Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2743

Search results for: intermediate non-destructive testing

2743 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji

Abstract:

Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: nondestructive testing, pavement moduli backcalculation, finite element method, concrete pavements

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2742 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

Abstract:

Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded Linux system, image processing

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2741 Nondestructive Testing for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Active Infrared Thermography

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Jungwon Huh, Kiseok Kwak, Choonghyun Kang

Abstract:

Infrared thermography (IRT) technique has been proven to be a good method for nondestructive evaluation of concrete material. In the building, a broad range of applications has been used such as subsurface defect inspection, energy loss, and moisture detection. The purpose of this research is to consider the qualitative and quantitative performance of reinforced concrete deteriorations using active infrared thermography technique. An experiment of three different heating regimes was conducted on a concrete slab in the laboratory. The thermal characteristics of the IRT method, i.e., absolute contrast and observation time, are investigated. A linear relationship between the observation time and the real depth was established with a well linear regression R-squared of 0.931. The results showed that the absolute contrast above defective area increases with the rise of the size of delamination and the heating time. In addition, the depth of delamination can be predicted by using the proposal relationship of this study.

Keywords: concrete building, infrared thermography, nondestructive evaluation, subsurface delamination

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2740 Concrete-Wall-Climbing Testing Robot

Authors: S. Tokuomi, K. Mori, Y. Tsuruzono

Abstract:

A concrete-wall-climbing testing robot, has been developed. This robot adheres and climbs concrete walls using two sets of suction cups, as well as being able to rotate by the use of the alternating motion of the suction cups. The maximum climbing speed is about 60 cm/min. Each suction cup has a pressure sensor, which monitors the adhesion of each suction cup. The impact acoustic method is used in testing concrete walls. This robot has an impact acoustic device and four microphones for the acquisition of the impact sound. The effectiveness of the impact acoustic system was tested by applying it to an inspection of specimens with artificial circular void defects. A circular void defect with a diameter of 200 mm at a depth of 50 mm was able to be detected. The weight and the dimensions of the robot are about 17 kg and 1.0 m by 1.3 m, respectively. The upper limit of testing is about 10 m above the ground due to the length of the power cable.

Keywords: concrete wall, nondestructive testing, climbing robot, impact acoustic method

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2739 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: intermediate non-destructive testing, medium scale industries, process layout design

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2738 Analysis of the Annual Proficiency Testing Procedure for Intermediate Reference Laboratories Conducted by the National Reference Laboratory from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Reena K., Mamatha H. G., Somshekarayya, P. Kumar

Abstract:

Objectives: The annual proficiency testing of intermediate reference laboratories is conducted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) to assess the efficiency of the laboratories to correctly identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to determine its drug susceptibility pattern. The proficiency testing results from 2013 to 2017 were analyzed to determine laboratories that were consistent in reporting quality results and those that had difficulty in doing so. Methods: A panel of twenty cultures were sent out to each of these laboratories. The laboratories were expected to grow the cultures in their own laboratories, set up drug susceptibly testing by all the methods they were certified for and report the results within the stipulated time period. The turnaround time for reporting results, specificity, sensitivity positive and negative predictive values and efficiency of the laboratory in identifying the cultures were analyzed. Results: Most of the laboratories had reported their results within the stipulated time period. However, there was enormous delay in reporting results from few of the laboratories. This was mainly due to improper functioning of the biosafety level III laboratory. Only 40% of the laboratories had 100% efficiency in solid culture using Lowenstein Jensen medium. This was expected as a solid culture, and drug susceptibility testing is not used for diagnosing drug resistance. Rapid molecular methods such as Line probe assay and Genexpert are used to determine drug resistance. Automated liquid culture system such as the Mycobacterial growth indicator tube is used to determine prognosis of the patient while on treatment. It was observed that 90% of the laboratories had achieved 100% in the liquid culture method. Almost all laboratories had achieved 100% efficiency in the line probe assay method which is the method of choice for determining drug-resistant tuberculosis. Conclusion: Since the liquid culture and line probe assay technologies are routinely used for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis the laboratories exhibited higher level of efficiency as compared to solid culture and drug susceptibility testing which are rarely used. The infrastructure of the laboratory should be maintained properly so that samples can be processed safely and results could be declared on time.

Keywords: annual proficiency testing, drug susceptibility testing, intermediate reference laboratory, national reference laboratory

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2737 Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ

Authors: Manish Jain, Dinesh Gopalani

Abstract:

Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.

Keywords: aspect oriented programming, AspectJ, aspects, JU-nit, software testing

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2736 Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Non-Destructive Testing on Complex Structure

Authors: Y. L. Hor, H. S. Chu, V. P. Bui

Abstract:

Composite material is widely used to replace conventional material, especially in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of the devices. It is formed by combining reinforced materials together via adhesive bonding to produce a bulk material with alternated macroscopic properties. In bulk composites, degradation may occur in microscopic scale, which is in each individual reinforced fiber layer or especially in its matrix layer such as delamination, inclusion, disbond, void, cracks, and porosity. In this paper, we focus on the detection of defect in matrix layer which the adhesion between the composite plies is in contact but coupled through a weak bond. In fact, the adhesive defects are tested through various nondestructive methods. Among them, pulsed phase thermography (PPT) has shown some advantages providing improved sensitivity, large-area coverage, and high-speed testing. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient numerical model to study the application of PPT to the nondestructive inspection of weak bonding in composite material. The resulting thermal evolution field is comprised of internal reflections between the interfaces of defects and the specimen, and the important key-features of the defects presented in the material can be obtained from the investigation of the thermal evolution of the field distribution. Computational simulation of such inspections has allowed the improvement of the techniques to apply in various inspections, such as materials with high thermal conductivity and more complex structures.

Keywords: pulsed phase thermography, weak bond, composite, CFRP, computational modelling, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2735 Performance Analysis of Carbon Nanotube for VLSI Interconnects and Their Comparison with Copper Interconnects

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Prashant Gupta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the bundle of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for low-power and high-speed interconnects for future VLSI applications. The power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP) of SWCNT bundle interconnects are examined and compared with that of the Cu interconnects at 22 nm technology node for both intermediate and global interconnects. The results show that SWCNT bundle consume less power and also faster than Cu for intermediate and global interconnects. It is concluded that the metallic SWCNT has been regarded as a viable candidate for intermediate and global interconnects in future technologies.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, SWCNT, low power, delay, power delay product, global and intermediate interconnects

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2734 Application of Optical Method Based on Laser Devise as Non-Destructive Testing for Calculus of Mechanical Deformation

Authors: R. Daïra, V. Chalvidan

Abstract:

We present the speckle interferometry method to determine the deformation of a piece. This method of holographic imaging using a CCD camera for simultaneous digital recording of two states object and reference. The reconstruction is obtained numerically. This latest method has the advantage of being simpler than the methods currently available, and it does not suffer the holographic configuration faults online. Furthermore, it is entirely digital and avoids heavy analysis after recording the hologram. This work was carried out in the laboratory HOLO 3 (optical metrology laboratory in Saint Louis, France) and it consists in controlling qualitatively and quantitatively the deformation of object by using a camera CCD connected to a computer equipped with software of Fringe Analysis.

Keywords: speckle, nondestructive testing, interferometry, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2733 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Welds Fabricated at a Close Proximity on Offshore Structures

Authors: T. Nakkeran, Ramasamy Deverajan, How Peng Yeow, Jerry Sorton, C. Dhamodharan, Win Myint Soe

Abstract:

This manuscript presents the results from an experimental investigation performed to study the material and mechanical properties of two weld joints fabricated within close proximity. The experiment has been designed using welded S355 D Z35 with distances between two parallel adjacent weld toes at 8 mm. These distances were less than the distance that has normally been recommended in standards, codes, and specifications. The main idea of the analysis is to determine any significant effects when welding the joints with the close proximity of 8mm using SAW Welding Process of the one joint with high heat put and one joint welded with FCAW welding process evaluating the destructing and nondestructive testing between the welded joints. Further, we have evaluated the joints with mechanical testing for evaluating by performing tensile test, bend testing, macrostructure, microstructure, hardness test, impact testing. After evaluating the final outcome of the result, no significant changes were observed for welding the close proximity of weld of 8mm distance between the joints as compared to the specification minimum distance between the weldments of any design should be 50mm.

Keywords: S355 carbon steel, weld proximity, bending test, hardness test, impact test, macro, and microscopic examinations

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2732 Low Complexity Deblocking Algorithm

Authors: Jagroop Singh Sidhu, Buta Singh

Abstract:

A low computational deblocking filter including three frequency related modes (smooth mode, intermediate mode, and non-smooth mode for low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high frequency regions, respectively) is proposed. The suggested approach requires zero additions, zero subtractions, zero multiplications (for intermediate region), no divisions (for non-smooth region) and no comparison. The suggested method thus keeps the computation lower and thus suitable for image coding systems based on blocks. Comparison of average number of operations for smooth, non-smooth, intermediate (per pixel vector for each block) using filter suggested by Chen and the proposed method filter suggests that the proposed filter keeps the computation lower and is thus suitable for fast processing algorithms.

Keywords: blocking artifacts, computational complexity, non-smooth, intermediate, smooth

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2731 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri

Abstract:

Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

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2730 Emergence of Ciprofloxacin Intermediate Susceptible Salmonella Typhi in India

Authors: Meenakshi Chaudhary, V .S. Randhawa, M. Jais, R. Dutta

Abstract:

Introduction: An outbreak of Multi drug resistant S. Typhi (i.e. resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) occurred in 1990's in India which peaked in 1992-93 and resulted in the change of drug of choice from chloramphenicol to ciprofloxacin for enteric fever. Currently an emergence of Ciprofloxacin susceptible S. Typhi isolates in the region is being reported which appears to be chromosomally mediated. Methodology: Six hundred sixty four strains were randomly selected from the time period between January 2008-December 2011 at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, LHMC, New Delhi. The strains were representative of the north, central and south zones of India. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, biotyping, phage typing and then to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by CLSI disk diffusion (CLSI) technique to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-Sulfomethoxazole and Tetracycline. Subsequently MIC of the isolates was determined by E-test (AB-Biodisc). Results: More than 80% of the tested strains had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The E test revealed the MIC (Ciprofloxacin) of these strains to be in the range of 0.12 to 0.5 µg/ml. Sixty nine percent of ciprofloxacin intermediate susceptible strains belonged to Phage type E1 and fourteen percent of these were Vi- Negative i.e these could not be typed by the phage typing scheme of Craigie and Yen. All the strains remained susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusion: Predominant isolation of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains from India would alter the recommendations of empiric treatment of enteric fever in the region. Alternative to the low cost ciprofloxacin will have to be sought or increased dosage and/or duration of ciprofloxacin will have to be recommended. The reasons for the trend of increase in percentage of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains are not clear but may be attributed partly to the revision of CLSI guidelines in 2013.

Keywords: salmonella typhi, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, ciprofloxacin, minimum inhibitory concentration

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2729 Study of Transformer and Motor Winding under Pulsed Power Application

Authors: Arijit Basuray, Saibal Chatterjee

Abstract:

Pulsed Power in the form of Recurrent Surge Generator (RSG) can be used for testing various parameters of Motor or Transformer windings including inter-turn, interlayer insulation. Windings with solid insulation in motor and transformer have many interfaces and undesirable defects, and these defects can be exposed under this nondestructive testing methodology. Due to rapid development in power electronics variable frequency drives (VFD), Dry Type or cast resin Transformer used with PWM Sine wave inverters for solar power, solid insulation system used nowadays are shifting more and more to a high-frequency application. Authors have used the recurrent surge generator for testing winding integrity as well as Partial Discharge(PD) at fast rising voltage enabling PD measurement at closer situation under which the insulation system is supposed to work. Authors have discussed test results on a different system with recurrent surge voltages of different rise time.

Keywords: fast rising voltage, partial discharge, pulsed power, recurrent surge generator, solid insulation

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2728 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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2727 A Comparative Study of Three Major Performance Testing Tools

Authors: Abdulaziz Omar Alsadhan, Mohd Mudasir Shafi

Abstract:

Performance testing is done to prove the reliability of any software product. There are a number of tools available in the markets that are used to perform performance testing. In this paper we present a comparative study of the three most commonly used performance testing tools. These tools cover the major share of the performance testing market and are widely used. In this paper we compared the tools on five evaluation parameters which are; User friendliness, portability, tool support, compatibility and cost. The conclusion provided at the end of the paper is based on our study and does not support any tool or company.

Keywords: software development, software testing, quality assurance, performance testing, load runner, rational testing, silk performer

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2726 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

Abstract:

Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: urban planning, tourism, cultural heritage, intermediate cities

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2725 The Difference of Learning Outcomes in Reading Comprehension between Text and Film as The Media in Indonesian Language for Foreign Speaker in Intermediate Level

Authors: Siti Ayu Ningsih

Abstract:

This study aims to find the differences outcomes in learning reading comprehension with text and film as media on Indonesian Language for foreign speaker (BIPA) learning at intermediate level. By using quantitative and qualitative research methods, the respondent of this study is a single respondent from D'Royal Morocco Integrative Islamic School in grade nine from secondary level. Quantitative method used to calculate the learning outcomes that have been given the appropriate action cycle, whereas qualitative method used to translate the findings derived from quantitative methods to be described. The technique used in this study is the observation techniques and testing work. Based on the research, it is known that the use of the text media is more effective than the film for intermediate level of Indonesian Language for foreign speaker learner. This is because, when using film the learner does not have enough time to take note the difficult vocabulary and don't have enough time to look for the meaning of the vocabulary from the dictionary. While the use of media texts shows the better effectiveness because it does not require additional time to take note the difficult words. For the words that are difficult or strange, the learner can immediately find its meaning from the dictionary. The presence of the text is also very helpful for Indonesian Language for foreign speaker learner to find the answers according to the questions more easily. By matching the vocabulary of the question into the text references.

Keywords: Indonesian language for foreign speaker, learning outcome, media, reading comprehension

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2724 Improving Listening Comprehension for EFL Pre-Intermediate Students through a Blended Learning Strategy

Authors: Heba Mustafa Abdullah

Abstract:

The research aimed at examining the effect of using a suggested blended learning (BL) strategy on developing EFL pre- intermediate students. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample of the research consisted of a group of 26 EFL pre- intermediate students. Tools of the study included a listening comprehension checklist and a pre-post listening comprehension test. Results were discussed in relation to several factors that affected the language learning process. Finally, the research provided beneficial contributions in relation to manipulating BL strategy with respect to language learning process in general and oral language learning in particular.

Keywords: blended learning, english as a foreign language, listening comprehension, oral language instruction

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2723 A Study on Improvement of Straightness of Preform Pulling Process of Hollow Pipe by Finete Element Analysis Method

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Jun-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

In this study, we have studied the design of intermediate die in multipass drawing. Research has been continuously studied because of the advantage of better dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and improved mechanical properties in the case of drawing. Among them, multipass drawing, which is a method to realize complicated shape by drawing, was discussed in this study. The most important factor in the multipass drawing is the dimensional accuracy and simplify the process. To accomplish this, a multistage shape drawing was performed using various intermediate die shape designs, and finite element analysis was performed.

Keywords: FEM (Finite Element Method), multipass drawing, intermediate die, hollow pipe

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2722 Investigating the Abolishment of Virginity Testing in South Africa

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

Abstract:

This paper argues that the custom of virginity testing has been revived in order to combat against social ills such as unwanted pregnancies, immorality, promiscuity and the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, virginity testing is not free from challenges such as the belief that having sexual intercourse with a virgin can cure men from AIDS, virginity testing is not accurate because there is scientific evidence supporting the fact that there many ways of losing virginity other than sexual intercourse, for example, the usage of tampons and participation in physical activities may tear the hymen. South African parliament took some positive steps in combatting against harm associated with virginity testing by regulating it in the Children’s Act. It is argued, in this paper, that the abolition of virginity testing may lead to paper law and it would be premature to abolish virginity testing in South Africa.

Keywords: equality rights, virginity testing, human rights, interdisciplinary law and legal studies

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2721 Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Solution of Planar Stability Problems

Authors: M. Jahanandish, M. B. Zeydabadinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, von Mises and Drucker-Prager yield criteria, as typical ones that consider the effect of intermediate principal stress σ2, have been selected and employed for investigating the influence of σ2 on the solution of a typical stability problem. The bearing capacity factors have been calculated under plane strain condition (strip footing) and axisymmetric condition (circular footing) using the method of stress characteristics together with the criteria mentioned. Different levels of σ2 relative to the other two principal stresses have been considered. While a higher σ2 entry in yield criterion gives a higher bearing capacity; its entry in equilibrium equations (axisymmetric) causes substantial reduction.

Keywords: intermediate principal stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, yield criteria

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2720 Coal Preparation Plant:Technology Overview and New Adaptations

Authors: Amit Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

A coal preparation plant typically operates with multiple beneficiation circuits to process individual size fractions of coal obtained from mine so that the targeted overall plant efficiency in terms of yield and ash is achieved. Conventional coal beneficiation plant in India or overseas operates generally in two methods of processing; coarse beneficiation with treatment in dense medium cyclones or in baths and fines beneficiation with treatment in flotation cell. This paper seeks to address the proven application of intermediate circuit along with coarse and fines circuit in Jamadoba New Coal Preparation Plant of capacity 2 Mt/y to treat -0.5 mm+0.25 mm size particles in reflux classifier. Previously this size of particles was treated directly in Flotation cell which had operational and metallurgical limitations which will be discussed in brief in this paper. The paper also details test work results performed on the representative samples of TSL coal washeries to determine the top size of intermediate and fines circuit and discusses about the overlapping process of intermediate circuit and how it is process wise suitable to beneficiate misplaced particles from coarse circuit and fines circuit. This paper also compares the separation efficiency (Ep) of various intermediate circuit process equipment and tries to validate the use of reflux classifier over fine coal DMC or spirals. An overview of Modern coal preparation plant treating Indian coal especially Washery Grade IV coal with reference to Jamadoba New Coal Preparation Plant which was commissioned in 2018 with basis of selection of equipment and plant profile, application of reflux classifier in intermediate circuit and process design criteria is also outlined in this paper.

Keywords: intermediate circuit, overlapping process, reflux classifier

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2719 Evaluation of Heterogeneity of Paint Coating on Metal Substrate Using Laser Infrared Thermography and Eddy Current

Authors: S. Mezghani, E. Perrin, J. L. Bodnar, J. Marthe, B. Cauwe, V. Vrabie

Abstract:

Non contact evaluation of the thickness of paint coatings can be attempted by different destructive and nondestructive methods such as cross-section microscopy, gravimetric mass measurement, magnetic gauges, Eddy current, ultrasound or terahertz. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive and non-invasive method that can be envisaged as a useful tool to measure the surface thickness variations by analyzing the temperature response. In this paper, the thermal quadrupole method for two layered samples heated up with a pulsed excitation is firstly used. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thicknesses of both layers, optimal parameters for the excitation source can be identified. Simulations show that a pulsed excitation with duration of ten milliseconds allows to obtain a substrate-independent thermal response. Based on this result, an experimental setup consisting of a near-infrared laser diode and an Infrared camera was next used to evaluate the variation of paint coating thickness between 60 µm and 130 µm on two samples. Results show that the parameters extracted for thermal images are correlated with the estimated thicknesses by the Eddy current methods. The laser pulsed thermography is thus an interesting alternative nondestructive method that can be moreover used for non conductive substrates.

Keywords: non destructive, paint coating, thickness, infrared thermography, laser, heterogeneity

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2718 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh

Abstract:

Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

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2717 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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2716 Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry

Authors: A. Manallah, C. Meier

Abstract:

Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.

Keywords: confocal spectral interferometry, nondestructive testing, optical metrology, surface topography, roughness

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2715 Mobile Application Testing Matrix and Challenges

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Sardasht Mahmood, Joan Lu

Abstract:

The adoption of smartphones and the usages of mobile applications are increasing rapidly. Consequently, within limited time-range, mobile Internet usages have managed to take over the desktop usages particularly since the first smartphone-touched application released by iPhone in 2007. This paper is proposed to provide solution and answer the most demandable questions related to mobile application automated and manual testing limitations. Moreover, Mobile application testing requires agility and physically testing. Agile testing is to detect bugs through automated tools, whereas the compatibility testing is more to ensure that the apps operates on mobile OS (Operation Systems) as well as on the different real devices. Moreover, we have managed to answer automated or manual questions through two mobile application case studies MES (Mobile Exam System) and MLM (Mobile Lab Mate) by creating test scripts for both case studies and our experiment results have been discussed and evaluated on whether to adopt test on real devices or on emulators? In addition to this, we have introduced new mobile application testing matrix for the testers and some enterprises to obtain knowledge from.

Keywords: mobile app testing, testing matrix, automated, manual testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
2714 A New Approach for Assertions Processing during Assertion-Based Software Testing

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel

Abstract:

Assertion-based software testing has been shown to be a promising tool for generating test cases that reveal program faults. Because the number of assertions may be very large for industry-size programs, one of the main concerns to the applicability of assertion-based testing is the amount of search time required to explore a large number of assertions. This paper presents a new approach for assertions exploration during the process of Assertion-Based software testing. Our initial exterminations with the proposed approach show that the performance of Assertion-Based testing may be improved, therefore, making this approach more efficient when applied on programs with large number of assertions.

Keywords: software testing, assertion-based testing, program assertions, generating test

Procedia PDF Downloads 349