Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: silk performer

88 Imaginations of the Silk Road in Sven Hedin’s Travel Writings: 1900-1936

Authors: Kexin Tan

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The Silk Road is a concept idiosyncratic in nature. Western scholars co-created and conceptualized in its early days, transliterated into the countries along the Silk Road, redefined, reimagined, and reconfigured by the public in the second half of the twentieth century. Therefore, the image is not only a mirror of the discursive interactions between East and West but Self and Other. The travel narrative of Sven Hedin, through which the Silk Road was enriched in meanings and popularized, is the focus of this study. This article examines how the Silk Road was imagined in three key texts of Sven Hedin: The Silk Road, The Wandering Lake, and The Flight of “Big Horse”. Three recurring themes are extracted and analyzed: the Silk Road, the land of enigmas, the virgin land, and the reconnecting road. Ideas about ethnotypes and images drawn from theorists such as Joep Leerssen have been deployed in the analysis. This research tracks how the images were configured, concentrating on China’s ethnotypes, travel writing tropes, and the Silk Road discourse that preceded Sven Hedin. Hedin’s role in his expedition, his geopolitical viewpoints, and the commercial considerations of his books are also discussed in relation to the intellectual construct of the Silk Road. It is discovered that the images of the Silk Road and the discursive traditions behind it are mobile rather than static, inclusive than antithetical. The paradoxical characters of the Silk Road reveal the complexity of the socio-historical background of Hedin’s time, as well as the collision of discursive traditions and practical issues. While it is true that Hedin’s discursive construction of the Silk Road image embodies the bias of Self-West against Other-East, its characteristics such as fluidity and openness could probably offer a hint at its resurgence in the postcolonial era.

Keywords: the silk road, Sven Hedin, imagology, ethnotype, travelogue

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87 Degumming of Eri Silk Fabric with Ionic Liquid

Authors: Shweta K. Vyas, Rakesh Musale, Sanjeev R. Shukla

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Eri silk is a non mulberry silk which is obtained without killing the silkworms and hence it is also known as Ahmisa silk. In the present study, the results on degumming of eri silk with alkaline peroxide have been compared with those obtained by using ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl. Experiments were designed to find out the optimum processing parameters for degumming of eri silk by response surface methodology. The statistical software, Design-Expert 6.0 was used for regression analysis and graphical analysis of the responses obtained by running the set of designed experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the statistical parameters. The polynomial equation of quadratic order was employed to fit the experimental data. The quality and model terms were evaluated by F-test. Three dimensional surface plots were prepared to study the effect of variables on different responses. The optimum conditions for IL treatment were selected from predicted combinations and the experiments were repeated under these conditions to determine the reproducibility.

Keywords: silk degumming, ionic liquid, response surface methodology, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
86 Hospitality Genealogy: Tracing the Ethics and Ontologies of Hospitality-Making on the Silk-Routes

Authors: Neil Michael Walsh, Angelique Lombarts

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The authors propose that hospitality is ‘made’ (constituted and performed) in the encounters on the Silk-Routes. Inspired with an initial Derridean perspective on hospitality (the conditional/unconditional) and methodologically underpinned with a Delueuzian relational-rhizomatic approach, the authors contend that hospitality is (re)produced in the encounters of self/other, east/west (among others). Thus, in the spirit of performativity and using the temporal-spatial conduit of the Silk Routes (the sites of ethical, cultural, economic, and material interaction of such exchange), the authors concur that hospitality is produced at the moment in which it is performed. Key themes engaged as units of analysis become welcome, reception, hostility, (and so on) which the authors engage and examine –as they unfold- in the narratives and accounts and material legacies of those who travelled the Silk Routes between the 2nd and 18th Centuries. The preliminary results suggest that these earlier performative moments in hospitality-making on the silk routes continue to resonate and ‘form’ the hospitalities of today. Indeed, these acts of hospitality continue to reconstitute and are never a final state of affairs.

Keywords: hospitality-genealogy, interactions, hospitality-making, Silk-Routes, rhizome, relationality

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85 Geographical Indication (Gi) as a Means of Protecting Traditional Right of Muga Silk (Antheria Assamensis) of Assam-India

Authors: Niranjan Das

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‘Geographical indication’ is a sign which is used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. Geographical Indication is primarily granted to agricultural, natural, manufactured, handicrafts originating from a definite geographical territory. It is defined in Article 22(1) of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) 1995 Agreement on ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)’. Assam is literally a ‘Silk country’ where silk culture is rooted in the rural life and culture of Assamese people. This is the only state in India and the world where Muga silk (Antheraea assamensis) is grown. Out of the total production of India’s Muga silk, Assam has the credit of being the sole producer of this 100 percent output, and thus occupies a unique position in the sericulture map of the world. Muga production has been an effective means for generating gainful employment in rural Assam and it has enormous potential in the context of building the rural economy and generating livelihood of this region. Muga, the unique golden-yellow silk of Assam was granted the ‘Geographical Indication (GI)’ registration in 2007. It is the first item from the state of Assam to obtain the GI tag. Besides manufacturing of Muga Silk cloths, the industry is also giving employment to thousands of people, and the silk industry is playing a leading role in the economy of the state. As Brahmaputra Valley is also known for tourist destination, tourists are visiting the valley every year and now the Muga Silk has reached each corner of the country and also in the other parts of the world. This paper tries to emphasizes how the Geographical Indication tag is protecting the traditional right of the Muga Silk of Assam as it has been practised by the Assamese people since times immemorial.

Keywords: Geographical Indication, environment, Muga silk, traditional right and livelihood

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84 Dyeing Properties of Natural Dyes on Silk Treated with ß-Cyclodextrin

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

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In this work, silk yarns were treated using ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and cross-linked with citric acid (CA) via pad-dry-cure method. Elemental and FESEM analyses confirmed the presence of ß-CD on the treated silk samples even after five washing cycles. Then, the treated samples were dyed using natural dyes (carrot, orange and tomato). Results showed that the color strength (K/S) of the treated samples had been markedly enhanced compared with the control sample (after treatment with metal mordant). Finally, the color strength (K/S value) and color fastness (fading, staining and light fastness) of the treated samples with ß-CD were investigated and compared.

Keywords: ß-cyclodextrin, dyeing, natural dyes, silk yarn

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83 Using OMICs Approaches to Investigate Venomic Insights into the Spider Web Silk

Authors: Franciele G. Esteves, Jose R. A. dos Santos-Pinto, Caroline L. de Souza, Mario S. Palma

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Orb-weaving spiders use a very strong, stickiness, and elastic web to catch the prey. These web properties would be enough for the entrapment of prey; however, these spiders may be hiding venomous secrets on the web, which are being revealed now. Here we provide strong proteome, peptidome, and transcriptomic evidence for the presence of toxic components on the web silk from Nephila clavipes. Our scientific outcomes revealed, both in the web silk and in the silk-producing glands, a wide diversity of toxins/neurotoxins, defensins, and proteolytic enzymes. These toxins/neurotoxins are similar to toxins isolated from animal venoms, such as Sphigomyelinase D, Latrotoxins, Zodatoxins, Ctenitoxin Pn and Pk, Agatoxins and Theraphotoxin. Moreover, the insect-toxicity results with the web silk crude extract demonstrated that these toxic components can be lethal and/or cause paralytic effects to the prey. Therefore, through OMICs approaches, the results presented until now may contribute to a better understanding of the chemical and ecological interaction of these compounds in insect-prey capture by spider web N. clavipes, demonstrating that the web is not only a simple mechanical tool but has a chemical-active involvement in prey capture. Moreover, the results can also contribute to future studies of possible development of a selective insecticide or even in possible pharmacological applications.

Keywords: web silk toxins, silk-produncing glands, de novo transcriptome assembly, LCMS-based proteomics

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82 Dyeability of Silk Fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier

Authors: Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Recep Karadağ, Emine Torgan

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Nowadays, many natural dyes are used for colouration of textile materials. The natural dyes are friendly to human health and environment. Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) can be used with other natural dye plants for colouration of silk and wool fabrics. Almost never research works on the dyeing of silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier together. In this study, dyeability of 100 % silk fabric with Dactylopius coccus Costa and Quercus infectoria Olivier was studied. Optimum dyeing parameters were determined by using different concentration of Dactylopius coccus Costa (10%), Quercus infectoria Olivier (0,1,5 and 10%) and mordant salt (0 and 3%). The dyed silk fabrics were examined for their colorimetric and fastness properties. The fabrics were dyed succesfully dark colours with 10 % Dactylopius coccus Costa, 10 % Quercus infectoria Olivier and presence of mordanting after dyeing process (3% mordant salt). The washing and light colour fastness of the dyed fabrics were investigated and adequate results were obtained.

Keywords: Dactylopius coccus Costa, Quercus infectoria Olivier, natural dye, dyeing, silk fabric

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81 Preparation, Structure, and Properties of Hydroxyl Containing Acrylate Monomer Grafted Silk Fabrics by HRP-Catalyzed ATRP Method

Authors: Tieling Xing, Jinqiu Yang, Guoqiang Chen

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It is environmentally friendly to use horseradish peroxidase (HRP) instead of the traditional transition metal catalyst for the catalyst of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Silk fabrics were successfully grafted with hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer to improve its crease resistance by HRP-catalyzed ATRP method. Taking grafting yield as the evaluation index, single factor tests revealed that the optimum grafting reaction condition was as follow: monomer mass fraction 120-210%(o.w.f), HRP concentration 360-480U/mL, molar ratio of HRP to NaAsc 1:150, reaction temperature 50-60℃, reaction time 24h. Raman spectra showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer were successfully grafted on silk fabrics. SEM figures indicated the surface of grafted silk became rougher, and graft copolymer was distributed evenly on the surface of silk fiber. The crease-resistant recovery property of grafted silk fabric was greatly improved, especially in wet crease recovery angle. The result showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer can be successfully grafted onto silk fabric based on HRP-catalyzed ATRP method.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, catalysis, horseradish peroxidase, hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer

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80 A Comparative Study of Three Major Performance Testing Tools

Authors: Abdulaziz Omar Alsadhan, Mohd Mudasir Shafi

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Performance testing is done to prove the reliability of any software product. There are a number of tools available in the markets that are used to perform performance testing. In this paper we present a comparative study of the three most commonly used performance testing tools. These tools cover the major share of the performance testing market and are widely used. In this paper we compared the tools on five evaluation parameters which are; User friendliness, portability, tool support, compatibility and cost. The conclusion provided at the end of the paper is based on our study and does not support any tool or company.

Keywords: software development, software testing, quality assurance, performance testing, load runner, rational testing, silk performer

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79 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa, Suparmi

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Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: antibacterial, flavonoid, corn silk, acne

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78 Preparation and Characterization of Silk/Diopside Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Leila Ghorbanian, Iren Dabirian

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This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, silk fibroin, diopside, composite scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
77 Revival of Old Silk Route and New Maritime Route: An Opportunity for India or Hidden Geopolitics of China

Authors: Geetanjali Sharma

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There are always provincial variations which deserve more detailed treatment. Before the arrival of modern era, geography and cultural homogeneity were determining factors of human habitat and migration. Boundaries as if we see them, did not exist earlier. The connectivity of the world was also different as of now. The reinforcement of the old silk route will improve economic cooperation and connectivity between Asian, European and African countries, but obviously, it is designed to improve China’s geopolitical and geostrategic position in the world. The paper is based on the secondary sources of data. Analytical and historical approach has been used to clarify the ties between the old silk routes and new One-Belt-One-Road initiative China. The paper begins with an explanation of the historical background of the old Silk Route, its origin and development, trailed by an analysis of latest declarations by the Chinese leaders to revive it. It also discusses the impacts of this initiative on India’s economy and cultural exchange between associated regions. Lastly, the paper sums up the findings and suggestions for keeping a balance between the security and economic relationship between the countries. It concludes that the silk route is an effort in commencing a ‘grand strategy’ for global trade and cooperation with hidden objectives of China to increase the investment of China in other continents as well. The revival of silk route may prove to be a very helpful in reinforcing cooperation and raising it to a new level of economic establishments. However, China has yet to promote the much-needed political and strategic trust.

Keywords: OBOR (One-Belt-One-Road), geopolitics, economic relation, security concerns

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
76 Revival and Protection of Traditional Jewellery Motifs of Assam (India), over Eri Silk by Innovative Techniques

Authors: Ratna Sharma, Kaveri Dutta

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Assam (India), the gate way to the Northeast India is mainly known for its exquisite silks, the art and craft. The state has a rich collection of traditional jewellery which is unique and exclusive to the state. These jewelleries hold a special place in the heart of the Assamese women. Similarly handloom industry of Assam is basically silk oriented. Among the wild silk, Eri silk fabric has remained as “the poor man’s silk” but it is closely attached to the assamese society, dress for it's warm quality. In view of the changing market trends, fashion and consumer demands, Silk is emerging as a fashion fabric both in India and abroad. In case of Eri silk fabric it has limited use in clothing and accessories. Hence the restructured and redesigned traditional jewellery motifs of Assam (India) over Eri silk products will have greater potential in reviving the decline of art, generate revenue, self employment towards craftsmen and also recognition of the art. The information incorporated in the paper is primary and the data have been collected by purposive sampling method. This work of art was expressed on Eri silk fabric in the form of traditional hand embroidery as it is closely connected with the era of the individual in history of mankind and reflects the personal expression of an entity. For this study selected traditional motifs of Assamese ornaments was used. Some of the popular traditional Assamese jewellery include earrings with exquisite Lokaparo, Keru, Thuriya, Jangphai, etc. An array of necklaces including Golpata, Satsori, Jon biri, Bena, Gejera, Dhol biri, Doog doogi, Biri Moni, Mukuta Moni, Poalmoni, Silikha Moni and Magardana and diversified rings including Senpata, Horinsakua, Jethinejia, bakharpata and others. Selected two motifs each from necklace, earring and finger ring designs. Selected motifs were further developed into 3 categories- the border, the main motif and all over butta followed by placement of developed patterns on products. Products developed were stoles, scarf’s, purses, brooch pins, skirts for women and ties, handkerchief, jackets for men. The developed products were surveyed by selected respondents. From the present study it can be observed that the embellished traditional jewellery motifs resulted in fresh and colourful pattern on developed Eri silk products. Moreover the motifs which were gradually fading among the community itself showed a very good recognition towards art. The embroidered Eri silk fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among craftsman.

Keywords: Art and craft of Assam, eri silk, hand embroidery, traditional Assamese jewellery motifs

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75 China’s Health Silk Road in the Middle East and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Middle East and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. And findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success, and Beijing has assumed a leadership role in the world’s health governance. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: china’s health silk road, COVID-19, europe, middle east

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74 Traditional Dyeing of Silk with Natural Dyes by Eco-Friendly Method

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar

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In traditional dyeing of natural fibers with natural dyes, metal salts are commonly used to increase color stability. This method always carries the risk of environmental pollution (contamination of arable soils and fresh groundwater) due to the release of dyeing effluents containing large amounts of metal. Therefore, researchers are always looking for new methods to obtain a green dyeing system. In this research, the use of the enzymatic dyeing method to prevent environmental pollution with metals and reduce production costs has been proposed. After degumming and bleaching, raw silk fabrics were dyed with natural dyes (Madder and Sumac) by three methods (pre-mordanting with a metal salt, one-step enzymatic dyeing, and two-step enzymatic dyeing). Results show that silk dyed with natural dyes by the enzymatic method has higher color strength and colorfastness than the pretreated with a metal salt. Also, the amount of remained dyes in the dyeing wastewater is significantly reduced by the enzymatic method. It is found that the enzymatic dyeing method leads to improvement of dye absorption, color strength, soft hand, no change in color shade, low production costs (due to low dyeing temperature), and a significant reduction in environmental pollution.

Keywords: eco-friendly, natural dyes, silk, traditional dyeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
73 Extraction of Dye from Coconut Husk and Its Application on Wool and Silk

Authors: Deepali Rastogi

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Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as they cause no pollution and are safe to use. With the growing interest in natural dyes, new sources of natural dyes are being explored. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is native to tropical eastern region. It is abundantly available in Asia, Africa and South America. While coconut has tremendous commercial value in food, oil, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, the most important use of coconut husk has been as coir which is used for making mats, ropes, etc. In the present study an attempt has been made to extract dye from the coconut husk and study its application on wool and silk. Dye was extracted from coconut husk in an aqueous medium at three different pH. The coconut husk fibres were boiled in water at different pH of 4, 7 and 9 for one hour. On visual inspection of the extracted dye solution, maximum colour was found to be extracted at pH 9. The solution was obtained in neutral medium whereas, no dye was extracted in acidic medium. Therefore, alkaline medium at pH 9 was selected for the extraction of dye from coconut husk. The extracted dye was applied on wool and silk at three different pH, viz., 4, 7 and 9. The effect of pre- and post- mordanting with alum and ferrous sulphate on the colour value of coconut husk dye was also studied. The L*a*b*/L*c*h* values were measured to see the effect of the mordants on the colour values of all the dyed and mordanted samples. Bright golden brown to dark brown colours were obtained at pH 4 on both wool and silk. The colour yield was not very good at pH 7 and 9. Mordanting with alum resulted in darker and brighter shades of brown, whereas mordanting with ferrous sulphate resulted in darker and duller shades. All the samples were tested for colourfastness to light, rubbing, washing and perspiration. Both wool and silk dyed with dye extracted from coconut husk exhibited good to excellent wash, rub and perspiration fastness. Fastness to light was moderate to good.

Keywords: coconut husk, wool, silk, natural dye, mordants

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72 Development of Solar Energy Resources for Land along the Transportation Infrastructure: Taking the Lan-Xin Railway in the Silk Road Economic Belt as an Example

Authors: Dan Han, Yukun Zhang, Jie Zheng, Rui Zhang

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Making full use of space along transportation infrastructure to develop renewable energy sources, especially solar energy resources, has become a research focus in relevant fields. In recent years, relevant international researches can be classified into three stages of theoretical and technical exploration, exploratory practice as well as planning implementation. Compared with traditional solar energy development mode, the development of solar energy resources in places along the transportation infrastructure has special advantages, which can also bring forth new opportunities for the development of green transportation. 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic', a development model of combining transport and new energy, has been actively studied and applied in developed countries, but it was still in its infancy in China. 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' has great advantage to carry out the 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' because of the rich solar energy resources in its path, the shortages of renewable energy, the constraints of agricultural land and other reasons. Especially the massive amount of construction of transportation infrastructure brought by Silk Road Economic Belt, large area of developable land along the transportation line will be generated. Abundant solar energy recourses along the Silk Road will provide extremely superb practical opportunities to the land development along transportation infrastructure. We take PVsyst, GIS and Google map software for simulation of its potential by taking Lan-Xin Railway as an example, so potential electrical energy generation can be quantified and further analyzed. Research of 'New Silk Road Economic Belt' combined with 'Road Integrated Photovoltaic' is a creative development for the along transport and energy infrastructure. It not only can make full use of solar radiation and land in its path, but also bring more long-term advantages and benefits.

Keywords: land use, silk road economic belt, solar energy, transportation infrastructure

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71 Electrospinning and Characterization of Silk Fibroin/Gelatin Nanofibre Mats

Authors: S. Mohammadzadehmoghadam, Y. Dong

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In this study, Bombyx mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) nanocomposite with different GT ratio (SF/GT 100/0, 90/10 and 70/30) were prepared by electrospinning process and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor. Properties of crosslinked SF/GT nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical test, water uptake capacity (WUC) and porosity. From SEM images, it was found that fiber diameter increased as GT content increased. The results of mechanical test indicated that the SF/GT 70/30 nanocomposites had both the highest Young’s modulus of 342 MPa and the highest tensile strength of about 14 MPa. However, porosity and WUC decreased from 62% and 405% for pristine SF to 47% and 232% for SF/GT 70/30, respectively. This behavior can be related to higher degree of crosslinking as GT ratio increased which altered the structure and physical properties of scaffolds. This study showed that incorporation of GT into SF nanofibers can enhance mechanical properties of resultant nanocomposite, but the GA treatment should be optimized to control and fine-tune other properties to warrant their biomedical application.

Keywords: electrospinning, gelatin, silk fibroin, mechanical properties, nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
70 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Various Types of Dental Floss

Authors: Supanitayanon Lalita, Dechkunakorn Surachai, Anuwongnukroh Niwat, Srikhirin Toemsak, Roongrujimek Pitchaya, Tua-Ngam Peerapong

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Objective: To compare maximum load, percentage of elongation, physical characteristics of 4 types of dental floss: (1) Thai Silk Floss (silk, waxed), (2) Oral B® Essential Floss (nylon, waxed), (3) Experimental Floss Xu (nylon, unwaxed), (4) Experimental Floss Xw (nylon, waxed). Materials & method: Four types of floss were tested (n=30) with a Universal Testing Machine (Instron®). Each sample (30 cm long, 5 cm segment) was fixed, and pulled apart with load cell of 100 N and a test speed of 100 mm/min. Physical characteristics were investigated by digital microscope under 2.5×10 magnification, and scanning electron microscope under 1×100 and 5×100 magnification. The size of the filaments was measured in micron (μm) and the fineness were measured in Denier. Statistical analysis: For mechanical properties, the maximum load and the percentage of elongation were presented as mean ± SD. The distribution of the data was calculated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison (Tukey HSD) were used to analyze the differences among the groups with the level of a statistical difference at p < 0.05. Results: The maximum load of Floss Xu, Floss Xw, Oral B and Thai Silk were 47.39, 46.46, 25.38, and 23.70 N, respectively. The percentage of elongation of Oral B, Floss Xw, Floss Xu and Thai Silk were 72.43, 44.62, 31.25, and 16.44%, respectively. All 4 types of dental floss showed statistically differences in both the maximum load and percentage of elongation at p < 0.05, except for maximum load between Floss Xw and Floss Xu that showed no statistically significant difference. Physical characteristics of Thai silk revealed the most disintegrated, the smallest, and the least fine filaments. Conclusion: Floss Xu had the highest maximum load. Oral B had the highest percentage of elongation. Wax coating on Floss X increased the elongation but had no significant effect on the maximum load. The physical characteristics of Thai Silk resulted in the lowest mechanical properties values.

Keywords: dental floss, maximum load, mechanical property, percentage of elongation, physical property

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69 Mesoporous Tussah Silk Fibroin Microspheres for Drug Delivery

Authors: Weitao Zhou, Qing Wang, Jianxin He, Shizhong Cui

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Mesoporous Tussah silk fibroin (TSF) spheres were fabricated via the self-assembly of TSF molecules in aqueous solutions. The results showed that TSF particles were approximately three-dimensional spheres with the diameter ranging from 500nm to 6μm without adherence. More importantly, the surface morphology is mesoporous structure with nano-pores of 20nm - 200nm in size. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that mesoporous TSF spheres mainly contained beta-sheet conformation (44.1 %) as well as slight amounts of random coil (13.2 %). Drug release test was performed with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug and the result indicated the mesoporous TSF microspheres had a good capacity of sustained drug release. It is expected that these stable and high-crystallinity mesoporous TSF sphere produced without organic solvents, which have significantly improved drug release properties, is a very promising material for controlled gene medicines delivery.

Keywords: Tussah silk fibroin, porous materials, microsphere, drug release

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68 Utilization of Silk Waste as Fishmeal Replacement: Growth Performance of Cyprinus carpio Juveniles Fed with Bombyx mori Pupae

Authors: Goksen Capar, Levent Dogankaya

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According to the circular economy model, resource productivity should be maximized and wastes should be reduced. Since earth’s natural resources are continuously depleted, resource recovery has gained great interest in recent years. As part of our research study on the recovery and reuse of silk wastes, this paper focuses on the utilization of silkworm pupae as fishmeal replacement, which would replace the original fishmeal raw material, namely the fish itself. This, in turn, would contribute to sustainable management of wild fish resources. Silk fibre is secreted by the silkworm Bombyx mori in order to construct a 'room' for itself during its transformation process from pupae to an adult moth. When the cocoons are boiled in hot water, silk fibre becomes loose and the silk yarn is produced by combining thin silk fibres. The remaining wastes are 1) sericin protein, which is dissolved in water, 2) remaining part of cocoon, including the dead body of B. mori pupae. In this study, an eight weeks trial was carried out to determine the growth performance of common carp juveniles fed with waste silkworm pupae meal (SWPM) as a replacement for fishmeal (FM). Four isonitrogenous diets (40% CP) were prepared replacing 0%, 33%, 50%, and 100% of the dietary FM with non-defatted silkworm pupae meal as a dietary protein source for experiments in C. carpio. Triplicate groups comprising of 20 fish (0.92±0.29 g) were fed twice/day with one of the four diets. Over a period of 8 weeks, results showed that the diet containing 50% of its protein from SWPM had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) growth rates in all groups. The increasing levels of SWPM were resulted in a decrease in growth performance and significantly lower growth (p ≤ 0.05) was observed with diets having 100% SWPM. The study demonstrates that it is practical to replace 50% of the FM protein with SWPM with a significantly better utilization of the diet but higher SWPM levels are not recommended for juvenile carp. Further experiments are under study to have more detailed results on the possible effects of this alternative diet on the growth performance of juvenile carp.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, Cyprinus carpio, fish meal, silk, waste pupae

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67 Development of 3D Printed Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Scaffolds for Maxillofacial Reconstruction

Authors: Sri Sai Ramya Bojedla, Falguni Pati

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Nature provides the best of solutions to humans. One such incredible gift to regenerative medicine is silk. The literature has publicized a long appreciation for silk owing to its incredible physical and biological assets. Its bioactive nature, unique mechanical strength, and processing flexibility make us curious to explore further to apply it in the clinics for the welfare of mankind. In this study, Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori silk fibroin microfibers are developed by two economical and straightforward steps via degumming and hydrolysis for the first time, and a bioactive composite is manufactured by mixing silk fibroin microfibers at various concentrations with polycaprolactone (PCL), a biocompatible, aliphatic semi-crystalline synthetic polymer. Reconstructive surgery in any part of the body except for the maxillofacial region deals with replacing its function. But answering both the aesthetics and function is of utmost importance when it comes to facial reconstruction as it plays a critical role in the psychological and social well-being of the patient. The main concern in developing adequate bone graft substitutes or a scaffold is the noteworthy variation in each patient's bone anatomy. Additionally, the anatomical shape and size will vary based on the type of defect. The advent of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing techniques to bone tissue engineering has facilitated overcoming many of the restraints of conventional fabrication techniques. The acquired patient's CT data is converted into a stereolithographic (STL)-file which is further utilized by the 3D printer to create a 3D scaffold structure in an interconnected layer-by-layer fashion. This study aims to address the limitations of currently available materials and fabrication technologies and develop a customized biomaterial implant via 3D printing technology to reconstruct complex form, function, and aesthetics of the facial anatomy. These composite scaffolds underwent structural and mechanical characterization. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images showed the uniform dispersion of the silk fibroin microfibers in the PCL matrix. With the addition of silk, there is improvement in the compressive strength of the hybrid scaffolds. The scaffolds with Antheraea mylitta silk revealed higher compressive modulus than that of Bombyx mori silk. The above results of PCL-silk scaffolds strongly recommend their utilization in bone regenerative applications. Successful completion of this research will provide a great weapon in the maxillofacial reconstructive armamentarium.

Keywords: compressive modulus, 3d printing, maxillofacial reconstruction, natural fiber reinforced composites, silk fibroin microfibers

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66 Audience Members' Perspective-Taking Predicts Accurate Identification of Musically Expressed Emotion in a Live Improvised Jazz Performance

Authors: Omer Leshem, Michael F. Schober

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This paper introduces a new method for assessing how audience members and performers feel and think during live concerts, and how audience members' recognized and felt emotions are related. Two hypotheses were tested in a live concert setting: (1) that audience members’ cognitive perspective taking ability predicts their accuracy in identifying an emotion that a jazz improviser intended to express during a performance, and (2) that audience members' affective empathy predicts their likelihood of feeling the same emotions as the performer. The aim was to stage a concert with audience members who regularly attend live jazz performances, and to measure their cognitive and affective reactions during the performance as non-intrusively as possible. Pianist and Grammy nominee Andy Milne agreed, without knowing details of the method or hypotheses, to perform a full-length solo improvised concert that would include an ‘unusual’ piece. Jazz fans were recruited through typical advertising for New York City jazz performances. The event was held at the New School’s Glass Box Theater, the home of leading NYC jazz venue ‘The Stone.’ Audience members were charged typical NYC jazz club admission prices; advertisements informed them that anyone who chose to participate in the study would be reimbursed their ticket price after the concert. The concert, held in April 2018, had 30 attendees, 23 of whom participated in the study. Twenty-two minutes into the concert, the performer was handed a paper note with the instruction: ‘Perform a 3-5-minute improvised piece with the intention of conveying sadness.’ (Sadness was chosen based on previous music cognition lab studies, where solo listeners were less likely to select sadness as the musically-expressed emotion accurately from a list of basic emotions, and more likely to misinterpret sadness as tenderness). Then, audience members and the performer were invited to respond to a questionnaire from a first envelope under their seat. Participants used their own words to describe the emotion the performer had intended to express, and then to select the intended emotion from a list. They also reported the emotions they had felt while listening using Izard’s differential emotions scale. The concert then continued as usual. At the end, participants answered demographic questions and Davis’ interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a 28-item scale designed to assess both cognitive and affective empathy. Hypothesis 1 was supported: audience members with greater cognitive empathy were more likely to accurately identify sadness as the expressed emotion. Moreover, audience members who accurately selected ‘sadness’ reported feeling marginally sadder than people who did not select sadness. Hypotheses 2 was not supported; audience members with greater affective empathy were not more likely to feel the same emotions as the performer. If anything, members with lower cognitive perspective-taking ability had marginally greater emotional overlap with the performer, which makes sense given that these participants were less likely to identify the music as sad, which corresponded with the performer’s actual feelings. Results replicate findings from solo lab studies in a concert setting and demonstrate the viability of exploring empathy and collective cognition in improvised live performance.

Keywords: audience, cognition, collective cognition, emotion, empathy, expressed emotion, felt emotion, improvisation, live performance, recognized emotion

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65 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Formaldehyde Using the TiO2 Coated SF Filter

Authors: Janjira Triped, Wipada Sanongraj, Wipawee Khamwichit

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The research work covered in this study includes the morphological structure and optical properties of TiO2-coated silk fibroin (SF) filters at 2.5% wt. TiO2/vol. PVA solution. SEM micrographs revealed the fibrous morphology of the TiO2-coated SF filters. An average diameter of the SF fiber was estimated to be approximately 10µm. Also, it was confirmed that TiO2 can be adhered more on SF filter surface at higher TiO2 dosages. The activity of semiconductor materials was studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer method. The spectral data recorded shows the strong cut off at 390 nm. The calculated band-gap energy was about 3.19 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the filter was tested for gaseous formaldehyde removal in a modeling room with the total volume of 2.66 m3. The highest removal efficiency (54.72 ± 1.75%) was obtained at the initial formaldehyde concentration of about 5.00 ± 0.50ppm.

Keywords: photocatalytic oxidation process, formaldehyde (HCHO), silk fibroin (SF), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
64 Classical Improvisation Facilitating Enhanced Performer-Audience Engagement and a Mutually Developing Impulse Exchange with Concert Audiences

Authors: Pauliina Haustein

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Improvisation was part of Western classical concert culture and performers’ skill sets until early 20th century. Historical accounts, as well as recent studies, indicate that improvisatory elements in the programme may contribute specifically towards the audiences’ experience of enhanced emotional engagement during the concert. This paper presents findings from the author’s artistic practice research, which explored re-introducing improvisation to Western classical performance practice as a musician (cellist and ensemble partner/leader). In an investigation of four concert cycles, the performer-researcher sought to gain solo and chamber music improvisation techniques (both related to and independent of repertoire), conduct ensemble improvisation rehearsals, design concerts with an improvisatory approach, and reflect on interactions with audiences after each concert. Data was collected through use of reflective diary, video recordings, measurement of sound parameters, questionnaires, a focus group, and interviews. The performer’s empirical experiences and findings from audience research components were juxtaposed and interrogated to better understand the (1) rehearsal and planning processes that enable improvisatory elements to return to Western classical concert experience and (2) the emotional experience and type of engagement that occur throughout the concert experience for both performer and audience members. This informed the development of a concert model, in which a programme of solo and chamber music repertoire and improvisations were combined according to historically evidenced performance practice (including free formal solo and ensemble improvisations based on audience suggestions). Inspired by historical concert culture, where elements of risk-taking, spontaneity, and audience involvement (such as proposing themes for fantasies) were customary, this concert model invited musicians to contribute to the process personally and creatively at all stages, from programme planning, and throughout the live concert. The type of democratic, personal, creative, and empathetic collaboration that emerged, as a result, appears unique in Western classical contexts, rather finding resonance in jazz ensemble, drama, or interdisciplinary settings. The research identified features of ensemble improvisation, such as empathy, emergence, mutual engagement, and collaborative creativity, that became mirrored in audience’s responses, generating higher levels of emotional engagement, empathy, inclusivity, and a participatory, co-creative experience. It appears that duringimprovisatory moments in the concert programme, audience members started feeling more like active participants in za\\a creative, collaborative exchange and became stakeholders in a deeper phenomenon of meaning-making and narrativization. Examining interactions between all involved during the concert revealed that performer-audience impulse exchange occurred on multiple levels of awareness and seemed to build upon each other, resulting in particularly strong experiences of both performer and audience’s engagement. This impact appeared especially meaningful for audience members who were seldom concertgoers and reported little familiarity with classical music. The study found that re-introducing improvisatory elements to Western classical concert programmes has strong potential in increasing audience’s emotional engagement with the musical performance, enabling audience members to connect more personally with the individual performers, and in reaching new-to-classical-music audiences.

Keywords: artistic research, audience engagement, audience experience, classical improvisation, ensemble improvisation, emotional engagement, improvisation, improvisatory approach, musical performance, practice research

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63 Flow: A Fourth Musical Element

Authors: James R. Wilson

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Music is typically defined as having the attributes of melody, harmony, and rhythm. In this paper, a fourth element is proposed -"flow". "Flow" is a new dimension in music that has always been present but only recently identified and measured. The Adagio "Flow Machine" enables us to envision this component and even suggests a new approach to music theory and analysis. The Adagio was created specifically to measure the underlying “flow” in music. The Adagio is an entirely new way to experience and visualize the music, to assist in performing music (both as a conductor and/or performer), and to provide a whole new methodology for music analysis and theory. The Adagio utilizes musical “hit points”, such as a transition from one musical section to another (for example, in a musical composition utilizing the sonata form, a transition from the exposition to the development section) to help define the compositions flow rate. Once the flow rate is established, the Adagio can be used to determine if the composer/performer/conductor has correctly maintained the proper rate of flow throughout the performance. An example is provided using Mozart’s Piano Concerto Number 21. Working with the Adagio yielded an unexpected windfall; it was determined via an empirical study conducted at Nova University’s Biofeedback Lab that watching the Adagio helped volunteers participating in a controlled experiment recover from stressors significantly faster than the control group. The Adagio can be thought of as a new arrow in the Musicologist's quiver. It provides a new, unique way of viewing the psychological impact and esthetic effectiveness of music composition. Additionally, with the current worldwide access to multi-media via the internet, flow analysis can be performed and shared with others with little time and/or expense.

Keywords: musicology, music analysis, music flow, music therapy

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62 Bio-Functionalized Silk Nanofibers for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Authors: Kayla Belanger, Pascale Vigneron, Guy Schlatter, Bernard Devauchelle, Christophe Egles

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A severe injury to a peripheral nerve leads to its degeneration and the loss of sensory and motor function. To this day, there still lacks a more effective alternative to the autograft which has long been considered the gold standard for nerve repair. In order to overcome the numerous drawbacks of the autograft, tissue engineered biomaterials may be effective alternatives. Silk fibroin is a favorable biomaterial due to its many advantageous properties such as its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its robust mechanical properties. In this study, bio-mimicking multi-channeled nerve guidance conduits made of aligned nanofibers achieved by electrospinning were functionalized with signaling biomolecules and were tested in vitro and in vivo for nerve regeneration support. Silk fibroin (SF) extracted directly from silkworm cocoons was put in solution at a concentration of 10wt%. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was added to the resulting SF solution to increase solution viscosity and the following three electrospinning solutions were made: (1) SF/PEO solution, (2) SF/PEO solution with nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, and (3) SF/PEO solution with nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3. Each of these solutions was electrospun into a multi-layer architecture to obtain mechanically optimized aligned nanofibrous mats. For in vitro studies, aligned fibers were treated to induce β-sheet formation and thoroughly rinsed to eliminate presence of PEO. Each material was tested using rat embryo neuron cultures to evaluate neurite extension and the interaction with bio-functionalized or non-functionalized aligned fibers. For in vivo studies, the mats were rolled into 5mm long multi-, micro-channeled conduits then treated and thoroughly rinsed. The conduits were each subsequently implanted between a severed rat sciatic nerve. The effectiveness of nerve repair over a period of 8 months was extensively evaluated by cross-referencing electrophysiological, histological, and movement analysis results to comprehensively evaluate the progression of nerve repair. In vitro results show a more favorable interaction between growing neurons and bio-functionalized silk fibers compared to pure silk fibers. Neurites can also be seen having extended unidirectionally along the alignment of the nanofibers which confirms a guidance factor for the electrospun material. The in vivo study has produced positive results for the regeneration of the sciatic nerve over the length of the study, showing contrasts between the bio-functionalized material and the non-functionalized material along with comparisons to the experimental control. Nerve regeneration has been evaluated not only by histological analysis, but also by electrophysiological assessment and motion analysis of two separate natural movements. By studying these three components in parallel, the most comprehensive evaluation of nerve repair for the conduit designs can be made which can, therefore, more accurately depict their overall effectiveness. This work was supported by La Région Picardie and FEDER.

Keywords: electrospinning, nerve guidance conduit, peripheral nerve regeneration, silk fibroin

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
61 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

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Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, incidence, botanical extracts, organic cultivation, silk industry

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60 Textile Dyeing with Natural Dye from Sappan Tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) Extract

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nattida Tumpat

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Natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing process. The dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was extracted using water and ethanol. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. Brazilein, the major dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was confirmed in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts by UV–VIS spectrum. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordant had a shade of reddish-brown, while those post-mordanted with aluminum potassium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate produced a variety of wine red to dark purple color shades. Cotton fabric and silk yarn dyeing was studied using aluminum potassium sulfate as a mordant. The observed color strength was enhanced with increase in mordant concentration.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
59 Extraction, Characterization and Application of Natural Dyes from the Fresh Rind of Index Colour 5 Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

Authors: Basitah Taif

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This study was to explore and utilize the fresh rind of mangosteen Index Colour 5 as an upcoming raw material for the production of natural dyes. Rind from the fresh mangosteen Index Colour 5 was utilized to extract the dyes. The established extracts were experimented on silk fabrics via three types of mordanting and dyeing procedures; pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post-mordanting. As a result, the applications of the freeze-drying methodology and mechanizable equipment have helped to produce excellent range of natural colours. Silk fabric treated simultaneously with mordanting and dyeing with extract dye Index Colour 5 produced a brilliant shade of the red colour and the colour from this index is also discovered sensitive to light and washing during the fastness tests. The preliminary evaluation and instrumentation analysis allowed us to examine whether the application of different mordanting and dyeing procedures with the same extract samples and concentrations affected the colours and shades of the fabric samples.

Keywords: natural dye, freeze-drying, Garcinia mangostana Linn, mordanting

Procedia PDF Downloads 372