Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2848

Search results for: computational modelling

2848 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

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2847 Evaluation of Turbulence Modelling of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Venturi

Authors: Mengke Zhan, Cheng-Gang Xie, Jian-Jun Shu


A venturi flowmeter is a common device used in multiphase flow rate measurement in the upstream oil and gas industry. Having a robust computational model for multiphase flow in a venturi is desirable for understanding the gas-liquid and fluid-pipe interactions and predicting pressure and phase distributions under various flow conditions. A steady Eulerian-Eulerian framework is used to simulate upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical venturi. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements of venturi differential pressure and chord-averaged gas holdup in the venturi throat section. The choice of turbulence model is nontrivial in the multiphase flow modelling in a venturi. The performance cross-comparison of the k-ϵ model, Reynolds stress model (RSM) and shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is made in the study. In terms of accuracy and computational cost, the SST k-ω turbulence model is observed to be the most efficient.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), gas-liquid flow, turbulence modelling, venturi

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2846 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati


Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: all-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential

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2845 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

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2844 Drawing, Design and Building Information Modelling (BIM): Embedding Advanced Digital Tools in the Academy Programs for Building Engineers and Architects

Authors: Vittorio Caffi, Maria Pignataro, Antonio Cosimo Devito, Marco Pesenti


This paper deals with the integration of advanced digital design and modelling tools and methodologies, known as Building Information Modelling, into the traditional Academy educational programs for building engineers and architects. Nowadays, the challenge the Academy has to face is to present the new tools and their features to the pupils, making sure they acquire the proper skills in order to leverage the potential they offer also for the other courses embedded in the educational curriculum. The syllabus here presented refers to the “Drawing for building engineering”, “2D and 3D laboratory” and “3D modelling” curricula of the MSc in Building Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano. Such topics, included since the first year in the MSc program, are fundamental to give the students the instruments to master the complexity of an architectural or building engineering project with digital tools, so as to represent it in its various forms.

Keywords: BIM, BIM curricula, computational design, digital modelling

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2843 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo


Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling

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2842 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta


We present a modelling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modelling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modelling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: adaptive courseware, early requirement engineering, means end analysis, organizational modelling, requirement modelling

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2841 Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Modelling of Microstrip Circular Antenna

Authors: Jugoslav Jokovic, Tijana Dimitrijevic, Nebojsa Doncov


The goal of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and effectiveness of the TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) method for modelling of up-to-date microstrip antennas with circular geometry that have significant application in modern wireless communication systems. The coaxially fed microstrip antenna configurations with circular patch are analyzed by using the in-house 3DTLMcyl_cw solver based on computational electromagnetic TLM method adapted to the cylindrical grid and enhanced with the compact wire model. Opposed to the widely used rectangular TLM mesh, where a staircase approximation has to be used to describe curved boundaries, precise modelling of circular boundaries can be accomplished in the cylindrical grid irrespective of the mesh resolution. Using the compact wire model incorporated in cylindrical mesh, it is possible to model coaxial feed and include the influence of the real excitation in the antenna model. The conventional and inverted configuration of a coaxially fed circular patch antenna are considered, comparing the resonances obtained using TLM cylindrical model with results reached by the corresponding model in a rectangular grid as well as with experimental ones. Bearing in mind that accuracy of simulated results depends on a relevantly created model, besides structure geometry and dimensions, it is important to consider additional modelling issues, regarding appropriate mesh resolution and a relevant extension of a mesh around the considered structure that would provide convergence of the results.

Keywords: computational electromagnetic, coaxial feed, microstrip antenna, TLM modelling

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2840 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking

Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.


An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinking

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2839 Evaluation of Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Responses of an Industrial Gas Turbine Rotor

Authors: Y. Rae, A. Benaarbia, J. Hughes, Wei Sun


This paper describes an elasto-visco-plastic computational modelling method which can be used to assess the cyclic plasticity responses of high temperature structures operating under thermo-mechanical loadings. The material constitutive equation used is an improved unified multi-axial Chaboche-Lemaitre model, which takes into account non-linear kinematic and isotropic hardening. The computational methodology is a three-dimensional framework following an implicit formulation and based on a radial return mapping algorithm. The associated user material (UMAT) code is developed and calibrated across isothermal hold-time low cycle fatigue tests for a typical turbine rotor steel for use in finite element (FE) implementation. The model is applied to a realistic industrial gas turbine rotor, where the study focuses its attention on the deformation heterogeneities and critical high stress areas within the rotor structure. The potential improvements of such FE visco-plastic approach are discussed. An integrated life assessment procedure based on R5 and visco-plasticity modelling, is also briefly addressed.

Keywords: unified visco-plasticity, thermo-mechanical, turbine rotor, finite element modelling

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2838 On the Evaluation of Different Turbulence Models through the Displacement of Oil-Water Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Sidique Gawusu, Xiaobing Zhang


Turbulence models play a significant role in all computational fluid dynamics based modelling approaches. There is, however, no general turbulence model suitable for all flow scenarios. Therefore, a successful numerical modelling approach is only achievable if a more appropriate closure model is used. This paper evaluates different turbulence models in numerical modelling of oil-water flow within the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. A comparison among the obtained numerical results and published benchmark data showed reasonable agreement. The domain was meshed using structured mesh, and grid test was performed to ascertain grid independence. The evaluation of the models was made through analysis of velocity and pressure profiles across the domain. The models were tested for their suitability to accurately obtain a scalable and precise numerical experience. As a result, it is found that all the models except Standard-ω provide comparable results. The study also revealed new insights on flow in porous media, specifically oil reservoirs.

Keywords: turbulence modelling, simulation, multi-phase flows, water-flooding, heavy oil

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2837 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

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2836 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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2835 Building Information Modelling: A Review to Indian Scenario

Authors: P. Agnivesh, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi


Evolution of information modelling leads to the visualisation of well-organized built environment. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is considered as evolution in the off-site construction which essentially enhances and controls the present scenario of on-site construction paradigms. Promptness, sustainability and security are considered as the important characteristics of the building information modelling. Projects that uses BIM are tied firmly by technology but distributed organizationally. This allows different team members in the project to associate and integrate the works and work flows. This will in turn improve the efficiency of work breakdown structure. Internationally BIM had been accepted as modern computer aided way of information sharing by construction industry for efficient way of manipulation in order to avoid the on-site misperceptions. Even though, in developing countries like India BIM is in the phase of start and requires lot of mandates and policies to be brought about by the government for its widespread implementations. This paper reviews the current scenario of BIM worldwide and in India and suggests for the improved implementation of building modelling for Indian policy condition.

Keywords: building information modelling, Indian polity, information modelling, information sharing, mandates and policies, sustainability.

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2834 Continuum-Based Modelling Approaches for Cell Mechanics

Authors: Yogesh D. Bansod, Jiri Bursa


The quantitative study of cell mechanics is of paramount interest since it regulates the behavior of the living cells in response to the myriad of extracellular and intracellular mechanical stimuli. The novel experimental techniques together with robust computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models, which describe cell mechanics as a combination of biomechanical and biochemical processes. This review paper encapsulates the existing continuum-based computational approaches that have been developed for interpreting the mechanical responses of living cells under different loading and boundary conditions. The salient features and drawbacks of each model are discussed from both structural and biological points of view. This discussion can contribute to the development of even more precise and realistic computational models of cell mechanics based on continuum approaches or on their combination with microstructural approaches, which in turn may provide a better understanding of mechanotransduction in living cells.

Keywords: cell mechanics, computational models, continuum approach, mechanical models

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2833 Experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Theoretical Study of Cyclone Performance Based on Inlet Velocity and Particle Loading Rate

Authors: Sakura Ganegama Bogodage, Andrew Yee Tat Leung


This paper describes experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis of a cyclone performance, operated 1.0 g/m3 solid loading rate, at two different inlet velocities (5 m/s and 10 m/s). Comparing experimental results with theoretical and CFD simulation results, it is pronounced that the influence of solid in processing flow is significant than expected. Experimental studies based on gas- solid flows of cyclone separators are complicated as they required advanced sensitive measuring techniques, especially flow characteristics. Thus, CFD modelling and theoretical analysis are economical in analyzing cyclone separator performance but detailed clarifications of the application of these in cyclone separator performance evaluation is not yet discussed. The present study shows the limitations of influencing parameters of CFD and theoretical considerations, comparing experimental results and flow characteristics from CFD modelling.

Keywords: cyclone performance, inlet velocity, pressure drop, solid loading rate

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2832 A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence Flow and Parameterization of an Aerofoil

Authors: Mohamed Z. M. Duwahir, Shian Gao


The main objective of this project was to introduce and test a new scheme for parameterization of subsonic aerofoil, using a function called Shape Function. Python programming was used to create a user interactive environment for geometry generation of aerofoil using NACA and Shape Function methodologies. Two aerofoils, NACA 0012 and NACA 1412, were generated using this function. Testing the accuracy of the Shape Function scheme was done by Linear Square Fitting using Python and CFD modelling the aerofoil in Fluent. NACA 0012 (symmetrical aerofoil) was better approximated using Shape Function than NACA 1412 (cambered aerofoil). The second part of the project involved comparing two turbulent models, k-ε and Spalart-Allmaras (SA), in Fluent by modelling the aerofoils NACA 0012 and NACA 1412 in conditions of Reynolds number of 3 × 106. It was shown that SA modelling is better for aerodynamic purpose. The experimental coefficient of lift (Cl) and coefficient of drag (Cd) were compared with empirical wind tunnel data for a range of angle of attack (AOA). As a further step, this project involved drawing and meshing 3D wings in Gambit. The 3D wing flow was solved and compared with 2D aerofoil section experimental results and wind tunnel data.

Keywords: CFD simulation, shape function, turbulent modelling, aerofoil

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2831 3D Modelling of Fluid Flow in Tunnel Kilns

Authors: Jaber H. Almutairi, Hosny Z. Abou-Ziyan, Issa F. Almesri, Mosab A. Alrahmani


The present work investigates the behavior of fluid flow inside tunnel kilns using 3D-CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. The CFD simulations are carried out with the FLUENT software and validated against experimental results on fluid flow and heat transfer in tunnel kilns. A grid dependency study is conducted in the current work to improve the accuracy of the results. Three turbulence models k–ω, standard k–ε, and RNG k–ε are tested where k–ω model gives the best results in comparison with the experiment. The numerical results reveal an intriguing phenomenon where a long flow separation zone behind the setting is observed under different geometric and operation conditions. It was found that the uniformity of flow distribution can be substantially improved by rearranging the geometrical parameters of brick setting relative to kiln/setting. This improvement of flow distribution plays a critical role to enhance the quality and quantity of the production. It can be concluded that a better design and operation of tunnel kilns in terms of productivity and energy consumption can be obtained by taking into consideration the flow uniformity inside the tunnel kilns using CFD modelling.

Keywords: tunnel kilns, flow separation, flow uniformity, computational fluid dynamics

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2830 Aerodynamic Modelling of Unmanned Aerial System through Computational Fluid Dynamics: Application to the UAS-S45 Balaam

Authors: Maxime A. J. Kuitche, Ruxandra M. Botez, Arthur Guillemin


As the Unmanned Aerial Systems have found diverse utilities in both military and civil aviation, the necessity to obtain an accurate aerodynamic model has shown an enormous growth of interest. Recent modeling techniques are procedures using optimization algorithms and statistics that require many flight tests and are therefore extremely demanding in terms of costs. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the aerodynamic behavior of an unmanned aerial system from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The study was performed using an unstructured mesh obtained from a grid convergence analysis at a Mach number of 0.14, and at an angle of attack of 0°. The flow around the aircraft was described using a standard k-ω turbulence model. Thus, the Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45 designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. The lift, the drag, and the pitching moment coefficients were obtained at different angles of attack for several flight conditions defined in terms of altitudes and Mach numbers. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis were compared with the results obtained by using the DATCOM semi-empirical procedure. This comparison has indicated that our approach is highly accurate and that the aerodynamic model obtained could be useful to estimate the flight dynamics of the UAS-S45.

Keywords: aerodynamic modelling, CFD Analysis, ANSYS FLUENT, UAS-S45

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2829 Coarse-Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method Modelling of the Multiphase Flow in Hydrocyclones

Authors: Li Ji, Kaiwei Chu, Shibo Kuang, Aibing Yu


Hydrocyclones are widely used to classify particles by size in industries such as mineral processing and chemical processing. The particles to be handled usually have a broad range of size distributions and sometimes density distributions, which has to be properly considered, causing challenges in the modelling of hydrocyclone. The combined approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) offers convenience to model particle size/density distribution. However, its direct application to hydrocyclones is computationally prohibitive because there are billions of particles involved. In this work, a CFD-DEM model with the concept of the coarse-grained (CG) model is developed to model the solid-fluid flow in a hydrocyclone. The DEM is used to model the motion of discrete particles by applying Newton’s laws of motion. Here, a particle assembly containing a certain number of particles with same properties is treated as one CG particle. The CFD is used to model the liquid flow by numerically solving the local-averaged Navier-Stokes equations facilitated with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model to capture air-core. The results are analyzed in terms of fluid and solid flow structures, and particle-fluid, particle-particle and particle-wall interaction forces. Furthermore, the calculated separation performance is compared with the measurements. The results obtained from the present study indicate that this approach can offer an alternative way to examine the flow and performance of hydrocyclones

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, hydrocyclone, multiphase flow

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2828 Modelling and Simulation Efforts in Scale-Up and Characterization of Semi-Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: Saurav S. Rath, Birendra K. David


Generic pharmaceutical industry has to operate in strict timelines of product development and scale-up from lab to plant. Hence, detailed product & process understanding and implementation of appropriate mechanistic modelling and Quality-by-design (QbD) approaches are imperative in the product life cycle. This work provides example cases of such efforts in topical dosage products. Topical products are typically in the form of emulsions, gels, thick suspensions or even simple solutions. The efficacy of such products is determined by characteristics like rheology and morphology. Defining, and scaling up the right manufacturing process with a given set of ingredients, to achieve the right product characteristics presents as a challenge to the process engineer. For example, the non-Newtonian rheology varies not only with CPPs and CMAs but also is an implicit function of globule size (CQA). Hence, this calls for various mechanistic models, to help predict the product behaviour. This paper focusses on such models obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with population balance modelling (PBM) and constitutive models (like shear, energy density). In a special case of the use of high shear homogenisers (HSHs) for the manufacture of thick emulsions/gels, this work presents some findings on (i) scale-up algorithm for HSH using shear strain, a novel scale-up parameter for estimating mixing parameters, (ii) non-linear relationship between viscosity and shear imparted into the system, (iii) effect of hold time on rheology of product. Specific examples of how this approach enabled scale-up across 1L, 10L, 200L, 500L and 1000L scales will be discussed.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, morphology, quality-by-design, rheology

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2827 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam


The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

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2826 Computational Assistance of the Research, Using Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes for Critical Infrastructure Subjects Continuity

Authors: Urbánek Jiří J., Krahulec Josef, Urbánek Jiří F., Johanidesová Jitka


These Computational assistance for the research and modelling of critical infrastructure subjects continuity deal with this paper. It enables us the using of prevailing operation system MS Office (SmartArt...) for mathematical models, using DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method. It serves for crisis situations investigation and modelling within the organizations of critical infrastructure. In the first part of the paper, it will be introduced entities, operators and actors of DYVELOP method. It uses just three operators of Boolean algebra and four types of the entities: the Environments, the Process Systems, the Cases and the Controlling. The Process Systems (PrS) have five “brothers”: Management PrS, Transformation PrS, Logistic PrS, Event PrS and Operation PrS. The Cases have three “sisters”: Process Cell Case, Use Case and Activity Case. They all need for the controlling of their functions special Ctrl actors, except ENV – it can do without Ctrl. Model´s maps are named the Blazons and they are able mathematically - graphically express the relationships among entities, actors and processes. In the second part of this paper, the rich blazons of DYVELOP method will be used for the discovering and modelling of the cycling cases and their phases. The blazons need live PowerPoint presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission. The crisis management of energetic crisis infrastructure organization is obliged to use the cycles for successful coping of crisis situations. Several times cycling of these cases is a necessary condition for the encompassment of the both the emergency event and the mitigation of organization´s damages. Uninterrupted and continuous cycling process bring for crisis management fruitfulness and it is a good indicator and controlling actor of organizational continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities. The research reliable rules are derived for the safety and reliable continuity of energetic critical infrastructure organization in the crisis situation.

Keywords: blazons, computational assistance, DYVELOP method, critical infrastructure

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2825 Towards a Computational Model of Consciousness: Global Abstraction Workspace

Authors: Halim Djerroud, Arab Ali Cherif


We assume that conscious functions are implemented automatically. In other words that consciousness as well as the non-consciousness aspect of human thought, planning, and perception, are produced by biologically adaptive algorithms. We propose that the mechanisms of consciousness can be produced using similar adaptive algorithms to those executed by the mechanism. In this paper, we propose a computational model of consciousness, the ”Global Abstraction Workspace” which is an internal environmental modelling perceived as a multi-agent system. This system is able to evolve and generate new data and processes as well as actions in the environment.

Keywords: artificial consciousness, cognitive architecture, global abstraction workspace, multi-agent system

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2824 Modelling of Solidification in a Latent Thermal Energy Storage with a Finned Tube Bundle Heat Exchanger Unit

Authors: Remo Waser, Simon Maranda, Anastasia Stamatiou, Ludger J. Fischer, Joerg Worlitschek


In latent heat storage, a phase change material (PCM) is used to store thermal energy. The heat transfer rate during solidification is limited and considered as a key challenge in the development of latent heat storages. Thus, finned heat exchangers (HEX) are often utilized to increase the heat transfer rate of the storage system. In this study, a new modeling approach to calculating the heat transfer rate in latent thermal energy storages with complex HEX geometries is presented. This model allows for an optimization of the HEX design in terms of costs and thermal performance of the system. Modeling solidification processes requires the calculation of time-dependent heat conduction with moving boundaries. Commonly used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods enable the analysis of the heat transfer in complex HEX geometries. If applied to the entire storage, the drawback of this approach is the high computational effort due to small time steps and fine computational grids required for accurate solutions. An alternative to describe the process of solidification is the so-called temperature-based approach. In order to minimize the computational effort, a quasi-stationary assumption can be applied. This approach provides highly accurate predictions for tube heat exchangers. However, it shows unsatisfactory results for more complex geometries such as finned tube heat exchangers. The presented simulation model uses a temporal and spatial discretization of heat exchanger tube. The spatial discretization is based on the smallest possible symmetric segment of the HEX. The heat flow in each segment is calculated using finite volume method. Since the heat transfer fluid temperature can be derived using energy conservation equations, the boundary conditions at the inner tube wall is dynamically updated for each time step and segment. The model allows a prediction of the thermal performance of latent thermal energy storage systems using complex HEX geometries with considerably low computational effort.

Keywords: modelling of solidification, finned tube heat exchanger, latent thermal energy storage

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2823 Prediction of Energy Storage Areas for Static Photovoltaic System Using Irradiation and Regression Modelling

Authors: Kisan Sarda, Bhavika Shingote


This paper aims to evaluate regression modelling for prediction of Energy storage of solar photovoltaic (PV) system using Semi parametric regression techniques because there are some parameters which are known while there are some unknown parameters like humidity, dust etc. Here irradiation of solar energy is different for different places on the basis of Latitudes, so by finding out areas which give more storage we can implement PV systems at those places and our need of energy will be fulfilled. This regression modelling is done for daily, monthly and seasonal prediction of solar energy storage. In this, we have used R modules for designing the algorithm. This algorithm will give the best comparative results than other regression models for the solar PV cell energy storage.

Keywords: semi parametric regression, photovoltaic (PV) system, regression modelling, irradiation

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2822 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller


Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development rocess and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: COCOMO II, busines process modeling, cost estimation method, BPM COCOMO

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2821 Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience

Authors: Karen C. Olufokunbi, Odetunji A. Odejobi


The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.

Keywords: Coloured Petri net, computational modelling, electronic waste, electronic waste process dynamics

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2820 Multiscale Computational Approach to Enhance the Understanding, Design and Development of CO₂ Catalytic Conversion Technologies

Authors: Agnieszka S. Dzielendziak, Lindsay-Marie Armstrong, Matthew E. Potter, Robert Raja, Pier J. A. Sazio


Reducing carbon dioxide, CO₂, is one of the greatest global challenges. Conversion of CO₂ for utilisation across synthetic fuel, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical industries offers a promising option, yet requires significant research to understanding the complex multiscale processes involved. To experimentally understand and optimize such processes at that catalytic sites and exploring the impact of the process at reactor scale, is too expensive. Computational methods offer significant insight and flexibility but require a more detailed multi-scale approach which is a significant challenge in itself. This work introduces a computational approach which incorporates detailed catalytic models, taken from experimental investigations, into a larger-scale computational flow dynamics framework. The reactor-scale species transport approach is modified near the catalytic walls to determine the influence of catalytic clustering regions. This coupling approach enables more accurate modelling of velocity, pressures, temperatures, species concentrations and near-wall surface characteristics which will ultimately enable the impact of overall reactor design on chemical conversion performance.

Keywords: catalysis, CCU, CO₂, multi-scale model

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2819 Characterisation of Wind-Driven Ventilation in Complex Terrain Conditions

Authors: Daniel Micallef, Damien Bounaudet, Robert N. Farrugia, Simon P. Borg, Vincent Buhagiar, Tonio Sant


The physical effects of upstream flow obstructions such as vegetation on cross-ventilation phenomena of a building are important for issues such as indoor thermal comfort. Modelling such effects in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations may also be challenging. The aim of this work is to establish the cross-ventilation jet behaviour in such complex terrain conditions as well as to provide guidelines on the implementation of CFD numerical simulations in order to model complex terrain features such as vegetation in an efficient manner. The methodology consists of onsite measurements on a test cell coupled with numerical simulations. It was found that the cross-ventilation flow is highly turbulent despite the very low velocities encountered internally within the test cells. While no direct measurement of the jet direction was made, the measurements indicate that flow tends to be reversed from the leeward to the windward side. Modelling such a phenomenon proves challenging and is strongly influenced by how vegetation is modelled. A solid vegetation tends to predict better the direction and magnitude of the flow than a porous vegetation approach. A simplified terrain model was also shown to provide good comparisons with observation. The findings have important implications on the study of cross-ventilation in complex terrain conditions since the flow direction does not remain trivial, as with the traditional isolated building case.

Keywords: complex terrain, cross-ventilation, wind driven ventilation, wind resource, computational fluid dynamics, CFD

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