Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: intermediate

452 Performance Analysis of Carbon Nanotube for VLSI Interconnects and Their Comparison with Copper Interconnects

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Prashant Gupta

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of the bundle of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for low-power and high-speed interconnects for future VLSI applications. The power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP) of SWCNT bundle interconnects are examined and compared with that of the Cu interconnects at 22 nm technology node for both intermediate and global interconnects. The results show that SWCNT bundle consume less power and also faster than Cu for intermediate and global interconnects. It is concluded that the metallic SWCNT has been regarded as a viable candidate for intermediate and global interconnects in future technologies.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, SWCNT, low power, delay, power delay product, global and intermediate interconnects

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
451 Low Complexity Deblocking Algorithm

Authors: Jagroop Singh Sidhu, Buta Singh

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A low computational deblocking filter including three frequency related modes (smooth mode, intermediate mode, and non-smooth mode for low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high frequency regions, respectively) is proposed. The suggested approach requires zero additions, zero subtractions, zero multiplications (for intermediate region), no divisions (for non-smooth region) and no comparison. The suggested method thus keeps the computation lower and thus suitable for image coding systems based on blocks. Comparison of average number of operations for smooth, non-smooth, intermediate (per pixel vector for each block) using filter suggested by Chen and the proposed method filter suggests that the proposed filter keeps the computation lower and is thus suitable for fast processing algorithms.

Keywords: blocking artifacts, computational complexity, non-smooth, intermediate, smooth

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450 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri

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Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

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449 Influence of Annealing on the Mechanical αc-Relaxation of Isotactic-Polypropylene: A Study from the Intermediate Phase Perspective

Authors: Baobao Chang, Konrad Schneider, Vogel Roland, Gert Heinrich

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In this work, the influence of annealing on the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated. The results suggest that the mechanical αc-relaxation behavior depends strongly on the confinement force on the polymer chains in the intermediate phase and the thickness of the intermediate phase. After quenching at 10°C, abundant crystallites with a wide size distribution are formed. The polymer chains in the intermediate phase are constrained by the crystallites, giving rise to one broad αc-relaxation peak. With an annealing temperature between 60°C~105°C, imperfect lamellae melting releases part of the constraint force, which reduces the conformational ordering of the polymer chains neighboring the amorphous phase. Consequently, two separate αc-relaxation peaks could be observed which are labeled as αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation. αc1-relaxation and αc2-relaxation describe the relaxation behavior of polymer chains in the region close to the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase, respectively. Both relaxation peaks shift to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. With an annealing temperature higher than 105°C, the new crystalline phase is formed in the intermediate phase, which enhances the constraint force on the polymer chains. αc1-relaxation peak is broadened obviously and its position shifts to a higher temperature as annealing temperature increases. Moreover, αc2-relaxation is undetectable because that the polymer chains in the region between the initial crystalline phase and the newly formed crystalline phase are strongly confined.

Keywords: annealing, αc-relaxation, isotactic-polypropylene, intermediate phase

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448 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

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Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: urban planning, tourism, cultural heritage, intermediate cities

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447 Improving Listening Comprehension for EFL Pre-Intermediate Students through a Blended Learning Strategy

Authors: Heba Mustafa Abdullah

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The research aimed at examining the effect of using a suggested blended learning (BL) strategy on developing EFL pre- intermediate students. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample of the research consisted of a group of 26 EFL pre- intermediate students. Tools of the study included a listening comprehension checklist and a pre-post listening comprehension test. Results were discussed in relation to several factors that affected the language learning process. Finally, the research provided beneficial contributions in relation to manipulating BL strategy with respect to language learning process in general and oral language learning in particular.

Keywords: blended learning, english as a foreign language, listening comprehension, oral language instruction

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446 A Study on Improvement of Straightness of Preform Pulling Process of Hollow Pipe by Finete Element Analysis Method

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Jun-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi

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In this study, we have studied the design of intermediate die in multipass drawing. Research has been continuously studied because of the advantage of better dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and improved mechanical properties in the case of drawing. Among them, multipass drawing, which is a method to realize complicated shape by drawing, was discussed in this study. The most important factor in the multipass drawing is the dimensional accuracy and simplify the process. To accomplish this, a multistage shape drawing was performed using various intermediate die shape designs, and finite element analysis was performed.

Keywords: FEM (Finite Element Method), multipass drawing, intermediate die, hollow pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
445 Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Solution of Planar Stability Problems

Authors: M. Jahanandish, M. B. Zeydabadinejad

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In this paper, von Mises and Drucker-Prager yield criteria, as typical ones that consider the effect of intermediate principal stress σ2, have been selected and employed for investigating the influence of σ2 on the solution of a typical stability problem. The bearing capacity factors have been calculated under plane strain condition (strip footing) and axisymmetric condition (circular footing) using the method of stress characteristics together with the criteria mentioned. Different levels of σ2 relative to the other two principal stresses have been considered. While a higher σ2 entry in yield criterion gives a higher bearing capacity; its entry in equilibrium equations (axisymmetric) causes substantial reduction.

Keywords: intermediate principal stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, yield criteria

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444 Coal Preparation Plant:Technology Overview and New Adaptations

Authors: Amit Kumar Sinha

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A coal preparation plant typically operates with multiple beneficiation circuits to process individual size fractions of coal obtained from mine so that the targeted overall plant efficiency in terms of yield and ash is achieved. Conventional coal beneficiation plant in India or overseas operates generally in two methods of processing; coarse beneficiation with treatment in dense medium cyclones or in baths and fines beneficiation with treatment in flotation cell. This paper seeks to address the proven application of intermediate circuit along with coarse and fines circuit in Jamadoba New Coal Preparation Plant of capacity 2 Mt/y to treat -0.5 mm+0.25 mm size particles in reflux classifier. Previously this size of particles was treated directly in Flotation cell which had operational and metallurgical limitations which will be discussed in brief in this paper. The paper also details test work results performed on the representative samples of TSL coal washeries to determine the top size of intermediate and fines circuit and discusses about the overlapping process of intermediate circuit and how it is process wise suitable to beneficiate misplaced particles from coarse circuit and fines circuit. This paper also compares the separation efficiency (Ep) of various intermediate circuit process equipment and tries to validate the use of reflux classifier over fine coal DMC or spirals. An overview of Modern coal preparation plant treating Indian coal especially Washery Grade IV coal with reference to Jamadoba New Coal Preparation Plant which was commissioned in 2018 with basis of selection of equipment and plant profile, application of reflux classifier in intermediate circuit and process design criteria is also outlined in this paper.

Keywords: intermediate circuit, overlapping process, reflux classifier

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443 Analysis of Computer Science Papers Conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education at Secondary Level

Authors: Ameema Mahroof, Muhammad Saeed

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the papers of computer science conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education with reference to Bloom’s taxonomy. The present study has two parts. First, the analysis is done on the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate of Secondary Education on the basis of basic rules of item construction especially Bloom’s (1956). And the item analysis is done to improve the psychometric properties of a test. The sample included the question papers of computer science of higher secondary classes (XI-XII) for the years 2011 and 2012. For item analysis, the data was collected from 60 students through convenient sampling. Findings of the study revealed that in the papers by Board of intermediate and secondary education the maximum focus was on knowledge and understanding level and very less focus was on the application, analysis, and synthesis. Furthermore, the item analysis on the question paper reveals that item difficulty of most of the questions did not show a balanced paper, the items were either very difficult while most of the items were too easy (measuring knowledge and understanding abilities). Likewise, most of the items were not truly discriminating the high and low achievers; four items were even negatively discriminating. The researchers also analyzed the items of the paper through software Conquest. These results show that the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education were not well constructed. It was recommended that paper setters should be trained in developing the question papers that can measure various cognitive abilities of students so that a good paper in computer science should assess all cognitive abilities of students.

Keywords: Bloom’s taxonomy, question paper, item analysis, cognitive domain, computer science

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442 Adhesion Enhancement of Boron Carbide Coatings on Aluminum Substrates Utilizing an Intermediate Adhesive Layer

Authors: Sharon Waichman, Shahaf Froim, Ido Zukerman, Shmuel Barzilai, Shmual Hayun, Avi Raveh

Abstract:

Boron carbide is a ceramic material with superior properties such as high chemical and thermal stability, high hardness and high wear resistance. Moreover, it has a big cross section for neutron absorption and therefore can be employed in nuclear based applications. However, an efficient attachment of boron carbide to a metal such as aluminum can be very challenging, mainly because of the formation of aluminum-carbon bonds that are unstable in humid environment, the affinity of oxygen to the metal and the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials that may cause internal stresses and a subsequent failure of the bond. Here, we aimed to achieving a strong and a durable attachment between the boron carbide coating and the aluminum substrate. For this purpose, we applied Ti as a thin intermediate layer that provides a gradual change in the thermal expansion coefficients of the configured layers. This layer is continuous and therefore prevents the formation of aluminum-carbon bonds. Boron carbide coatings with a thickness of 1-5 µm were deposited on the aluminum substrate by pulse-DC magnetron sputtering. Prior to the deposition of the boron carbide layer, the surface was pretreated by energetic ion plasma followed by deposition of the Ti intermediate adhesive layer in a continuous process. The properties of the Ti intermediate layer were adjusted by the bias applied to the substrate. The boron carbide/aluminum bond was evaluated by various methods and complementary techniques, such as SEM/EDS, XRD, XPS, FTIR spectroscopy and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS), in order to explore the structure, composition and the properties of the layers and to study the adherence mechanism of the boron carbide/aluminum contact. Based on the interfacial bond characteristics, we propose a desirable solution for improved adhesion of boron carbide to aluminum using a highly efficient intermediate adhesive layer.

Keywords: adhesion, boron carbide coatings, ceramic/metal bond, intermediate layer, pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

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441 Warfare Ships at Ancient Egypt: Since Pre-Historic Era (3700 B.C.) Uptill the End of the 2nd Intermediate Period (1550 B.C.)

Authors: Mohsen Negmeddin

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Throughout their history, ancient Egyptians had known several kinds and types of boats, which were made from two main kinds of materials, the local one, as the dried papyrus reeds and the local tree trunks, the imported one, as the boats which were made from Lebanon cedar tree trunks. A varied using of these boats, as the fish hunting small boats, the transportation and trade boats "Cargo Boats", as well as the ceremonial boats, and the warfare boats. The research is intending for the last one, the warfare boats and the river/maritime battles since the beginning of ancient Egyptian civilization at the pre-historic era up till the end of the second intermediate period, to reveal the kinds and types of those fighting ships before establishing the Egyptian navy at the beginning of the New Kingdome (1550-1770 B.C). Two methods will follow at this research, the mention of names and titles of these ships through the texts (ancient Egyptian language) resources, and the depiction of it at the scenes.

Keywords: the warfare boats, the maritime battles, the pre-historic era, the second intermediate period

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440 Silicon-To-Silicon Anodic Bonding via Intermediate Borosilicate Layer for Passive Flow Control Valves

Authors: Luc Conti, Dimitry Dumont-Fillon, Harald van Lintel, Eric Chappel

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Flow control valves comprise a silicon flexible membrane that deflects against a substrate, usually made of glass, containing pillars, an outlet hole, and anti-stiction features. However, there is a strong interest in using silicon instead of glass as substrate material, as it would simplify the process flow by allowing the use of well controlled anisotropic etching. Moreover, specific devices demanding a bending of the substrate would also benefit from the inherent outstanding mechanical strength of monocrystalline silicon. Unfortunately, direct Si-Si bonding is not easily achieved with highly structured wafers since residual stress may prevent the good adhesion between wafers. Using a thermoplastic polymer, such as parylene, as intermediate layer is not well adapted to this design as the wafer-to-wafer alignment is critical. An alternative anodic bonding method using an intermediate borosilicate layer has been successfully tested. This layer has been deposited onto the silicon substrate. The bonding recipe has been adapted to account for the presence of the SOI buried oxide and intermediate glass layer in order not to exceed the breakdown voltage. Flow control valves dedicated to infusion of viscous fluids at very high pressure have been made and characterized. The results are compared to previous data obtained using the standard anodic bonding method.

Keywords: anodic bonding, evaporated glass, flow control valve, drug delivery

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439 Factor Analysis on Localization of Human Resources of Japanese Firms in Taiwan

Authors: Nana Weng

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Localization in the aspect of human resource means more diversity and more opportunities. The main purpose of this article is to identify the perception of local employees and intermediate managers (non-Japanese) and figure out exploratory factors which have been contributing and blocking the level of localization in the aspect of human resource management by using EFA (Exploratory Factors Analysis). Questionnaires will be designed for local employees and managers to inquire about the perceptions of regulations and implementation regarding recruitment, training and development, promotion and rewarding. The study finds that Japanese firms have worked well in the process of localization, especially in hiring and training local staffs in Taiwan. The significance of this study lies in paying more attention to the perception of local employees and intermediate managers regarding localization rather than interviews results from Japanese expatriates or top HR managers who are in charging of localization policy-making.

Keywords: Japanese firms in Taiwan, localization of human resources, exploratory factors analysis, local employees and intermediate managers

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438 Directional Dependence of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Reinforced Sand

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

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The technique of reinforcing soil is an efficient, reliable and cost-effective alternative way for improving the performance of soil in civil engineering applications. Despite the anisotropic states of stresses induced within soil elements by many geotechnical structures such as footings, highways and offshore, most of the previous studies have been carried out under isotropic conditions. The anisotropic stress state in term of the inclined principal stress and the inequality of the intermediate and minor principal stresses cannot be investigated using conventional devices. Therefore, the advanced hollow cylinder apparatus, used in this work, provides a great opportunity to simulate such anisotropic stress states. To date, very little consideration has been given to how the direction of principal stress α and intermediate principal stress ratio b can affect the performance of the reinforced sand. This study presented that the anisotropic conditions of α and b resulted in significant variations in the deviator stress and volumetric strain of sand reinforced with geosynthetics. Anisotropic effect has been decreased by adding clay content.

Keywords: anisotropy, reinforced sand, direction of principal stress, intermediate principal stress ratio

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437 Institutional Effectiveness in Fostering Student Retention and Success in First Year

Authors: Naziema B. Jappie

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The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between college readiness characteristics and learning outcome assessment scores. About this, it is important to examine the first-year retention and success rate. In order to undertake this study, it will be necessary to look at proficiency levels on general and domain-specific knowledge and skills reflected on national benchmark test scores (NBT), in-college interventions and course-taking patterns. Preliminary results based on data from more than 1000 students suggest that there is a positive association between NBT scores and students’ 1st-year college GPA and their retention status. For example, 63% of students with a proficient level of math skills in the NBT had the highest level of GPA at the end of 1st-year of college in comparison to 56% of those who started with a primary or intermediate level, respectively. The retention rates among those with proficiency levels were also higher than those with basic or intermediate levels (98% vs. 93% and 88%, respectively). By the end of 3rd year in college, students with intermediate or proficient entering NBT math skills had 7% and 8% of dropout rate, compared to 14% for those started at primary level; a greater percentage of students qualified by the end of 3rd-year qualified among proficient students than that among intermediate or basic level students (50% vs. 44% and 27% respectively). The findings of this study added knowledge to the field in South Africa and are expected to help stakeholders and policymakers to better understand college learning and challenges for students with disadvantaged backgrounds and provide empirical evidence in support of related practices and policies.

Keywords: assessment, data analysis, performance, proficiency, policy, student success

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436 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

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In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: intermediate non-destructive testing, medium scale industries, process layout design

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435 Emergence of Ciprofloxacin Intermediate Susceptible Salmonella Typhi in India

Authors: Meenakshi Chaudhary, V .S. Randhawa, M. Jais, R. Dutta

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Introduction: An outbreak of Multi drug resistant S. Typhi (i.e. resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) occurred in 1990's in India which peaked in 1992-93 and resulted in the change of drug of choice from chloramphenicol to ciprofloxacin for enteric fever. Currently an emergence of Ciprofloxacin susceptible S. Typhi isolates in the region is being reported which appears to be chromosomally mediated. Methodology: Six hundred sixty four strains were randomly selected from the time period between January 2008-December 2011 at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, LHMC, New Delhi. The strains were representative of the north, central and south zones of India. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, biotyping, phage typing and then to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by CLSI disk diffusion (CLSI) technique to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-Sulfomethoxazole and Tetracycline. Subsequently MIC of the isolates was determined by E-test (AB-Biodisc). Results: More than 80% of the tested strains had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The E test revealed the MIC (Ciprofloxacin) of these strains to be in the range of 0.12 to 0.5 µg/ml. Sixty nine percent of ciprofloxacin intermediate susceptible strains belonged to Phage type E1 and fourteen percent of these were Vi- Negative i.e these could not be typed by the phage typing scheme of Craigie and Yen. All the strains remained susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusion: Predominant isolation of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains from India would alter the recommendations of empiric treatment of enteric fever in the region. Alternative to the low cost ciprofloxacin will have to be sought or increased dosage and/or duration of ciprofloxacin will have to be recommended. The reasons for the trend of increase in percentage of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains are not clear but may be attributed partly to the revision of CLSI guidelines in 2013.

Keywords: salmonella typhi, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, ciprofloxacin, minimum inhibitory concentration

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434 Behavior of Iran Stock Exchange and Impacts of US Oil and Financial Markets

Authors: Erfan Memarian, Seyyed Fazayel Alizadeh

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This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the oil and financial markets of the United States on Iran stock exchange and to develop an ARDL model to predict the short and long-term relationship between these markets. In this regard, all 713 weekly data between 28 July 1999 and 20 March 2013 were analyzed by using Microfit4.0 and Eviews7 econometric softwares. The independent variable of the study is the “Price and Yield Index (TEDPIX)” of Tehran Stock Exchange and the independent variables include S & P 500 Index, the US three-month treasury bill rate and West Texas Intermediate oil spot price index. The results show that the West Texas Intermediate oil spot price and the S&P 500 indices have significant positive relationships with Iran's TEDPIX. Also, there exists a significant negative relationship between Iran's TEDPIX and the US three-month Treasury bill rate.

Keywords: TEDPIX; Tehran Stock Exchange; S&P 500 index; USA three-month Treasury bill rate; West Texas Intermediate oil

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433 Business Continuity Risk Review for a Large Petrochemical Complex

Authors: Michel A. Thomet

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A discrete-event simulation model was used to perform a Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) study of a large petrochemical complex which included sixteen process units, and seven feeds and intermediate streams. All the feeds and intermediate streams have associated storage tanks, so that if a processing unit fails and shuts down, the downstream units can keep producing their outputs. This also helps the upstream units which do not have to reduce their outputs, but can store their excess production until the failed unit restart. Each process unit and each pipe section carrying the feeds and intermediate streams has a probability of failure with an associated distribution and a Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), as well as a distribution of the time to restore and a Mean Time To Restore (MTTR). The utilities supporting the process units can also fail and have their own distributions with specific MTBF and MTTR. The model runs are for ten years or more and the runs are repeated several times to obtain statistically relevant results. One of the main results is the On-Stream factor (OSF) of each process unit (percent of hours in a year when the unit is running in nominal conditions). One of the objectives of the study was to investigate if the storage capacity of each of the feeds and the intermediate stream was adequate. This was done by increasing the storage capacities in several steps and through running the simulation to see if the OSF were improved and by how much. Other objectives were to see if the failure of the utilities were an important factor in the overall OSF, and what could be done to reduce their failure rates through redundant equipment.

Keywords: business continuity, on-stream factor, petrochemical, RAM study, simulation, MTBF

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432 The Implication of News Segments and Movies for Enhancing Listening Comprehension of Language Learners

Authors: Taher Bahrani

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Armed with technological development, the present study aimed at gauging the effectiveness of exposure to news and movies as two types of audio-visual programs on improving language learners’ listening comprehension at the intermediate level. To this end, a listening comprehension test was administered to 108 language learners and finally 60 language learners were selected as intermediate language learners and randomly divided into group one and group two. During the experiment, group one participants had exposure to audio-visual news stories to work on in-and out-side the classroom. On the contrary, the participants in group two had only exposure to a sample selected utterances extracted from different kinds of movies. At the end of the experiment, both groups took another sample listening test to find out to what extent the participants in each group could enhance their listening comprehension. The results obtained from the post-test were indicative of the fact that the participants who had exposure to news outperformed the participants who had exposure to movies. The findings of the present research seem to indicate that the language input embedded in the type of audio-visual programs which language learners are exposed to is more important than the amount of exposure.

Keywords: audio-visual news, movies, listening comprehension, intermediate level

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431 The Effect of Using Mobile Listening Applications on Listening Skills of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Mahmoud Nabilu

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The present study explored the effect of using Mobile listening applications on developing listening skills by Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Fifty male intermediate English learners whose age range was between 15 and 20, participated in the study. The participants were placed in two groups on the basis of their scores on a placement test. Therefore, the participants of the study were homogenized in terms of general proficiency, and groups were assigned as one experimental group and one control group. The experimental group was instructed by the treatment which was using mobile applications to develop their listening skills while the control group received traditional methods. The research data were obtained from the 40-item multiple-choice tests as a pre-test and a post-test. The results of the t-test clearly revealed that the learners in the experimental group performed better in the post-test than the pre-test. This implies that using a mobile application for developing listening skills as a treatment was effective in helping the language learners perform better on post-test. However, a statistically significant difference was found between the post-tests scores of the two groups. The mean of the experimental group was greater compared to the control group. The participants were Iranian and from an Iranian Language Institute, so care should be taken while generalizing the results to the learners of other nationalities. However, in the researcher's view, the findings of this study have valuable implications for teachers and learners, methodologists and syllabus designers, linguists and MALL/CALL (mobile/computer-assisted language learning) experts. Using the result of the present paper is an aim of raising the consciousness of a better technique of developing listening skills in order to make language learning more efficient for the learners.

Keywords: Mobile listening applications, intermediate EFL learners, MALL, CALL

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430 Relocation of Plastic Hinge of Interior Beam Column Connections with Intermediate Bars in Reinforced Concrete and T-Section Steel Inserts in Precast Concrete Frames

Authors: P. Wongmatar, C. Hansapinyo, C. Buachart

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Failure of typical seismic frames has been found by plastic hinge occurring on beams section near column faces. Past researches shown that the seismic capacity of the frames can be enhanced if the plastic hinges of the beams are shifted away from the column faces. This paper presents detailing of reinforcements in the interior beam–column connections aiming to relocate the plastic hinge of reinforced concrete and precast concrete frames. Four specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic load including two monolithic specimens and two precast specimens. For one monolithic specimen, typical seismic reinforcement was provided and considered as a reference specimen named M1. The other reinforced concrete frame M2 contained additional intermediate steel in the connection area compared with the specimen M1. For the precast specimens, embedded T-section steels in joint were provided, with and without diagonal bars in the connection area for specimen P1 and P2, respectively. The test results indicated the ductile failure with beam flexural failure in monolithic specimen M1 and the intermediate steel increased strength and improved joint performance of specimen M2. For the precast specimens, cracks generated at the end of the steel inserts. However, slipping of reinforcing steel lapped in top of the beams was seen before yielding of the main bars leading to the brittle failure. The diagonal bars in precast specimens P2 improved the connection stiffness and the energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: relocation, plastic hinge, intermediate bar, T-section steel, precast concrete frame

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429 Contribution of Intermediate Diaphragms on LDFs of Straight and Skew Concrete Multicell Box-Girder Bridges

Authors: Iman Mohseni

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Current studies indicate that neglecting the effect of intermediate diaphragms might lead to highly conservative values for bending moment distribution factors and result in non-economic designs for skew bridges. This paper reports on a parametric study performed on 160 prototypes of straight and skew concrete multicell box-girder bridges. The obtained results were used to develop practical expressions to account for the diaphragm effects on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials formulas for live load distribution factors. It was observed that decks with internal transverse diaphragms perpendicular to the longitudinal webs are the best arrangement for load distribution in skew bridges.

Keywords: box bridges, truck, distribution factor, diaphragm

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428 The Equality Test of Ceftriaxone Anti-Bacterial Effect and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (Myermecodia pendens Merr. and L. M Perry) to MRSA

Authors: Rifa’ah Mahmudah Bulu’

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MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen in the world. Therefore, the prevention and effort to control MRSA is still very important to conduct. One of the preventions of MRSA, which have been reported by several studies, is Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant. This research is an experimental test to determine the potency of MRSA’s anti-bacterial with Cefriaxone (30 μg) and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (13 mg/ml) based on inhibition zone on LAB (Lempeng Agar Biasa). The size of inhibition zone that is formed on Cefriaxone is adjusted with CSLI criteria, which ≥ 21 mm of inhibition zone is called sensitive; ≤13 mm is called resistance and between 14-20 mm is called intermediate. This research is conducted three times. Comparative test between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is analyzed by Maan Whitney’s statistic method. The Result of Cefriaxone anti-bacterial potency shows the variety of inhibition zone. Cefriaxone forms approximately 16,5-20 mm with average 18,22mm of inhibition zone that make Cefriaxone’s criteria to MRSA’s inhibition is intermediate. Anti-bacterial potency of Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is about 0,5-2 mm with average 1,17 mm of inhibition zone that prove MRSA is sensitive to Ant Plant. The conclusion of this research shows that Cefriaxone is intermediate to MRSA’s inhibition, while MRSA is sensitive to Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant, which at the end; it creates different potency of anti-bacterial between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant.

Keywords: MRSA, cefriaxone, ant plant, CSLI, mann whitney

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427 Analysing Responses of Intermediate and Expert Karate Athletes towards the Gyaku-Zuki Using Virtual Reality

Authors: Nicole Bandow, Peter Emmermacher, Oliver Wienert, Steffen Masik, Kerstin Witte

Abstract:

Karate-kumite is a fast sport where a good perception and anticipation of movements is needed in order to respond appropriately. Perception and anticipation are therefore essential for an efficient and precise movement control and a limiting factor in karate kumite. Previous studies only used 2D video technologies combined with the occlusion technique to study anticipation in sports. These studies showed limitations in the usage of 2D video footage in regards to realism and the presentation of depth information. To overcome these issues a virtual 3D environment was developed to create a similar to real life environment. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in responses of intermediate and expert karate athletes towards temporally and spatially occluded virtual karate attacks from two attackers. Five male expert and five intermediate karate athletes responded physically to nine (3 temporal combined with 3 spatial) occluded attacks of the Gyaku-Zuki of each attacker in the 3D virtual environment. The responses were evaluated in regards to correct point of time and appropriate response technique. Significant differences between the expertises’ responses for the attackers were found. Experts respond more often correct to early information of attacks than novices.

Keywords: anticipation, karate, occlusion, virtual reality

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426 The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on the Accurate Use of Grammatical Forms by Japanese Low-Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Ayako Hasegawa, Ken Ubukata

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corrective feedback has any significant effect on Japanese low-intermediate EFL learners’ performance on a specific set of linguistic features. The subjects are Japanese college students majoring in English. They have studied English for about 7 years, but their inter-language seems to fossilize because non-target like errors is frequently observed in traditional deductive teacher-fronted approach. It has been reported that corrective feedback plays an important role in diminishing or overcoming inter-language fossilization and achieving TL competency. Therefore, it was examined how the corrective feedback (the focus of this study was metalinguistic feedback) and self-correction raised the students’ awareness and helped them notice the gaps between their inter-language and the TL.

Keywords: written corrective feedback, fossilized error, grammar teaching, language teaching

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425 The Relationship between Characteristics of Nurses and Organizational Commitment of Nurses in Geriatric Intermediate Care Facilities in Japan

Authors: Chiharu Miyata, Hidenori Arai

Abstract:

Background: The quality of care in geriatric intermediate facilities (GIFs) in Japan is not in a satisfied level. To improve it, it is crucial to reconsider nurses’ professionalism. Our goal is to create an organizational system that allows nurses to succeed professionally. To do this, we must first discuss the relationship between nurses’ characteristics and the organization. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demographic and work-related factors are related to organizational commitment among nurses in GIFs. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional method was adopted, using a self-completion questionnaire survey. The questionnaires consisted of 49 items for job satisfaction, the three-dimensional commitment model of organizational commitment and the background information of respondents. Results: A total of 1,189 nurses participated. Of those, 91% (n=1084) were women, and mean age was 48.2 years. Most participants were staff nurses (n=791; 66%). Significant differences in 'affective commitment' (AC) scores were found for age (p < .001), overall work experience (p < .001), and work status (p < .001). For work experience in the current facility, significant differences were found in all organizational commitment scores (p < .001). The group with high job satisfaction scored significantly higher in all types of organizational commitment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results led to a conclusion that understanding the expectations of nurses at the workplace to adapt with the organization, and creating a work environment that clarifies contents of tasks, especially allowing for nurses to feel significance and achievement with tasks, would increase AC.

Keywords: geriatric intermediate care facilities, geriatric nursing, job satisfaction, organizational commitment

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424 Development of a Two-Step 'Green' Process for (-) Ambrafuran Production

Authors: Lucia Steenkamp, Chris V. D. Westhuyzen, Kgama Mathiba

Abstract:

Ambergris, and more specifically its oxidation product (–)-ambrafuran, is a scarce, valuable, and sought-after perfumery ingredient. The material is used as a fixative agent to stabilise perfumes in formulations by reducing the evaporation rate of volatile substances. Ambergris is a metabolic product of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephatus L.), resulting from intestinal irritation. Chemically, (–)-ambrafuran is produced from the natural product sclareol in eight synthetic steps – in the process using harsh and often toxic chemicals to do so. An overall yield of no more than 76% can be achieved in some routes, but generally, this is lower. A new 'green' route has been developed in our laboratory in which sclareol, extracted from the Clary sage plant, is converted to (–)-ambrafuran in two steps with an overall yield in excess of 80%. The first step uses a microorganism, Hyphozyma roseoniger, to bioconvert sclareol to an intermediate diol using substrate concentrations up to 50g/L. The yield varies between 90 and 67% depending on the substrate concentration used. The purity of the diol product is 95%, and the diol is used without further purification in the next step. The intermediate diol is then cyclodehydrated to the final product (–)-ambrafuran using a zeolite, which is not harmful to the environment and is readily recycled. The yield of the product is 96%, and following a single recrystallization, the purity of the product is > 99.5%. A preliminary LC-MS study of the bioconversion identified several intermediates produced in the fermentation broth under oxygen-restricted conditions. Initially, a short-lived ketone is produced in equilibrium with a more stable pyranol, a key intermediate in the process. The latter is oxidised under Norrish type I cleavage conditions to yield an acetate, which is hydrolysed either chemically or under lipase action to afford the primary fermentation product, an intermediate diol. All the intermediates identified point to the likely CYP450 action as the key enzyme(s) in the mechanism. This invention is an exceptional example of how the power of biocatalysis, combined with a mild, benign chemical step, can be deployed to replace a total chemical synthesis of a specific chiral antipode of a commercially relevant material.

Keywords: ambrafuran, biocatalysis, fragrance, microorganism

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423 Beak Size and Asynchronous Hatch in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Mariana Thimotheo, Gabriel Carvalho Ripamonte, Marina De Almeida Nogueira, Silvia Camila Da Costa Aguiar, Marcelo Henrique Santana Ulian, Euclides Braga Malheiros, Isabel Cristina Boleli

Abstract:

Beak plays a fundamental role in the hatching process of the chicks, since it is used for internal and external pipping. The present study examined whether the size of the beak influences the birth period of the broiler chicks in the hatching window. It was analyzed the beak size (length, height and width) of one-hundred twenty nine newly hatched chicks from light eggs (56.22-61.05g) and one-hundred twenty six chicks from heavy eggs (64.95-70.90g), produced by 38 and 45 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®), respectively. Egg incubation occurred at 37.5°C and 60% RH, with egg turning every hour. Length, height and width of the beaks were measured using a digital caliper (Zaas precision - digital caliper 6", 0.01mm) and the data expressed in millimeters. The beak length corresponded to distance between the tip of the beak and the rictus. The height of the beak was measured in the region of the culmen and its width in the region of the nostrils. Data were analyzed following a 3x2 factorial experimental design, being three birth periods within the hatching window (early: 471.78 to 485.42h, intermediate: 485.43 to 512.27h, and late: 512.28 to 528.72h) and two egg weights (light and heavy). There was a significant interaction between birth period and egg weight for beak height (P < 0.05), which was higher in the intermediate chicks from heavy eggs than in the other chicks from the same egg weight and chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05), that did not differ (P > 0.05). The beak length was influenced only for a birth period, and decreased through the hatch window (early < intermediate < late) (P < 0.05). The width of the beaks was influenced by both main factors, birth period and egg weight (P < 0.05). Early and intermediate chicks had similar beak width, but greater than late chicks, and chicks from heavy eggs presented greater beak width than chicks from light eggs (P < 0.05). In sum, the results show that chicks with longer beak hatch first and that beak length is an important variable for hatch period determination mainly for light eggs.

Keywords: beak dimensions, egg weight, hatching period, hatching window

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