Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 284

Search results for: blocking artifacts

284 Different Views and Evaluations of IT Artifacts

Authors: Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat

Abstract:

The introduction of a multitude of new and interactive e-commerce information technology (IT) artifacts has impacted adoption research. Rather than solely functioning as productivity tools, new IT artifacts assume the roles of interaction mediators and social actors. This paper describes the varying roles assumed by IT artifacts, and proposes and distinguishes between four distinct foci of how the artifacts are evaluated. It further proposes a theoretical model that maps the different views of IT artifacts to four distinct types of evaluations.

Keywords: IT adoption, IT artifacts, similarity, social actor

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
283 Grid Pattern Recognition and Suppression in Computed Radiographic Images

Authors: Igor Belykh

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Anti-scatter grids used in radiographic imaging for the contrast enhancement leave specific artifacts. Those artifacts may be visible or may cause Moiré effect when a digital image is resized on a diagnostic monitor. In this paper, we propose an automated grid artifacts detection and suppression algorithm which is still an actual problem. Grid artifacts detection is based on statistical approach in spatial domain. Grid artifacts suppression is based on Kaiser bandstop filter transfer function design and application avoiding ringing artifacts. Experimental results are discussed and concluded with description of advantages over existing approaches.

Keywords: grid, computed radiography, pattern recognition, image processing, filtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
282 Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control

Authors: Mounir Zekkaoui, Abdelhadi Fennan

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The software evolution control requires a deep understanding of the changes and their impact on different system heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite condition for the success of the evolutionary process. The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change concerned.

Keywords: heterogeneous software artifacts, software evolution control, unified approach, meta model, software architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
281 Protection of Website Owners' Rights: Proportionality of Website Blocking in Russia and Beyond

Authors: Ekaterina Semenova

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The article explores the issue of website owners’ liability for the illicit content. Whilst various issues of secondary liability of internet access providers for the illicit content have been widely discussed in the law doctrine, the liability of website owners has attracted less attention. Meanwhile, the website blocking injunctions influence website owners’ rights most, since website owners have the interest to keep their website online, rather than internet access providers. The discussion of internet access providers’ liability overshadows the necessity to protect the website owners’ rights to due process and proportionality of blocking injunctions. The analysis of Russian website blocking regulation and case law showed that the protection of website owners’ rights depends on the kind of illicit content: some content induces automatic blocking injunctions without prior notice of website owners and any opportunity to appeal, while other content does not invoke automatic blocking and provides an opportunity for the website owner to avoid or appeal an injunction. Comparative analysis of website blocking regulations in European countries reveals different approaches to the proportionality of website blocking and website owner’s rights protection. Based on the findings of the study, we conclude that the global trend to impose website blocking injunctions on wide range of illicit content without due process of law interferes with the rights of website owners.

Keywords: illicit content, liability, Russia, website blocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
280 Notice and Block?

Authors: Althaf Marsoof

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The blocking injunction, giving rise to a ‘notice and block’ regime, has become the new approach to curtail the infringement of Intellectual Property rights on the Internet. As such, the blocking injunction is an addition to the arsenal of copyright owners, and more recently has also benefited trademark owners, in their battle against piracy and counterfeiting. Yet, the blocking injunction, notwithstanding the usefulness of its ‘notice and block’ outcome, is not without limitations. In the circumstances, it is argued that ‘notice and takedown’, the approach that has been adopted by right-holders for some years, is still an important remedy against the proliferation of online content that infringe the rights of copyright and trademark owners, which is both viable and effective. Thus, it is suggested that the battle against online piracy and counterfeiting could be won only if both the blocking injunction and the practice of ‘notice and takedown’ are utilised by right-holders as complementary and simultaneous remedies.

Keywords: blocking injunctions, internet intermediaries, notice and takedown, intellectual property

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
279 Algorithm for Automatic Real-Time Electrooculographic Artifact Correction

Authors: Norman Sinnigen, Igor Izyurov, Marina Krylova, Hamidreza Jamalabadi, Sarah Alizadeh, Martin Walter

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Background: EEG is a non-invasive brain activity recording technique with a high temporal resolution that allows the use of real-time applications, such as neurofeedback. However, EEG data are susceptible to electrooculographic (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) artifacts (i.e., jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements). Due to their non-stationary nature, these artifacts greatly obscure the information and power spectrum of EEG signals. Many EEG artifact correction methods are too time-consuming when applied to low-density EEG and have been focusing on offline processing or handling one single type of EEG artifact. A software-only real-time method for correcting multiple types of EEG artifacts of high-density EEG remains a significant challenge. Methods: We demonstrate an improved approach for automatic real-time EEG artifact correction of EOG and EMG artifacts. The method was tested on three healthy subjects using 64 EEG channels (Brain Products GmbH) and a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. Captured EEG signals were imported in MATLAB with the lab streaming layer interface allowing buffering of EEG data. EMG artifacts were detected by channel variance and adaptive thresholding and corrected by using channel interpolation. Real-time independent component analysis (ICA) was applied for correcting EOG artifacts. Results: Our results demonstrate that the algorithm effectively reduces EMG artifacts, such as jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements, and EOG artifacts (horizontal and vertical eye movements) of high-density EEG while preserving brain neuronal activity information. The average computation time of EOG and EMG artifact correction for 80 s (80,000 data points) 64-channel data is 300 – 700 ms depending on the convergence of ICA and the type and intensity of the artifact. Conclusion: An automatic EEG artifact correction algorithm based on channel variance, adaptive thresholding, and ICA improves high-density EEG recordings contaminated with EOG and EMG artifacts in real-time.

Keywords: EEG, muscle artifacts, ocular artifacts, real-time artifact correction, real-time ICA

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
278 Impact Analysis Based on Change Requirement Traceability in Object Oriented Software Systems

Authors: Sunil Tumkur Dakshinamurthy, Mamootil Zachariah Kurian

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Change requirement traceability in object oriented software systems is one of the challenging areas in research. We know that the traces between links of different artifacts are to be automated or semi-automated in the software development life cycle (SDLC). The aim of this paper is discussing and implementing aspects of dynamically linking the artifacts such as requirements, high level design, code and test cases through the Extensible Markup Language (XML) or by dynamically generating Object Oriented (OO) metrics. Also, non-functional requirements (NFR) aspects such as stability, completeness, clarity, validity, feasibility and precision are discussed. We discuss this as a Fifth Taxonomy, which is a system vulnerability concern.

Keywords: artifacts, NFRs, OO metrics, SDLC, XML

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
277 Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations

Authors: Irmak Gunes Yuceil

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This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.

Keywords: hand-held x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, art and archaeology, interferences and analytical errors, pre-diagnosis in conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
276 Dimensioning of Circuit Switched Networks by Using Simulation Code Based On Erlang (B) Formula

Authors: Ali Mustafa Elshawesh, Mohamed Abdulali

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The paper presents an approach to dimension circuit switched networks and find the relationship between the parameters of the circuit switched networks on the condition of specific probability of call blocking. Our work is creating a Simulation code based on Erlang (B) formula to draw graphs which show two curves for each graph; one of simulation and the other of calculated. These curves represent the relationships between average number of calls and average call duration with the probability of call blocking. This simulation code facilitates to select the appropriate parameters for circuit switched networks.

Keywords: Erlang B formula, call blocking, telephone system dimension, Markov model, link capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
275 Robust Heart Rate Estimation from Multiple Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Physiological Signals Using Signal Quality Indices and Kalman Filter

Authors: Shalini Rankawat, Mansi Rankawat, Rahul Dubey, Mazad Zaveri

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Physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often seriously corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data, which lead to errors in the estimation of heart rate (HR) and incidences of false alarm from ICU monitors. Clinical support in ICU requires most reliable heart rate estimation. Cardiac activity, because of its relatively high electrical energy, may introduce artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), and Electromyogram (EMG) recordings. This paper presents a robust heart rate estimation method by detection of R-peaks of ECG artifacts in EEG, EMG & EOG signals, using energy-based function and a novel Signal Quality Index (SQI) assessment technique. SQIs of physiological signals (EEG, EMG, & EOG) were obtained by correlation of nonlinear energy operator (teager energy) of these signals with either ECG or ABP signal. HR is estimated from ECG, ABP, EEG, EMG, and EOG signals from separate Kalman filter based upon individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighing each estimate by the Kalman filters’ SQI modified innovations. The fused signal HR estimate is more accurate and robust than any of the individual HR estimate. This method was evaluated on MIMIC II data base of PhysioNet from bedside monitors of ICU patients. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of noise and artifacts.

Keywords: ECG, ABP, EEG, EMG, EOG, ECG artifacts, Teager-Kaiser energy, heart rate, signal quality index, Kalman filter, data fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
274 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer

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Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
273 Study on Varying Solar Blocking Depths in the Exploration of Energy-Saving Renovation of the Energy-Saving Design of the External Shell of Existing Buildings: Using Townhouse Residences in Kaohsiung City as an Example

Authors: Kuang Sheng Liu, Yu Lin Shih*, Chun Ta Tzeng, Cheng Chen Chen

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Buildings in the 21st century are facing issues such as an extreme climate and low-carbon/energy-saving requirements. Many countries in the world are of the opinion that a building during its medium- and long-term life cycle is an energy-consuming entity. As for the use of architectural resources, including the United Nations-implemented "Global Green Policy" and "Sustainable building and construction initiative", all are working towards "zero-energy building" and "zero-carbon building" policies. Because of this, countries are cooperating with industry development using policies such as "mandatory design criteria", "green procurement policy" and "incentive grants and rebates programme". The results of this study can provide a reference for sustainable building renovation design criteria. Aimed at townhouses in Kaohsiung City, this study uses different levels of solar blocking depth to carry out evaluation of design and energy-saving renovation of the outer shell of existing buildings by using data collection and the selection of representative cases. Using building resources from a building information model (BIM), simulation and efficiency evaluation are carried out and proven with simulation estimation. This leads into the ECO-efficiency model (EEM) for the life cycle cost efficiency (LCCE) evalution. The buildings selected by this research sit in a north-south direction set with different solar blocking depths. The indoor air-conditioning consumption rates are compared. The current balcony depth of 1 metre as the simulated EUI value acts as a reference value of 100%. The solar blocking of the balcony is increased to 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 metres for a total of 5 different solar-blocking balcony depths, for comparison of the air-conditioning improvement efficacy. This research uses different solar-blocking balcony depths to carry out air-conditioning efficiency analysis. 1.5m saves 3.08%, 2m saves 6.74%, 2.5m saves 9.80% and 3m saves 12.72% from the air-conditioning EUI value. This shows that solar-blocking balconies have an efficiency-increasing potential for indoor air-conditioning.

Keywords: building information model, eco-efficiency model, energy-saving in the external shell, solar blocking depth.

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
272 Low Complexity Deblocking Algorithm

Authors: Jagroop Singh Sidhu, Buta Singh

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A low computational deblocking filter including three frequency related modes (smooth mode, intermediate mode, and non-smooth mode for low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high frequency regions, respectively) is proposed. The suggested approach requires zero additions, zero subtractions, zero multiplications (for intermediate region), no divisions (for non-smooth region) and no comparison. The suggested method thus keeps the computation lower and thus suitable for image coding systems based on blocks. Comparison of average number of operations for smooth, non-smooth, intermediate (per pixel vector for each block) using filter suggested by Chen and the proposed method filter suggests that the proposed filter keeps the computation lower and is thus suitable for fast processing algorithms.

Keywords: blocking artifacts, computational complexity, non-smooth, intermediate, smooth

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
271 Analysis of the Impact of Suez Canal on the Robustness of Global Shipping Networks

Authors: Zimu Li, Zheng Wan

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The Suez Canal plays an important role in global shipping networks and is one of the most frequently used waterways in the world. The 2021 canal obstruction by ship Ever Given in March 2021, however, completed blocked the Suez Canal for a week and caused significant disruption to world trade. Therefore, it is very important to quantitatively analyze the impact of the accident on the robustness of the global shipping network. However, the current research on maritime transportation networks is usually limited to local or small-scale networks in a certain region. Based on the complex network theory, this study establishes a global shipping complex network covering 2713 nodes and 137830 edges by using the real trajectory data of the global marine transport ship automatic identification system in 2018. At the same time, two attack modes, deliberate (Suez Canal Blocking) and random, are defined to calculate the changes in network node degree, eccentricity, clustering coefficient, network density, network isolated nodes, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality under the two attack modes, and quantitatively analyze the actual impact of Suez Canal Blocking on the robustness of global shipping network. The results of the network robustness analysis show that Suez Canal blocking was more destructive to the shipping network than random attacks of the same scale. The network connectivity and accessibility decreased significantly, and the decline decreased with the distance between the port and the canal, showing the phenomenon of distance attenuation. This study further analyzes the impact of the blocking of the Suez Canal on Chinese ports and finds that the blocking of the Suez Canal significantly interferes withChina's shipping network and seriously affects China's normal trade activities. Finally, the impact of the global supply chain is analyzed, and it is found that blocking the canal will seriously damage the normal operation of the global supply chain.

Keywords: global shipping networks, ship AIS trajectory data, main channel, complex network, eigenvalue change

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270 IT Perspective of Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise

Authors: Anu Paul, Varghese Paul

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The focal aspire of e-Government (eGovt) is to offer citizen-centered service delivery. Accordingly, the citizenry consumes services from multiple government agencies through national portal. Thus, eGovt is an enterprise with the primary business motive of transparent, efficient and effective public services to its citizenry and its logical structure is the eGovernment Enterprise Architecture (eGEA). Since eGovt is IT oriented multifaceted service-centric system, EA doesn’t do much on an automated enterprise other than the business artifacts. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) manifestation led some governments to pertain this in their eGovts, but it limits the source of business artifacts. The concurrent use of EA and SOA in eGovt executes interoperability and integration and leads to Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise (SOeGE). Consequently, agile eGovt system becomes a reality. As an IT perspective eGovt comprises of centralized public service artifacts with the existing application logics belong to various departments at central, state and local level. The eGovt is renovating to SOeGE by apply the Service-Orientation (SO) principles in the entire system. This paper explores IT perspective of SOeGE in India which encompasses the public service models and illustrated with a case study the Passport service of India.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, service-oriented e-Government enterprise, service interface layer, service model

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
269 Blocking of Random Chat Apps at Home Routers for Juvenile Protection in South Korea

Authors: Min Jin Kwon, Seung Won Kim, Eui Yeon Kim, Haeyoung Lee

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Numerous anonymous chat apps that help people to connect with random strangers have been released in South Korea. However, they become a serious problem for young people since young people often use them for channels of prostitution or sexual violence. Although ISPs in South Korea are responsible for making inappropriate content inaccessible on their networks, they do not block traffic of random chat apps since 1) the use of random chat apps is entirely legal. 2) it is reported that they use HTTP proxy blocking so that non-HTTP traffic cannot be blocked. In this paper, we propose a service model that can block random chat apps at home routers. A service provider manages a blacklist that contains blocked apps’ information. Home routers that subscribe the service filter the traffic of the apps out using deep packet inspection. We have implemented a prototype of the proposed model, including a centralized server providing the blacklist, a Raspberry Pi-based home router that can filter traffic of the apps out, and an Android app used by the router’s administrator to locally customize the blacklist.

Keywords: deep packet inspection, internet filtering, juvenile protection, technical blocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
268 Digital Forensics Analysis Focusing on the Onion Router Browser Artifacts in Windows 10

Authors: Zainurrasyid Abdullah, Mohamed Fadzlee Sulaiman, Muhammad Fadzlan Zainal, M. Zabri Adil Talib, Aswami Fadillah M. Ariffin

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The Onion Router (Tor) browser is a well-known tool and widely used by people who seeking for web anonymity when browsing the internet. Criminals are taking this advantage to be anonymous over the internet. Accessing the dark web could be the significant reason for the criminal in order for them to perform illegal activities while maintaining their anonymity. For a digital forensic analyst, it is crucial to extract the trail of evidence in proving that the criminal’s computer has used Tor browser to conduct such illegal activities. By applying the digital forensic methodology, several techniques could be performed including application analysis, memory analysis, and registry analysis. Since Windows 10 is the latest operating system released by Microsoft Corporation, this study will use Windows 10 as the operating system platform that running Tor browser. From the analysis, significant artifacts left by Tor browser were discovered such as the execution date, application installation date and browsing history that can be used as an evidence. Although Tor browser was designed to achieved anonymity, there is still some trail of evidence can be found in Windows 10 platform that can be useful for investigation.

Keywords: artifacts analysis, digital forensics, forensic analysis, memory analysis, registry analysis, tor browser, Windows 10

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
267 A Self-Adaptive Stimulus Artifacts Removal Approach for Electrical Stimulation Based Muscle Rehabilitation

Authors: Yinjun Tu, Qiang Fang, Glenn I. Matthews, Shuenn-Yuh Lee

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This paper reports an efficient and rigorous self-adaptive stimulus artifacts removal approach for a mixed surface EMG (Electromyography) and stimulus signal during muscle stimulation. The recording of EMG and the stimulation of muscles were performing simultaneously. It is difficult to generate muscle fatigue feature from the mixed signal, which can be further used in closed loop system. A self-adaptive method is proposed in this paper, the stimulation frequency was calculated and verified firstly. Then, a mask was created based on this stimulation frequency to remove the undesired stimulus. 20 EMG signal recordings were analyzed, and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach illustrated that the decreasing trend of median power frequencies was successfully generated from the 'cleaned' EMG signal.

Keywords: EMG, FES, stimulus artefacts, self-adaptive

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
266 3D Printing Perceptual Models of Preference Using a Fuzzy Extreme Learning Machine Approach

Authors: Xinyi Le

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In this paper, 3D printing orientations were determined through our perceptual model. Some FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) 3D printers, which are widely used in universities and industries, often require support structures during the additive manufacturing. After removing the residual material, some surface artifacts remain at the contact points. These artifacts will damage the function and visual effect of the model. To prevent the impact of these artifacts, we present a fuzzy extreme learning machine approach to find printing directions that avoid placing supports in perceptually significant regions. The proposed approach is able to solve the evaluation problem by combing both the subjective knowledge and objective information. Our method combines the advantages of fuzzy theory, auto-encoders, and extreme learning machine. Fuzzy set theory is applied for dealing with subjective preference information, and auto-encoder step is used to extract good features without supervised labels before extreme learning machine. An extreme learning machine method is then developed successfully for training and learning perceptual models. The performance of this perceptual model will be demonstrated on both natural and man-made objects. It is a good human-computer interaction practice which draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine side and the human side.

Keywords: 3d printing, perceptual model, fuzzy evaluation, data-driven approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
265 The Hospitals Residents Problem with Bounded Length Preference List under Social Stability

Authors: Ashish Shrivastava, C. Pandu Rangan

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In this paper, we consider The Hospitals Residents problem with Social Stability (HRSS), where hospitals and residents can communicate only through the underlying social network. Those residents and hospitals which don not have any social connection between them can not communicate and hence they cannot be a social blocking pair with respect to a socially stable matching in an instance of hospitals residents problem with social stability. In large scale matching like NRMP or Scottish medical matching scheme etc. where set of agents, as well as length of preference lists, are very large, social stability is a useful notion in which members of a blocking pair could block a matching if and only if they know the existence of each other. Thus the notion of social stability in hospitals residents problem allows us to increase the cardinality of the matching without taking care of those blocking pairs which are not socially connected to each other. We know that finding a maximum cardinality socially stable matching, in an instance, of HRSS is NP-hard. This motivates us to solve this problem with bounded length preference lists on one side. In this paper, we have presented a polynomial time algorithm to compute maximum cardinality socially stable matching in a HRSS instance where residents can give at most two length and hospitals can give unbounded length preference list. Preference lists of residents and hospitals will be strict in nature.

Keywords: matching under preference, socially stable matching, the hospital residents problem, the stable marriage problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
264 Reducing Hazardous Materials Releases from Railroad Freights through Dynamic Trip Plan Policy

Authors: Omar A. Abuobidalla, Mingyuan Chen, Satyaveer S. Chauhan

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Railroad transportation of hazardous materials freights is important to the North America economics that supports the national’s supply chain. This paper introduces various extensions of the dynamic hazardous materials trip plan problems. The problem captures most of the operational features of a real-world railroad transportations systems that dynamically initiates a set of blocks and assigns each shipment to a single block path or multiple block paths. The dynamic hazardous materials trip plan policies have distinguishing features that are integrating the blocking plan, and the block activation decisions. We also present a non-linear mixed integer programming formulation for each variant and present managerial insights based on a hypothetical railroad network. The computation results reveal that the dynamic car scheduling policies are not only able to take advantage of the capacity of the network but also capable of diminishing the population, and environment risks by rerouting the active blocks along the least risky train services without sacrificing the cost advantage of the railroad. The empirical results of this research illustrate that the issue of integrating the blocking plan, and the train makeup of the hazardous materials freights must receive closer attentions.

Keywords: dynamic car scheduling, planning and scheduling hazardous materials freights, airborne hazardous materials, gaussian plume model, integrated blocking and routing plans, box model

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
263 Cultural Stereotypes in EFL Classrooms and Their Implications on English Language Procedures in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Enongene Ekembe

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Recent calls on EFL teaching posit the centrality of context factors and argue for a correlation between effectiveness in teaching with the learners’ culture in the EFL classroom. Context is not everything; it is defined with indicators of learners’ cultural artifacts and stereotypes in meaningful interactions in the language classroom. In keeping with this, it is difficult to universalise pedagogic procedures given that appropriate procedures are context-sensitive- and contexts differ. It is necessary to investigate what counts as cultural specificities or stereotypes of specific learners to reflect on how different language learning contexts affect or are affected by English language teaching procedures, most especially in under-represented cultures, which have appropriated the English language. This paper investigates cultural stereotypes of EFL learners in the culturally diverse Cameroon to examine how they mediate teaching and learning. Data collected on mixed-method basis from 83 EFL teachers and 1321 learners in Cameroon reveal a strong presence of typical cultural artifacts and stereotypes. Statistical analysis and thematic coding demonstrate that teaching procedures in place were insensitive to the cultural artifacts and stereotypes, resulting in trending tension between teachers and learners. The data equally reveal a serious contradiction between the communicative goals of language teaching and learning: what teachers held as effective teaching was diametrically opposed to success in learning. In keeping with this, the paper argues for a ‘decentred’ teacher preparation in Cameroon that is informed by systemic learners’ feedback. On this basis, applied linguistics has the urgent task of exploring dimensions of what actually counts as contextualized practice in ELT.

Keywords: cultural stereotypes, EFL, implications, procedures

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262 Public Libraries as Social Spaces for Vulnerable Populations

Authors: Natalie Malone

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This study explores the role of a public library in the creation of social spaces for vulnerable populations. The data stems from a longitudinal ethnographic study of the Anderson Library community, which included field notes, artifacts, and interview data. Thematic analysis revealed multiple meanings and thematic relationships within and among the data sources -interviews, field notes, and artifacts. Initial analysis suggests the Anderson Library serves as a space for vulnerable populations, with the sub-themes of fostering interpersonal communication to create a social space for children and fostering interpersonal communication to create a social space for parents and adults. These findings are important as they illustrate the potential of public libraries to serve as community empowering institutions.

Keywords: capital, immigrant families, public libraries, space, vulnerable

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
261 An Erudite Technique for Face Detection and Recognition Using Curvature Analysis

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar

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Face detection and recognition is an authoritative technology for image database management, video surveillance, and human computer interface (HCI). Face recognition is a rapidly nascent method, which has been extensively discarded in forensics such as felonious identification, tenable entree, and custodial security. This paper recommends an erudite technique using curvature analysis (CA) that has less false positives incidence, operative in different light environments and confiscates the artifacts that are introduced during image acquisition by ring correction in polar coordinate (RCP) method. This technique affronts mean and median filtering technique to remove the artifacts but it works in polar coordinate during image acquisition. Investigational fallouts for face detection and recognition confirms decent recitation even in diagonal orientation and stance variation.

Keywords: curvature analysis, ring correction in polar coordinate method, face detection, face recognition, human computer interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
260 An Educational Electronic Health Record with a Configurable User Interface

Authors: Floriane Shala, Evangeline Wagner, Yichun Zhao

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Background: Proper educational training and support are proven to be major components of EHR (Electronic Health Record) implementation and use. However, the majority of health providers are not sufficiently trained in EHR use, leading to adverse events, errors, and decreased quality of care. In response to this, students studying Health Information Science, Public Health, Nursing, and Medicine should all gain a thorough understanding of EHR use at different levels for different purposes. The design of a usable and safe EHR system that accommodates the needs and workflows of different users, user groups, and disciplines is required for EHR learning to be efficient and effective. Objectives: This project builds several artifacts which seek to address both the educational and usability aspects of an educational EHR. The artifacts proposed are models for and examples of such an EHR with a configurable UI to be learned by students who need a background in EHR use during their degrees. Methods: Review literature and gather professional opinions from domain experts on usability, the use of workflow patterns, UI configurability and design, and the educational aspect of EHR use. Conduct interviews in a semi-casual virtual setting with open discussion in order to gain a deeper understanding of the principal aspects of EHR use in educational settings. Select a specific task and user group to illustrate how the proposed solution will function based on the current research. Develop three artifacts based on the available research, professional opinions, and prior knowledge of the topic. The artifacts capture the user task and user’s interactions with the EHR for learning. The first generic model provides a general understanding of the EHR system process. The second model is a specific example of performing the task of MRI ordering with a configurable UI. The third artifact includes UI mock-ups showcasing the models in a practical and visual way. Significance: Due to the lack of educational EHRs, medical professionals do not receive sufficient EHR training. Implementing an educational EHR with a usable and configurable interface to suit the needs of different user groups and disciplines will help facilitate EHR learning and training and ultimately improve the quality of patient care.

Keywords: education, EHR, usability, configurable

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259 Drawings Reveal Beliefs of Japanese University Students

Authors: Sakae Suzuki

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Although Japanese students study English for six years in secondary schools, they demonstrate little success with it when they enter higher education. Learners’ beliefs can predict the future behavior of students, so it may be effective to investigate how learners’ beliefs limit their success and how beliefs might be nudged in a positive direction. While many researchers still depend on a questionnaire called BALLI to reveal explicit beliefs, alternative approaches, especially those designed to reveal implicit beliefs, might be helpful for promoting learning. The present study seeks to identify beliefs with a discursive approach using visual metaphors and narratives. Employing a sociocultural framework, this study investigates how students’ beliefs are revealed by drawings of themselves and their surrounding environments and artifacts while they are engaged in language learning. Research questions are: (1) Can we identify beliefs through an analysis of students’ visual narratives? (2) What environments and artifacts can be found in students’ drawings, and what do they mean? (3) To what extent do students see language learning as a solitary, rather than a social, activity? Participants are university students majoring in science and technology in Japan. The questionnaire was administered to 70 entering students in April, 2014. Data included students drawings of themselves as learners of English as well as written descriptions of students’ backgrounds, English-learning experiences, and analogies and metaphors that they used in written descriptions of themselves as learners. Data will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Anticipated results include students’ perceptions of themselves as language learners, including their sense of agency, awareness of artifacts, and social contexts of language learning. Comments will be made on implications for teaching, as well as the use of visual narratives as research tools, and recommended further research.

Keywords: drawings, learners' beliefs, metaphors, BALLI

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
258 Merging Sequence Diagrams Based Slicing

Authors: Bouras Zine Eddine, Talai Abdelouaheb

Abstract:

The need to merge software artifacts seems inherent to modern software development. Distribution of development over several teams and breaking tasks into smaller, more manageable pieces are an effective means to deal with the kind of complexity. In each case, the separately developed artifacts need to be assembled as efficiently as possible into a consistent whole in which the parts still function as described. Also, earlier changes are introduced into the life cycle and easier is their management by designers. Interaction-based specifications such as UML sequence diagrams have been found effective in this regard. As a result, sequence diagrams can be used not only for capturing system behaviors but also for merging changes in order to create a new version. The objective of this paper is to suggest a new approach to deal with the problem of software merging at the level of sequence diagrams by using the concept of dependence analysis that captures, formally, all mapping and differences between elements of sequence diagrams and serves as a key concept to create a new version of sequence diagram.

Keywords: system behaviors, sequence diagram merging, dependence analysis, sequence diagram slicing

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257 Adaptive Motion Compensated Spatial Temporal Filter of Colonoscopy Video

Authors: Nidhal Azawi

Abstract:

Colonoscopy procedure is widely used in the world to detect an abnormality. Early diagnosis can help to heal many patients. Because of the unavoidable artifacts that exist in colon images, doctors cannot detect a colon surface precisely. The purpose of this work is to improve the visual quality of colonoscopy videos to provide better information for physicians by removing some artifacts. This work complements a series of work consisting of three previously published papers. In this paper, Optic flow is used for motion compensation, and then consecutive images are aligned/registered to integrate some information to create a new image that has or reveals more information than the original one. Colon images have been classified into informative and noninformative images by using a deep neural network. Then, two different strategies were used to treat informative and noninformative images. Informative images were treated by using Lucas Kanade (LK) with an adaptive temporal mean/median filter, whereas noninformative images are treated by using Lucas Kanade with a derivative of Gaussian (LKDOG) with adaptive temporal median images. A comparison result showed that this work achieved better results than that results in the state- of- the- art strategies for the same degraded colon images data set, which consists of 1000 images. The new proposed algorithm reduced the error alignment by about a factor of 0.3 with a 100% successfully image alignment ratio. In conclusion, this algorithm achieved better results than the state-of-the-art approaches in case of enhancing the informative images as shown in the results section; also, it succeeded to convert the non-informative images that have very few details/no details because of the blurriness/out of focus or because of the specular highlight dominate significant amount of an image to informative images.

Keywords: optic flow, colonoscopy, artifacts, spatial temporal filter

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256 Positioning Organisational Culture in Knowledge Management Research

Authors: Said Al Saifi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a conceptual model for understanding the impact of organisational culture on knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. It is suggested that organisational culture should be assessed as a multi-level construct comprising artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions. A holistic view of organisational culture and knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance, is presented. A comprehensive review of previous literature was undertaken in the development of the conceptual model. Taken together, the literature and the proposed model reveal possible relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance. Potential implications of organisational culture levels for the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge are elaborated. In addition, the paper offers possible new insight into the impact of organisational culture on various knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. A number of possible relationships between organisational culture factors, knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance were employed to examine such relationships. The research model highlights the multi-level components of organisational culture. These are: the artifacts, the espoused beliefs and values, and the underlying assumptions. Through a conceptualisation of the relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance, the study provides practical guidance for practitioners during the implementation of knowledge management processes. The focus of previous research on knowledge management has been on understanding organisational culture from the limited perspective of promoting knowledge creation and sharing. This paper proposes a more comprehensive approach to understanding organisational culture in that it draws on artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions, and reveals their impact on the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge which can affect overall organisational performance.

Keywords: knowledge application, knowledge creation, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, organisational culture, organisational performance

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255 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 386