentha piperata leaf extract causes significant retention of these levels to normalcy. These findings conclude that Cadmium exposure affects renal functioning but Mentha could prevent it, proving its nephro-protective potential against heavy metal toxicity.

Keywords: albino rat, cadmium, Mentha piperata, nephrotoxicity

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29 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito


Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

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28 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh


Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, traditional cheese, Behbahan, Escherichia coli

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27 Concomitant Exposure of Bacoside A and Bromelain Relieves Dichlorvos Toxicity in Mice Serum

Authors: Sonam Agarwal, Renu Bist


Current study emphasizes the toxic effects of dichlorvos on serum in terms of oxidative stress. Meanwhile, a protective action of bacoside A and bromelain was investigated against the biochemical alterations in serum. The experimental design included six groups of mice: saline was given as a vehicle to the control mice (group I). Mice belonging to groups II, III and IV, were administered with dichlorvos (40 mg/kg b.w.), bromelain and bacoside A, respectively. The fifth group received a combination of bromelain and bacoside A. In group VI, Bacoside A, and bromelain were administered 20 minutes prior to exposure of dichlorvos. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were used as biochemical test of toxic action for dichlorvos intoxication. Significantly increased TBARS and PCC level in second group suggests that dichlorvos enhances the production of free radicals in serum of mice (p< 0.05). Antioxidants treatment significantly decreased the levels of TBARS and PCC (p< 0.05). Dichlorvos administration causes a significant reduction in the level of CAT, SOD, GPx and GSH (p< 0.05) which was restored significantly by co-administration of bromelain and Bacoside A in dichlorvos exposed mice (p< 0.05). Treatment of bromelain and Bacoside A in combination served as better scavengers of toxicity induced by dichlorvos.

Keywords: bacoside A, bromelain, dichlorvos, serum

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26 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar


The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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25 Protective Efficacy of Curcuma Aromatica Leaf Extract on Liver of Arsenic Intoxicated Albino Rats

Authors: Priya Bajaj, Baby Tabassum


Arsenic is a poisonous metalloid, naturally occurring in soil, air, rocks and ground water. This dreadful metalloid commonly exists as inorganic compound, arsenic trioxide. WHO permitted maximum limit for arsenic in water is 0.01 mg/L, but some affected areas show ground water level of arsenic up to 3 mg/L even. Ground water arsenic pollution has created a number of health problems, viz. keratosis, melanosis, lesions and even skin cancers. The key objective of our nested study was to characterize arsenic induced hepatotoxicity and to find out some herbal protection against it. For the purpose, we selected albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) as model for arsenic induced liver injury and wild turmeric (Curcuma aromatica) leaf extract as remedy for it. The study was performed at acute (1 day) and subacute (7, 14 & 21 days) levels. The LD50 estimated for arsenic trioxide was 14.98 mg/kg body weight. In our investigation, we observed a significant restoration of altered hepatic lipid, cholesterol, protein and glycogen contents as well as liver weight, body-weight and hepato-somatic index by Curcuma aromatica leaf extract before arsenic intoxication. The results reveal excellent protective efficacy of Curcuma aromatica leaf extract that further can be exploited in remediation programme in heavy metal affected areas.

Keywords: arsenic, Curcuma aromatica, glycogen, lipids

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24 Association of Alcohol Consumption with Active Tuberculosis in Taiwanese Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Yung-Feng Yen, Yun-Ju Lai


Background: Animal studies have shown that alcohol exposure may cause immunosuppression and increase the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the temporality of alcohol consumption with subsequent TB development remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on TB development in Taiwanese adults. Methods: We included 46 196 adult participants from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption was classified into heavy, regular, social, or never alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates. Results: A total of 279 new cases of active TB occurred during the study follow-up period. Heavy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.21; 95% confident interval [CI], 2.41-11.26) and regular alcohol use (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.26-2.38) were associated with higher risks of incident TB after adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities. Moreover, a strong dose-response effect was observed between increasing alcohol consumption and incident TB (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.59-3.21; P <.001). Conclusion: Heavy and regular alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of active TB. Future TB control programs should consider strategies to lower the overall level of alcohol consumption to reduce the TB disease burden.

Keywords: alcohol consumption, tuberculosis, risk factor, cohort study

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23 Formulation and Anticancer Evaluation of Beta-Sitosterol in Henna Methanolic Extract Embedded in Controlled Release Nanocomposite

Authors: Sanjukta Badhai, Durga Barik, Bairagi C. Mallick


In the present study, Beta-Sitosterol in Lawsonia methanolic leaf extract embedded in controlled release nanocomposite was prepared and evaluated for in vivo anticancer efficacy in dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. In the present study, colon cancer was induced by s.c injection of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 15 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups as follows control, DMH alone, DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (50mg/kg), DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) and DMH and Standard Silymarin (100mg/kg) and the treatment was carried out for 15 weeks. At the end of the study period, the blood was withdrawn, and serum was separated for haematological, biochemical analysis and tumor markers. Further, the colonic tissue was removed for the estimation of antioxidants and histopathological analysis. The results of the study displays that DMH intoxication elicits altered haematological parameters (RBC,WBC, and Hb), elevated lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants level (SOD, CAT, GPX, GST and GSH), elevated lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglycerides), tumor markers (CEA and AFP) and altered colonic tissue histology. Meanwhile, treatment with Beta Sitosterol nanocomposites significantly restored the altered biochemicals parameters in DMH induced colon cancer mediated by its anticancer efficacy. Further, Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) showed marked efficacy.

Keywords: nanocomposites, herbal formulation, henna, beta sitosterol, colon cancer, dimethyl hydrazine, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

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