Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22022

Search results for: epidemiological analysis

22022 Towards an Enhanced Compartmental Model for Profiling Malware Dynamics

Authors: Jessemyn Modiini, Timothy Lynar, Elena Sitnikova

Abstract:

We present a novel enhanced compartmental model for malware spread analysis in cyber security. This paper applies cyber security data features to epidemiological compartmental models to model the infectious potential of malware. Compartmental models are most efficient for calculating the infectious potential of a disease. In this paper, we discuss and profile epidemiologically relevant data features from a Domain Name System (DNS) dataset. We then apply these features to epidemiological compartmental models to network traffic features. This paper demonstrates how epidemiological principles can be applied to the novel analysis of key cybersecurity behaviours and trends and provides insight into threat modelling above that of kill-chain analysis. In applying deterministic compartmental models to a cyber security use case, the authors analyse the deficiencies and provide an enhanced stochastic model for cyber epidemiology. This enhanced compartmental model (SUEICRN model) is contrasted with the traditional SEIR model to demonstrate its efficacy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, epidemiology, cyber epidemiology, malware

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22021 Using an Epidemiological Model to Study the Spread of Misinformation during the Black Lives Matter Movement

Authors: Maryam Maleki, Esther Mead, Mohammad Arani, Nitin Agarwal

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The proliferation of social media platforms like Twitter has heightened the consequences of the spread of misinformation. To understand and model the spread of misinformation, in this paper, we leveraged the SEIZ (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Skeptics) epidemiological model to describe the underlying process that delineates the spread of misinformation on Twitter. Compared to the other epidemiological models, this model produces broader results because it includes the additional Skeptics (Z) compartment, wherein a user may be Exposed to an item of misinformation but not engage in any reaction to it, and the additional Exposed (E) compartment, wherein the user may need some time before deciding to spread a misinformation item. We analyzed misinformation regarding the unrest in Washington, D.C. in the month of March 2020, which was propagated by the use of the #DCblackout hashtag by different users across the U.S. on Twitter. Our analysis shows that misinformation can be modeled using the concept of epidemiology. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to attempt to apply the SEIZ epidemiological model to the spread of a specific item of misinformation, which is a category distinct from that of rumor and hoax on online social media platforms. Applying a mathematical model can help to understand the trends and dynamics of the spread of misinformation on Twitter and ultimately help to develop techniques to quickly identify and control it.

Keywords: Black Lives Matter, epidemiological model, mathematical modeling, misinformation, SEIZ model, Twitter

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22020 Epidemiological profile of Tuberculosis Disease in Meknes, Morocco. Descriptive analysis, 2016-2020

Authors: Authors: A. Lakhal, M. Bahalou, A. Khattabi

Abstract:

Introduction: Tuberculosis is one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases. In Morocco, a total of 30,636 cases of Tuberculosis, all forms combined, were reported in 2015, representing an incidence of 89 cases per 100,000 population. The number of deaths from tuberculosis (TB) was 656 cases. In the prefecture of Meknes, its incidence remains high compared to the national level. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in the prefecture of Meknes. Methods: It is a descriptive analysis of TB cases reported between 2016 and 2020 at the regional diagnostic center of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. We performed analysis by using Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo 7. Results: Epidemiological data from 2016 to 2020 report a total of 4100 new cases of all forms of tuberculosis, with an average of 820 new cases per year. The median age is 32 years. There is a clear male predominance, on average 58% of cases are male and 42% female. The incidence rate of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis per 100,000 inhabitants has increased from 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016 to 39.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2020. The confirmation rate for pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 84% in 2016 to 75% in 2020. Pulmonary involvement predominates by an average of 46%, followed by lymph node involvement 29%and pleural involvement by an average of 10%. Digestive, osteoarticular, genitourinary, and meningeal involvement occurs in 8% of cases. Primary tuberculosis infection occurs in an average of 0.5% of cases. The proportion of HIV-TB co-infections was 2.8 in 2020. Conclusion: The incidence of tuberculosis in Meknes remains high compared to the national level. Thus, it is imperative to reinforce the earlier detection; improve the contact tracing, detection methods of cases for their confirmation and treatment, and to reduce the proportion of the lost to follow up as well.

Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiological profile, meknes, morocco

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22019 Prey-Predator Eco-Epidemiological Model with Nonlinear Transmission Disease

Authors: Qamar J. A. Khan, Fatma Ahmed Al Kharousi

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A prey-predator eco-epidemiological model is studied where transmission of the disease between infected and uninfected prey is nonlinear. The interaction of the predator with infected and uninfected prey species depend on their numerical superiority. Harvesting of both uninfected and infected prey is considered. Stability analysis is carried out for equilibrium values. Using the parameter µ, the death rate of infected prey as a bifurcation parameter it is shown that Hopf bifurcation could occur. The theoretical results are compared with numerical results for different set of parameters.

Keywords: bifurcation, optimal harvesting, predator, prey, stability

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22018 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir

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The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: chickpea, epidemiological, screening, disease

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22017 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

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The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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22016 The Effect of Geographical Differentials of Epidemiological Transition on Health-Seeking Behavior in India

Authors: Sumit Kumar Das, Laishram Ladusingh

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Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the differential of epidemiological transition across fifteen agro-climatic zones of India and its effect on health-seeking behavior. Data and Methods: Unit level data on consumption expenditure on health of India from three decadal rounds conducted by National Sample Survey Organization are used for the analysis. These three rounds are 52nd (1995-96), 60th (2004-05) and 71st (2014-15). The age-adjusted prevalence rate for communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases are estimated for fifteen agro-climatic zones of India for three time periods. Bivariate analysis is used to find out determinants of health-seeking behavior. Multilevel logistic regression is used to examine factors effecting on household health-seeking behavior. Result: The prevalence of communicable diseases is increasing in most of the zones of India. Every South Indian zones, Gujarat plains, and lower Gangetic plain are facing the severe attack of dual burden of diseases. Demand for medical advice has increased in southern zones, and east zones, reliance on private healthcare facilities are increasing in most of the zone. Demographic characteristics of the household head have a significant impact on health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: Proper program implementation is required considering the disease prevalence and differential in the pattern of health seeking behavior. Along with initiation and strengthening of programs for non-communicable, existing programs for communicable diseases need to monitor and supervised strictly.

Keywords: agro-climatic zone, epidemiological transition, health-seeking behavior, multilevel regression

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22015 Epidemiological Model for Citrus Black Spot Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain

Authors: Nqobile Muleya, Winston Garira, Godwin Mchau

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Citrus Black Spot (CBS) is a fungal disease that is responsible for huge economical loss and poses a threat to the citrus industry worldwide. We construct a mathematical model framework for citrus black spot between fruits to characterise the dynamics of the disease development, paying attention to the pathogen life cycle. We have made an observation from the model analysis that the initial inoculum from ascomata is very important for disease development and thereafter it is no longer important due to conidia which is responsible for secondary infection. Most importantly, the model indicated that ascospores and conidia are very important parameters in developing citrus black spot within a short distance. The basic reproductive number and its importance in relation to citrus black spot persistence are outlined. A numerical simulation of the model was done to explain the theoretical findings.

Keywords: epidemiological modelling, Guidnardia citricarpa, life cycle stage, fungal, disease development

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22014 Analysis of Sentinel Epidemiological Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in the Republic of Kazakhstan during Seasons 2014/2015 - 2015/2016

Authors: Ardak Myrzabekova

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Sentinel epidemiological surveillance (SES) of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) was introduced in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2008. The purpose of this study was to analyze SES of flu among SARI patients in the Republic of Kazakhstan during last two flu seasons. Comparative analysis was conducted of SARI morbidity during 40 – 23 weeks of 2014/2015 (season 2014) and 2015/2016 (season 2015) in online base (http:\\ses.dec.kz). In the database during season 2014 were 1,398 SARI patients and 1,985 patients during season 2015. Individual data (clinical, epidemiological and laboratory) of SARI cases were collected based on the questionnaire and were put into the flu electronic system. The studied population was residents of the Republic of Kazakhstan who addressed for medical help in 24 sentinel in-patient clinics in 9 sentinel regions of the country. Swabs from nose and throat were taken for laboratory testing from SARI patients who met the standard case definition. The samples were examined in virology labs of sentinel regions using PCR and 'AmpliSens' test systems made in Russia. The first positive results for flu during season 2014 were obtained on 48 week, during season 2015 – on 46 week. The increase of the number of hospitalized SARI patients was observed during 42 week of 2015 – 01 week of 2016, and during 03 - 06 weeks of 2016, with fluctuating SARI incidence rate from 171 to 444 per 1,000 hospitalized. The highest SARI incidence rate during season 2014 were observed during 01 - 03 weeks of 2015: from 389 to 466 per 1,000 hospitalized. Patients admitted to the ICU during season 2015 were 3.0% (60) SARI patients, compared to 2.7% (38) in 2014 (p=0.3), obtaining oxygen therapy 1.0% (21) compared to 0.3% (5), accordingly, (р=0.009); with shortness of breath 74.8% (1,486) compared to 72.6% (1,015), (р=0.07); with impairment of consciousness 1.0% (21) compared to 0.6% (9), (р=0.11); with muscle pain 19.3% (384) compared to 13.6% (191), (р < 0.001); with joint pain 13.3% (265) compared to 9.3% (131), (p < 0.001). During season 2015 the prevailing subtype of flu А was А/Н1N1-09, it was observed mainly in the age group 30-64: 32.5% (169/520). During season 2014 flu А/Н3N2 was observed mainly in the age group 15-29: 43.6% (106/243). Among children under 14 flu А/Н1N1-09 during season 2015 was 37.3% (194/520), during season 2014 flu А/Н3N2 – 34.9% (85/243). Earlier beginning of the flu season was noted in 2015-2016 and a longer period of hospitalization of SARI patients, with high SARI morbidity rates, unlike season 2014-2015. Season 2015-2016 was characterized by prevailing circulation of virus of flu А/Н1N1-09, mainly in the age group 30-64, and also among children under 14. During season 2014-2015 the virus circulating in the country was А/Н3N2, which was observed mainly in the age group 15-29 and among children under 14.

Keywords: flu, electronic system, sentinel epidemiological surveillance, severe acute respiratory infections

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22013 Preparedness Level of European Cultural Institutions and Catering Establishments Within the Sanitary and Epidemiological Dimension During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk

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Introduction: In December 2019, the first case of an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus was recorded in Wuhan in Central China. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization restrictions, among others, in the travel industry. Aim: The aim of the study was the assessment of the preparedness of European cultural institutions and catering establishments within the sanitary and epidemiological dimension during the COVID-19 pandemic by Polish tourists and their sense of safety in selected destinations. Material and methods: The study involved 300 Polish tourists (125 females, 175 males, age 46.5+/-12.9 years) who traveled during the COVID-19 pandemic to Southern European countries. 5 most popular travel destinations were selected: Italy, Austria, Greece, Croatia, and Mediterranean islands. The tourists assessed cultural institutions and catering establishments with the use of a proprietary questionnaire which concerned the preparedness regarding the sanitary and epidemiological requirements and the tourists' sense of safety. The number of respondents was deliberate - 60 persons per each country. Results: The more stringent sanitary regimes, the higher the sense of safety in the study group of females aged 45-50 (p<0.005), while the more stringent sanitary and epidemiological issues are implemented, the shorter the stay (p<0.001). Less stringent restrictions resulted in increased sense of freedom and mental rest in the group of studied males (p<0.005). Conclusions: The respondents' opinions revealed that the highest level of safety with regard to sanitary and epidemiological requirements (masks covering mouth and nose worn by both personnel and society, the necessity to present the COVID passport, the possibility to disinfect hands) was observed in Austria and Italy, while shorter length of the stay in these countries resulted from high prices, particularly in catering establishments. According to the respondents, less stringent restrictions, among others lack of the necessity to own the COVID passport, were linked to Croatia and Mediterranean islands. The sense of safety was satisfying, while the sense of freedom and mental rest was high. declared a string of COVID-19 cases a pandemic. Most countries implemented numerous sanitary and epidemiological

Keywords: sanitary and epidemiological regimes, tourist facilities, COVID-19 pandemic, sense of safety

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22012 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Krishna Pandey, Major Madhukar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: asymptomatic, epidemiological, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%), interleukin-10, diagnosis

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22011 Multiscale Modelling of Citrus Black Spot Transmission Dynamics along the Pre-Harvest Supply Chain

Authors: Muleya Nqobile, Winston Garira

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We presented a compartmental deterministic multi-scale model which encompass internal plant defensive mechanism and pathogen interaction, then we consider nesting the model into the epidemiological model. The objective was to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of within host and between host of Guignardia citricapa Kiely. The inflow of infected class was scaled down to individual level while the outflow was scaled up to average population level. Conceptual model and mathematical model were constructed to display a theoretical framework which can be used for predicting or identify disease pattern.

Keywords: epidemiological model, mathematical modelling, multi-scale modelling, immunological model

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22010 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

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Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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22009 Description and Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Meningitis in the Province of Taza Between 2016 and 2020

Authors: Bennasser Samira

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Meningitis, especially the meningococcal one, is a serious problem of public health. A system of vigilanceand surveillance is in place to allow effective actions to be taken on actual or potential health problems caused by all forms of meningitis. Objectives: 1. Describe the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 2. Evaluate the quality and responsiveness of the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 3. Propose measures to improve this system at the provincial level. Methods: This was a descriptive study with a purely quantitative approach by evaluating the quality and responsiveness of the system during 5 years between January 2016 and December 2020. We usedfor that the investigation files of meningitis cases and the provincial database of meningitis. We calculated some quality indicators of surveillance system already defined by the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Meningitis. Results: The notification is passive, the completeness of the data is quite good (94%), and the timeliness don’t exceed 71%. The quality of the data is acceptable (91% agreement). The systematic and rapid performance of lumbar punctures increases the diagnostic capabilities of the system. The local response actions are effected in 100%. Conclusion: The improvement of this surveillance system depends on strengthening the staff skills in diagnostic, reviewing surveillance tools, and encouraging judicious use of the data.

Keywords: evaluation, meningitis, system, taza, morocco

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22008 Detection of Chaos in General Parametric Model of Infectious Disease

Authors: Javad Khaligh, Aghileh Heydari, Ali Akbar Heydari

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Mathematical epidemiological models for the spread of disease through a population are used to predict the prevalence of a disease or to study the impacts of treatment or prevention measures. Initial conditions for these models are measured from statistical data collected from a population since these initial conditions can never be exact, the presence of chaos in mathematical models has serious implications for the accuracy of the models as well as how epidemiologists interpret their findings. This paper confirms the chaotic behavior of a model for dengue fever and SI by investigating sensitive dependence, bifurcation, and 0-1 test under a variety of initial conditions.

Keywords: epidemiological models, SEIR disease model, bifurcation, chaotic behavior, 0-1 test

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22007 Epidemiological, Clinical, Histopathological Profile and Management of Breast Cancer at Kinshasa University Clinics

Authors: Eddy K. Mukadi

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This work is a documentary and descriptive study devoted to the epidemiological, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic profile of breast cancer deals with the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the university clinics of Kinshasa during the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We have identified 56 cases of breast cancer. These cancers accounted for 45.2% of gynecological mammary cancers. The youngest in our series was 18 years old while the oldest was 74 years old; And the mean age of these patients was 43.4 years and mostly multiparous (35.7%). Brides (60.7%) and bachelors (26.8%) were the most affected by breast cancer. The reasons for consultation were dominated by nodules in the breast (48.2%) followed by pain (35.7%) and nipple discharge (14.3%). In 89.2% of the cases, it was the advanced clinical stage (stage 3 and 4) and the infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (75%) The malignant tumor was mainly in the left breast (55.3%), and chemotherapy with hormone therapy and patey was the most convenient treatment (42.8%), while patey mastectomy was performed in 12.5% of patients. Because of the high incidence of breast cancer identified in our study, some preventive measures must be taken into account to address this public health problem, including breast autopalpation once a month, Early detection system development of a national breast cancer policy and the implementation of a national breast cancer control program.

Keywords: breast cancer, histopathological profile, epidemiological profile, Kinshasa

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22006 How to Break an Outbreak: Containment Measures of a Salmonella Outbreak Associated with Egg Consumption

Authors: Gal Zagron, Nitza Abramson, Deena R. Zimmerman, Chen Stein-Zamir

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Background: Salmonella enteritidis is a common cause of foodborne outbreaks, primarily associated with poultry eggs. S. enteritidis This is the only Salmonella type that is found inside the eggshell. A rise in Salmonella enteritidis notifications was noted in spring 2017. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological investigation of the outbreak in the Jerusalem district, along with the containment measures taken. Methods: This study is a population-based epidemiological study with a description of environmental control activities. Results: During the months May - July, 2017 848 salmonellosis cases were reported to the Jerusalem district health office compared to 294 cases May - July 2016. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated in 58% of reported cases. Clusters and outbreaks ( > 2 cases) were reported among nursery schools, nursing homes, persons residing in one kibbutz and several cases in different food service establishments in the Jerusalem district. Epidemiological investigations revealed eggs consumption as a common feature among the cases (uncooked or undercooked eggs in most cases). A national investigation among egg suppliers revealed that most cases consumed eggs provided by a single provider with isolation of Salmonella enteritidis at the source as well. Containment measures were taken to control the epidemic including distributing information via electronic and written media to the public, searching for all egg distribution centers, informing local authorities, the poultry council and food stores. The eggs originating from the provider were recalled and extinguished. Written instructions to all food preparation facilities in the district were distributed regarding the proper storage and preparation of eggs. The number of reported cases declined and the outbreak vanished during correlating months of 2018. Conclusions: The investigation of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks should include epidemiological and laboratory investigations, tracing the source of the eggs and testing the eggs and the source of eggs. Health education activities are essential as to the proper handling of eggs and egg products aiming to minimize susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

Keywords: epidemiological investigation, food-borne disease, food safety, Salmonella enteritidis

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22005 Evaluation of the Surveillance System for Rift Valley Fever in Ruminants in Mauritania, 2019

Authors: Mohamed El Kory Yacoub, Ahmed Bezeid El Mamy Beyatt, Djibril Barry, Yanogo Pauline, Nicolas Meda

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Introduction: Rift Valley Fever is a zoonotic arbovirosis that severely affects ruminants, as well as humans. It causes abortions in pregnant females and deaths in young animals. The disease occurs during heavy rains followed by large numbers of mosquito vectors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever. Methods: We conducted an evaluation of the Rift Valley Fiver surveillance system. Data were collected from the analysis of the national database of the Mauritanian Network of Animal Disease Epidemiological Surveillance at the Ministry of Rural Development, of RVF cases notified from the whole national territory, of questionnaires and interviews with all persons involved in RVF surveillance at the central level. The quality of the system was assessed by analyzing the quantitative attributes defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: In 2019, 443 cases of RVF were notified by the surveillance system, of which 36 were positive. Among the notified cases of Rift Valley Fever, the 0- to the 3-year-old age group of small ruminants was the most represented with 49.21% of cases, followed by 33.33%, which was recorded in large ruminants in the 0 to 7-year-old age group, 11.11% of cases were older than seven years. The completeness of the data varied between 14.2% (age) and 100% (species). Most positive cases were recorded between October and November 2019 in seven different regions. Attribute analysis showed that 87% of the respondents were able to use the case definition well, and 78.8% said they were familiar with the reporting and feedback loop of the Rift Valley Fever data. 90.3% of the respondents found it easy, while 95% of them responded that it was easy for them to transmit their data to the next level. Conclusions: The epidemiological surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania is simple and representative. However, data quality, stability, and responsiveness are average, as the diagnosis of the disease requires laboratory confirmation and the average delay for this confirmation is long (13 days). Consequently, the lack of completeness of the recorded data and of description of cases in terms of time-place-animal, associated with the delay between the stages of the surveillance system can make prevention, early detection of epidemics, and the initiation of measures for an adequate response difficult.

Keywords: evaluation, epidemiological surveillance system, rift valley fever, mauritania, ruminants

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22004 Financial Benefits after the Implementation of Antimicrobial Copper in Intensive Care Units (ICUs)

Authors: P. Efstathiou, E. Kouskouni, S. Papanikolaou, K. Karageorgou, Z. Manolidou, Tseroni Maria, A. Efstathiou, V. Karyoti, I. Agrafa

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Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) microbial flora after the antimicrobial copper alloy (Cu+) implementation as well as the effect on financial-epidemiological operation parameters. Methods: Medical, epidemiological and financial data in two time periods, before and after the implementation of copper (Cu 63% - Zn 37%, low lead) were recorded and analyzed in a general ICU. The evaluated parameters were: the importance of patients' admission (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation - APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SAPS), microbial flora's record in the ICU before and after the implementation of Cu+ as well as the impact on epidemiological and ICU's operation financial parameters. Results: During December 2010 and March 2011 and respectively during December 2011 and March 2012 comparative results showed statistically significant reduction on the microbial flora (CFU/ml) by 95% and the use of antimicrobial medicine (per day per patient) by 30% (p = 0,014) as well as patients hospitalization time and cost. Conclusions: The innovative implementation of antimicrobial copper in ICUs contributed to their microbial flora significant reduction and antimicrobial drugs use reduction with the apparent positive effect (decrease) in both patient’s hospitalization time and cost. Under the present circumstances of economic crisis, survey results are of highest importance and value.

Keywords: antimicrobial copper, financial benefits, ICU, cost reduction

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22003 Epidemiological Analysis of the Patients Supplied with Foot Orthoses in Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo

Authors: Ardiana Murtezani, Ilirijana Dallku, Teuta Osmani Vllasolli, Sabit Sllamniku

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Background: The use of foot orthoses are always indicated when there are alterations of the optimal biomechanics' position of the foot. Orthotics are very effective and very suitable for the majority of patients with pain due to overload which can be related to biomechanical disorders. Aim: To assess the frequency of patients requiring foot orthoses, type of orthoses and analysis of their disease leading to the use of foot orthoses. Material and Methods: Our study included 128 patients with various foot pathologies, treated at the outpatient department of the Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo (OPCK) in Prishtina. Prospective-descriptive clinical method was used during this study. Functional status of patients was examined, and the following parameters are noted: range of motion measurements for the affected joints/lower extremities, manual test for muscular strength below the knee and foot of the affected extremity, perimeter measurements of the lower extremities, measurements of lower extremities, foot length measurement, foot width measurements and size. In order to complete the measurements the following instruments are used: plantogram, pedogram, meter and cork shoe lift appliances. Results: The majority of subjects in this study are male (60.2% vs. 39.8%), and the dominant age group was 0-9 (47.7%), 61 subjects respectively. Most frequent foot disorders were: congenital disease 60.1%, trauma cases 13.3%, consequences from rheumatologic disease 12.5%, neurologic dysfunctions 11.7%, and the less frequented are the infectious cases 1.6%. Congenital anomalies were the most frequent cases, and from this group majority of cases suffered from pes planovalgus (37.5%), eqinovarus (15.6%) and discrepancies between extremities (6.3%). Furthermore, traumatic amputations (2.3%) and arthritis (0.8%). As far as neurologic disease, subjects with cerebral palsy are represented with (3.1%), peroneal nerve palsy (2.3%) and hemiparesis (1.6%). Infectious disease osteomyelitis sequels are represented with (1.6%). Conclusion: Based on our study results, we have concluded that the use of foot orthoses for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and nonspecific arthropaty was effective treatment choice, leading to decrease of pain, less deformities and improves the quality of life.

Keywords: orthoses, epidemiological analysis, rheumatoid arthritis, rehabilitation

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22002 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez

Abstract:

Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

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22001 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, R. L. Bouchouka, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

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The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: cancer, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry, stomach

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22000 Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field; An Invisible Risk Association between High Power Transmission Lines and Childhood Leukemia and Adult Brain Cancer: Literature Review

Authors: Ali Azeem, Seung-Cheol Hong

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This study focuses on the epidemiological association between childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer to offer strong evidence that extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) produced from power lines caused cancer. It also gives a comprehensive literature review on epidemiological studies of ELF-MF risk associated with HVTL and childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer. From the literature review, it is concluded that there is a weak association present between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. No consistent association was present between brain cancer and ELF-MF. This study is done on Scielo data and PubMed using the terms extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF+cancer), adult brain cancer, high power transmission lines, etc., for the past 10 years.

Keywords: childhood leukaemia, high voltage transmission lines, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, power lines

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21999 Investigating the Epidemiological Prevalence of Diabetes in Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019

Authors: Pouriya Darabiyan, Kourosh Zarea, Saeed Ghanbari, Aseya Temori, Shokreya Ehsani

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Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in adults. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan between 2015 and 2019. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using the information of diabetics registered in the system related to the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019. Eventually, people's information, including age, gender, and place of residence, was entered into STATA software version 12 and analyzed using descriptive statistics tests. Results: The study, which was performed on 49,339 people with diabetes in 34 provinces and 8 regions of Afghanistan, found that most of the women studied were 55.2% (272,311) women and had the highest and lowest prevalence in the region. The order is related to South East and South. The average prevalence of diabetes per 10,000 people is about 62.13. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan over a five-year period in men and women is on the rise, requiring more attention from relevant authorities to improve public health and prevent, control and treat chronic diseases such as diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes, Prevalence, Afghanistan, Epidemiology

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, Afghanistan, epidemiology

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21998 Poultry in Motion: Text Mining Social Media Data for Avian Influenza Surveillance in the UK

Authors: Samuel Munaf, Kevin Swingler, Franz Brülisauer, Anthony O’Hare, George Gunn, Aaron Reeves

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Background: Avian influenza, more commonly known as Bird flu, is a viral zoonotic respiratory disease stemming from various species of poultry, including pets and migratory birds. Researchers have purported that the accessibility of health information online, in addition to the low-cost data collection methods the internet provides, has revolutionized the methods in which epidemiological and disease surveillance data is utilized. This paper examines the feasibility of using internet data sources, such as Twitter and livestock forums, for the early detection of the avian flu outbreak, through the use of text mining algorithms and social network analysis. Methods: Social media mining was conducted on Twitter between the period of 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021 via the Twitter API in Python. The results were filtered firstly by hashtags (#avianflu, #birdflu), word occurrences (avian flu, bird flu, H5N1), and then refined further by location to include only those results from within the UK. Analysis was conducted on this text in a time-series manner to determine keyword frequencies and topic modeling to uncover insights in the text prior to a confirmed outbreak. Further analysis was performed by examining clinical signs (e.g., swollen head, blue comb, dullness) within the time series prior to the confirmed avian flu outbreak by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). Results: The increased search results in Google and avian flu-related tweets showed a correlation in time with the confirmed cases. Topic modeling uncovered clusters of word occurrences relating to livestock biosecurity, disposal of dead birds, and prevention measures. Conclusions: Text mining social media data can prove to be useful in relation to analysing discussed topics for epidemiological surveillance purposes, especially given the lack of applied research in the veterinary domain. The small sample size of tweets for certain weekly time periods makes it difficult to provide statistically plausible results, in addition to a great amount of textual noise in the data.

Keywords: veterinary epidemiology, disease surveillance, infodemiology, infoveillance, avian influenza, social media

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21997 Suspected Odyssean Malaria Outbreak in Gauteng Province, September 2014

Authors: Patience Manjengwa-Hungwe, Carmen White

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Background: Odyssean malaria refers to malaria acquired by infected mosquito bites from malaria endemic to non-endemic regions by mechanical modes of transport, such as airplanes, water vessels, trains and vehicles. Odyssean Malaria is rare and is characterised by absence of travel history to malaria endemic areas. As not anticipated in non-endemic areas, late diagnosis and treatment lead to a high case fatality rate. On 26 September 2014, the Outbreak Response Unit at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases was notified of a suspected death from Odyssean Malaria in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, a non-endemic area. The main objective of this investigation was to identify the etiological agent's mode and source of transmission. Methods: Epidemiological surveys were conducted with the deceased’s family and clinical details were obtained from doctors who treated the victim in Southrand, Johannesburg. Blood samples were collected prior to death and sent to the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg laboratory for a full blood count, urea electrolytes, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Environmental assessments and entomological investigations, including collection of mosquito and larvae, were conducted at the deceased’s home and surrounding areas and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Results: Epidemiological surveys revealed no travel history, no mechanical transmission through blood transfusion and no previous possible exposure of the victim to malaria mosquitoes. Laboratory findings indicated that the platelet count was low. A further smear revealed that the malaria parasite was present and malaria antigen for P. falciparum was positive. Entomological findings revealed that none of the six adult or larval mosquitoes collected on site were malaria vectors. Dumping sites found at the back of the house were identified as possible sites where mosquitoes from endemic places could possibly breed. Conclusion: Given that there was no travel history or the possibility of mechanical transmission (blood transfusion or needle), the research team concluded that it is highly probable that the infection was acquired through an infective Anopheles mosquito inadvertently translocated from a Malaria endemic area by mechanical modes of transport. We recommend that clinicians in non-endemic malaria areas be aware of this type of malaria and test for malaria in patients showing malaria-like symptoms.

Keywords: Odyssean Malaria, vector Bourne, malaria, epidemiological surveys

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21996 Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Outbreak in North-Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Fatima Meirkhankyzy Shaizadina, Alua Oralovna Omarova, Praskovya Mikhailovna Britskaya, Nessipkul Oryntayevna Alysheva

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In recent years in the Republic of Kazakhstan there have been registered outbreaks of measles among the population. The objective of work was the analysis of outbreak of measles in 2014 among the population of North-Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the analysis of the measles outbreak descriptive and analytical research, techniques were used and threshold levels of morbidity were calculated. The increase of incidence was noted from March to July. The peak was registered in May and made 9.0 per 100000 population. High rates were registered in April – 5.7 per 100000 population, and in June and July they made 5.7 and 3.1 respectively. Duration of the period of increase made 5 months. The analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality. Across the territory it was established that 69.2% of cases were registered in the city, 29.1% in rural areas and 1.7% of cases were brought in from other regions of Kazakhstan. The registered cases and threshold values of measles during the outbreak revealed that from 12 to 24 week, and also during the 40th week the cases exceeding the threshold levels are registered. Thus, for example, for the analyzed 1 week the number of the revealed patients made 4, which exceeds the calculated threshold value (3) by 33.3%. The data exceeding the threshold values confirm the emergence of a disease outbreak or the beginning of epidemic rise in morbidity. Epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed throughout 2014. The risk group includes 0-4 year-old children, who made 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The analysis of measles cases registration by gender revealed that women are registered 1.1 times more often than men. The ratio of women to men made 1:0.87. In social and professional groups often ill are unorganized children – 23.3% and students – 19.8%. Studying clinical manifestations of measles in the hospitalized patients, the typical beginning of a disease with expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established. In individual cases expressed intoxication symptoms, hemorrhagic and dyspeptic syndromes, complications in the form of overlay of a secondary bacterial infection, which defined high severity of the illness, were registered both in adults and in children. The average duration of stay of patients in the hospital made 6.9 days. The average duration of time between date of getting the disease and date of delivery of health care made 3.6 days. Thus, the analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality, the peak of which was registered in May. Urban dwellers are ill more often (69.2%), while in rural areas people are ill more rarely (29.1%). Throughout 2014 an epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed. Risk group includes: children under 4 – 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The ratio of women and men made 1:0.87. The typical beginning of a disease in all hospitalized with the expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established.

Keywords: epidemiological analysis, measles, morbidity, outbreak

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
21995 Evolution of Reported Bluetongue Outbreaks inAlgeria: Epidemiological Situation

Authors: Amel Benatallah, Michel Marie, Faical Ghozlane

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Bluetongue (BT) is a major concern of veterinary services and a real threat to the sheep population. Epidemiological situation of blue tongue has revealed that in 2000, the serotype 2 (BTV2) was isolated and identified. The vector of BTV has affected 10 provinces out of 48 provinces in the country. As a result, 28 outbreaks were reported with 191 cases including 29 deaths. In 2006, the vector of the FCO has still hit Algeria, but this time with another serotype, the BTV 1. The latter was responsible for the resurgence of the disease in 11 provinces (29 outbreaks with 265 reported cases and 36 deaths).The same serotype (BTV1) was isolated and identified in 2008 in two provinces (2 outbreaks with 15 cases revealing 5 deaths) , in 2009 in 5 provinces (19 outbreaks with 78 reported cases and 20 deaths). In addition, 2010 and 2011 saw the resurgence of the same serotype (BTV1) respectively in 9 (46 outbreaks with 131 cases including and 25 deaths) and 7 provinces (16 outbreaks with 63 reported cases and 6 deaths). Serological and entomological surveys were conducted in Algeria during the period from 2000 to 2007 in order to identify the different BTV strains of existing FCO in Algeria in addition to vector Culicoides Imicola and to study the ecology of this vector to limit its movement in the country.

Keywords: blue tongue, serotype, vectors, culicoides imicola, BTV, FCO

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
21994 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

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21993 Computing Transition Intensity Using Time-Homogeneous Markov Jump Process: Case of South African HIV/AIDS Disposition

Authors: A. Bayaga

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This research provides a technical account of estimating Transition Probability using Time-homogeneous Markov Jump Process applying by South African HIV/AIDS data from the Statistics South Africa. It employs Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) model to explore the possible influence of Transition Probability of mortality cases in which case the data was based on actual Statistics South Africa. This was conducted via an integrated demographic and epidemiological model of South African HIV/AIDS epidemic. The model was fitted to age-specific HIV prevalence data and recorded death data using MLE model. Though the previous model results suggest HIV in South Africa has declined and AIDS mortality rates have declined since 2002 – 2013, in contrast, our results differ evidently with the generally accepted HIV models (Spectrum/EPP and ASSA2008) in South Africa. However, there is the need for supplementary research to be conducted to enhance the demographic parameters in the model and as well apply it to each of the nine (9) provinces of South Africa.

Keywords: AIDS mortality rates, epidemiological model, time-homogeneous markov jump process, transition probability, statistics South Africa

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