Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7718

Search results for: medium scale industries

7718 Need for Standardization of Manual Inspection in Small and Medium-Scale Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Adithya Nadig

Abstract:

In the field of production, characterization of surface roughness plays a vital role in assessing the quality of a manufactured product. The defined parameters for this assessment, each, have their own drawbacks in describing a profile surface. From the purview of small-scale and medium-scale industries, an increase in time spent for manual inspection of a product for various parameters adds to the cost of the product. In order to reduce this, a uniform and established standard is necessary for quantifying a profile of a manufactured product. The inspection procedure in the small and medium-scale manufacturing units at Jigani Industrial area, Bangalore, was observed. The parameters currently in use in those industries are described in the paper and a change in the inspection method is proposed.

Keywords: efficiency of quality assessment, manual areal profiling technique, manufacturing in small and medium-scale industries product-oriented inspection, standardization of manual inspection, surface roughness characterization

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7717 Studies on Lucrative Process Layout for Medium Scale Industries

Authors: Balamurugan Baladhandapani, Ganesh Renganathan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive review on various factory layouts has been carried out for designing a lucrative process layout for medium scale industries. Industry data base reveals that the end product rejection rate is on the order of 10% amounting large profit loss. In order to avoid these rejection rates and to increase the quality product production an intermediate non-destructive testing facility (INDTF) has been recommended for increasing the overall profit. We observed through detailed case studies that while introducing INDTF to medium scale industries the expensive production process can be avoided to the defective products well before its final shape. Additionally, the defective products identified during the intermediate stage can be effectively utilized for other applications or recycling; thereby the overall wastage of the raw materials can be reduced and profit can be increased. We concluded that the prudent design of a factory layout through critical path method facilitating with INDTF will warrant profitable outcome.

Keywords: intermediate non-destructive testing, medium scale industries, process layout design

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7716 Assessment of Implementation of the Health and Safety Contents of the Nigerian Factories Act by Small and Medium Scale Industries in Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors: Vivian Uchechi Okpala

Abstract:

Background: Millions of workers die every year as a result of occupational hazards, accidents and injuries, which are as a result of non- compliance to the laws or legislations guiding the health, safety and welfare of workers in the industries. This and many more lead to the assessment of implementation of the health and safety contents of the Nigerian Factories Act (NFA) by small and medium scale industries in Anambra State. Objectives: The study is aimed at achieving the following specific objectives; to assess the extent of implementation of Part-II Health and Part -III Safety (General Provisions), implementation of Part II Health and Part -III Safety (General Provisions Nigerian Factories Acts based on the age of the industries, locations of the industries and level of education of the workers of the small and medium scale industries Methods: the research design that was used for this study was descriptive survey research design, Area of this study was Anambra state, The population for this study comprised 180 chairmen/presidents of union workers of manufacturing industries in Anambra State, The instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire titled ‘assessment of implementation of NFA health and safety contents by small and medium scale industries, results: From the analysis, the following findings were made: Results: The medium scale industries implemented the Part-II Health and Part III Safety (General provisions) better than the small scale industries in Anambra state, the age of the industries, location of the industries and the level of education of the workers in the industries significantly influenced the implementation of the Part III Safety (General Provisions) of NFA, the location of the industries significantly influenced the implementation of the Part II-Health (General Provisions) of NFA. Conclusion: there was generally a certain level of implementation of the factories Act, there is need for more improvement, strict inspection by the regulatory agencies. Implications of the study were highlighted and several suggestions for further studies were made. Based on the findings, several recommendations were made including that the Ministry of Labour and Productivity and the Ministry of Health should strengthen planned information, strict policies to sanction the offenders. Keywords: Occupational Health and Safety, Nigerian Factories Act

Keywords: occupational health and safety, Nigerian factories act, workers, welfare

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7715 An Evaluative Approach for Successful Implementation of Lean and Green Manufacturing in Indian SMEs

Authors: Satya S. N. Narayana, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan, N. Kannan

Abstract:

Enterprises adopt methodologies to increase their business performance and to stay competent in the volatile global market. Lean manufacturing is one such manufacturing paradigm which focuses on reduction of cost by elimination of wastes or non-value added activities. With increased awareness about social responsibility and the necessary to meet the terms of the environmental policy, green manufacturing is becoming increasingly important for industries. Large plants have more resources, have started implementing lean and green practices and they are getting good results. Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are facing problems in implementing lean and green concept. This paper aims to identify the key issues for implementation of lean and green concept in Indian SMEs. The key factors identified based on literature review and expert opinions are grouped into different levels by Modified Interpretive Structural Modeling (MISM) to explore the importance among the factors to implement lean and green manufacturing. Finally, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method has been used to determine the extent to which the main principles of lean and green manufacturing have been carried out in the six Indian medium scale manufacturing industries.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, green manufacturing, MISM, FANP

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7714 Multi-Faceted Growth in Creative Industries

Authors: Sanja Pfeifer, Nataša Šarlija, Marina Jeger, Ana Bilandžić

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the different facets of growth among micro, small and medium-sized firms in Croatia and to analyze the differences between models designed for all micro, small and medium-sized firms and those in creative industries. Three growth prediction models were designed and tested using the growth of sales, employment and assets of the company as dependent variables. The key drivers of sales growth are: prudent use of cash, industry affiliation and higher share of intangible assets. Growth of assets depends on retained profits, internal and external sources of financing, as well as industry affiliation. Growth in employment is closely related to sources of financing, in particular, debt and it occurs less frequently than growth in sales and assets. The findings confirm the assumption that growth strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in creative industries have specific differences in comparison to SMEs in general. Interestingly, only 2.2% of growing enterprises achieve growth in employment, assets and sales simultaneously.

Keywords: creative industries, growth prediction model, growth determinants, growth measures

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7713 Developing New Media Credibility Scale: A Multidimensional Perspective

Authors: Hanaa Farouk Saleh

Abstract:

The main purposes of this study are to develop a scale that reflects emerging theoretical understandings of new media credibility, based on the evolution of credibility studies in western researches, identification of the determinants of credibility in the media and its components by comparing traditional and new media credibility scales and building accumulative scale to test new media credibility. This approach was built on western researches using conceptualizations of media credibility, which focuses on four principal components: Source (journalist), message (article), medium (newspaper, radio, TV, web, etc.), and organization (owner of the medium), and adding user and cultural context as key components to assess new media credibility in particular. This study’s value lies in its contribution to the conceptualization and development of new media credibility through the creation of a theoretical measurement tool. Future studies should explore this scale to test new media credibility, which represents a promising new approach in the efforts to define and measure credibility of all media types.

Keywords: credibility scale, media credibility components, new media credibility scale, scale development

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7712 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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7711 Implementation of Total Quality Management in a Small Scale Industry: A Case Study

Authors: Soham Lalwala, Ronita Singh, Yaman Pattanaik

Abstract:

In the present scenario of globalization and privatization, it becomes difficult for small scale industries to sustain due to rapidly increasing competition. In a developing country, most of the gross output is generally obtained from small scale industries. Thus, quality plays a vital role in maintaining customer satisfaction. Total quality management (TQM) is an approach which enables employees to focus on quality rather quantity, further improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of the whole organization. The objective of the paper is to present the application of TQM and develop a TQM Model in a small scale industry of narrow fabrics in Surat, India named ‘Rajdhani Lace & Borders’. Further, critical success factors relating all the fabric processes involved were identified. The data was collected by conducting a questionnaire survey. After data was collected, critical areas were visualized using different tools of TQM such as cause and effect diagram, control charts and run charts. Overall, responses were analyzed, and factor analysis was used to develop the model. The study presented here will aid the management of the above-mentioned industry in identifying the weaker areas and thus give a plausible solution to improve the total productivity of the firm along with effective utilization of resources and better customer satisfaction.

Keywords: critical success factors, narrow fabrics, quality, small scale industries, total quality management (TQM)

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7710 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu

Abstract:

This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: finite difference method, natural convection, porous medium, scale analysis, thermal stratification

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7709 Challenges and Prospects of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Somolu Local Government Area

Authors: A. A. Akharayi, B. E. Anjola

Abstract:

The economic development of a country depends greatly on internally built revenue. Small and Medium-scale Enterprise (SMEs) contributes to the economic buoyancy as it provides employment for the teeming population, encourages job creation by youths who believes in themselves and also by others who have gathered finance enough to invest in growable investment. SMEs is faced with several challenges. The study investigates the role and challenges of SMEs Somolu Local Government Area. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select entrepreneurs (SMEs owners and managers). One hundred and fifty (150) registered SMEs were selected across the LGA data collection with the use of well-structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The result of the analysis indicated that marketing, finance, social facilities and indiscriminate taxes among other high level of fund available significantly (p <0 .05) increase firm capacity while marketing showed a significant (p < 0.05) relationship with profit level.

Keywords: challenge, development, economic, small and medium scale enterprise

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7708 Analysis of Effect of Microfinance on the Profit Level of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Saheed Olakunle Sanusi, Israel Ajibade Adedeji

Abstract:

The study analysed the effect of microfinance on the profit level of small and medium scale enterprises in Lagos. The data for the study were obtained by simple random sampling, and total of one hundred and fifty (150) small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) were sampled for the study. Seventy-five (75) each are microfinance users and non-users. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, logit model, t-test and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. The mean profit of the enterprises using microfinance is ₦16.8m, while for the non-users of microfinance is ₦5.9m. The mean profit of microfinance users is statistically different from the non-users. The result of the logit model specified for the determinant of access to microfinance showed that three of specified variables- educational status of the enterprise head, credit utilisation and volume of business investment are significant at P < 0.01. Enterprises with many years of experience, highly educated enterprise heads and high volume of business investment have more potential access to microfinance. The OLS regression model indicated that three parameters namely number of school years, the volume of business investment and (dummy) participation in microfinance were found to be significant at P < 0.05. These variables are therefore significant determinants of impacts of microfinance on profit level in the study area. The study, therefore, concludes and recommends that to improve the status of small and medium scale enterprises for an increase in profit, the full benefit of access to microfinance can be enhanced through investment in social infrastructure and human capital development. Also, concerted efforts should be made to encouraged non-users of microfinance among SMEs to use it in order to boost their profit.

Keywords: credit utilisation, logit model, microfinance, small and medium enterprises

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7707 A Risk Management Approach for Nigeria Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Olaniyi O. Omoyajowo

Abstract:

To be successful in today’s competitive global environment, manufacturing industry must be able to respond quickly to changes in technology. These changes in technology introduce new risks and hazards. The management of risk/hazard in a manufacturing process recommends method through which the success rate of an organization can be increased. Thus, there is a continual need for manufacturing industries to invest significant amount of resources in risk management, which in turn optimizes the production output and profitability of any manufacturing industry (if implemented properly). To help improve the existing risk prevention and mitigation practices in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) in Nigeria Manufacturing Industries (NMI), the researcher embarks on this research to develop a systematic Risk Management process.

Keywords: manufacturing management, risk, risk management, SMEs

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7706 High-Pressure Steam Turbine for Medium-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Coriolano Salvini

Abstract:

Many efforts have been spent in the design and development of Concentrated Solar Power (CPS) Plants worldwide. Most of them are for on-grid electricity generation and they are large plants which can benefit from the economies of scale. Nevertheless, several potential applications for Small and Medium-Scale CSP plants can be relevant in the industrial sector as well as for off-grid purposes (i.e. in rural contexts). In a wide range of industrial processes, CSP technologies can be used for heat generation replacing conventional primary sources. For such market, proven technologies (usually hybrid solutions) already exist: more than 100 installations, especially in developing countries, are in operation and performance can be verified. On the other hand, concerning off-grid applications, solar technologies are not so mature. Even if the market offers a potential deployment of such systems, especially in countries where the access to grid is strongly limited, optimized solutions have not been developed yet. In this context, steam power plants can be taken into consideration for medium scale installations, due to the recent results achieved with direct steam generation systems based on paraboloidal dish or Fresnel lens solar concentrators. Steam at 4.0-4.5 MPa and 500°C can be produced directly by means of innovative solar receivers (some prototypes already exist). Although it could seem a promising technology, presently, steam turbines commercially available do not cover the required cycle specifications. In particular, while low-pressure turbines already exist on the market, high-pressure groups, necessary for the abovementioned applications, are not available. The present paper deals with the preliminary design of a high-pressure steam turbine group for a medium-scale CSP plant (200-1000 kWe). Such a group is arranged in a single geared package composed of four radial expander wheels. Such wheels have been chosen on the basis of automotive turbocharging technology and then modified to take the new requirements into account. Results related to the preliminary geometry selection and to the analysis of the high-pressure turbine group performance are reported and widely discussed.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, steam turbine, radial turbine, medium-scale power plants

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7705 Mini Coal Gasifier for Fulfilling Small-Scale Industries Energy Consumption in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi, Ika Monika

Abstract:

Mini coal gasifier (GasMin) is a small reactor that could convert coal into combustible gas or producer gas which is designed to fulfill energy needs of small-scale industries. The producer gas can be utilized for both external and internal combustion. The design of coal gasifier is suitable for community require because it is easy to handle, affordable and environmentally friendly. The feasibility study shows that the substitution of 12 kg LPG or specially 50 kg LPG into GasMin of 20 kg coal capacity per hour is very attractive. The estimation price of 20 kg coal per hour capacity GasMin is 40 million rupiahs. In the year 2016, the implementation of GasMin conducted at alumunium industry and batik industry at Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: biomass, coal, energy, gasification

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7704 Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M. M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.

Keywords: agitation tank, crystallisation, impeller speed, scale

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7703 Measuring the Lean Readiness of Kuwaiti Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Mohamad Alnajem

Abstract:

Purpose: To measure the readiness of the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries (K-SMMIs) to implement the lean system (LS) through an evaluation of their existing quality practices, and compare such readiness among different product sectors and ownership types. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the measurement framework developed by Al-Najem et al. (2013), which establishes six constructs related to lean quality practices, namely: process, planning and control, customer relations, suppliers relations, HR, and top management and leadership. Data were collected from a survey of 50 K-SMMIs operating in different industrial sectors. One research question and two hypotheses were developed and tested using t-test and Levene’s test, descriptive analysis, and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The results demonstrate that the K-SMMIs are far from being ready to implement lean. In addition, the study found that product sector and ownership type have no significant impact on the lean readiness in the K-SMMIs. Practical implications: This research provides insight into preparing Kuwaiti, and other SMMIs, to implement the LS by creating an assessment of their existing lean practices and readiness. Originality/value: This research is among a limited number of studies that have addressed lean within the Arab region, and only the second to examine the level of lean readiness of the K-SMMIs. It expands the literature on lean in developing countries, particularly in the Arab region, and can provide guidance to research within other countries in the region.

Keywords: Kuwaiti small and medium sized industries, lean system, lean readiness, manufacturing industries

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7702 Benchmarking Energy Challenges in Palm Oil Production Industry in Ghana

Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen

Abstract:

The current energy crisis in Ghana has affected significant number of industries which have direct impact on the country’s economy. Amongst the affected industries are palm oil production industries even though the impact is less as compared to fully relied national grid industries. Most of the large and medium palm oil production industries are partially grid reliance, however, the unavailability and the high cost palm biomass poses huge challenge. This paper aimed to identify and analyse the energy challenges associated with the palm oil production industries in Ghana. The study is conducted on the nine largest palm oil production plants in Ghana. Data is obtained by the use of questionnaire and observation. Since the study aimed to compare the respective energy challenges associated with nine industrial plants under study and establish a benchmark that represents a common problem of all the nine plants under study, the study uses percentile analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as the statistical tools to validate the benchmark. The results indicate that lack of sustainability of palm biomass supply chain is the key energy challenge in the palm oil production industries in Ghana. Other problems include intermittent power supply from the grid and the low boiler efficiency due to outmoded conversion technology of the boilers. The result also demonstrates that there are statistically significant differences between the technologies in different age groups in relation to technology conversion efficiency.

Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, energy challenges, energy benchmark

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7701 Operational Guidelines for Six-Sigma Implementation: Survey of Indian Medium Scale Automotive Industries

Authors: Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

Abstract:

Large scale Indian manufacturers started implementing Six Sigma to their supply core to fulfill the endless need of high quality products. As well, they initiated encouraging their suppliers to apply the well-ascertain SS management practice and kept no resource for supplier enterprises, generally small midsized enterprises to think for the admittance of Six Sigma as a quality promotion drive. There are many issues to study for requisite changes before the introduction of Six Sigma in auto SMEs. This paper converges on impeding factors while implementing SS drive and also pinpoints the gains achieved through successful implementation. The result of this study suggest some operational guidelines for effective implementation of Six Sigma from evidences acquired through research questionnaire and interviews with industrial professionals, apportioned to assort auto sector mid-sized enterprises (MSEs) in India.

Keywords: indian automotive SMEs, quality management practices, six sigma imperatives, problems faced in six sigma implementation, benefits, some guidelines for implementation

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7700 Decomposition-Based Pricing Technique for Solving Large-Scale Mixed IP

Authors: M. Babul Hasan

Abstract:

Management sciences (MS), big group of companies and industries or government policies (GP) is affiliated with a huge number of decision ingredients and complicated restrictions. Every factor in MS, every product in Industries or decision in GP is not always bankable in practice. After formulating these models there arises large-scale mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. In this paper, we developed decomposition-based pricing procedure to filter the unnecessary decision ingredients from MIP where the variables in huge number will be abated and the complicacy of restrictions will be elementary. A real life numerical example has been illustrated to demonstrate the methods. We develop the computer techniques for these methods by using a mathematical programming language (AMPL).

Keywords: Lagrangian relaxation, decomposition, sub-problem, master-problem, pricing, mixed IP, AMPL

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7699 A Study of Growth Factors on Sustainable Manufacturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case Study of Japan Manufacturing

Authors: Tadayuki Kyoutani, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Zefry Darmawan

Abstract:

Japan’s semiconductor industries have developed greatly in recent years. Many were started from a Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) that found at a good circumstance and now become the prosperous industries in the world. Sustainable growth factors that support the creation of spirit value inside the Japanese company were strongly embedded through performance. Those factors were not clearly defined among each company. A series of literature research conducted to explore quantitative text mining about the definition of sustainable growth factors. Sustainable criteria were developed from previous research to verify the definition of the factors. A typical frame work was proposed as a systematical approach to develop sustainable growth factor in a specific company. Result of approach was review in certain period shows that factors influenced in sustainable growth was importance for the company to achieve the goal.

Keywords: SME, manufacture, sustainable, growth factor

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7698 Impact of Marketing Orientation on Environment and Firm’s Performance

Authors: Sabita Mahapatra

Abstract:

‘Going green’ has been an emerging issue worldwide driving companies to continuously enhance their green capabilities and implement innovative green practices to protect the environment and improve business performance. Green has become a contemporary business environmental issue. The resource advantage theory is adopted in the present study to observe the impact of marketing orientation and green innovation practices on environmental and firm’s performance. The small and medium firms compared to large firms have different approach towards market orientation as a strategic tool. The present study proposes a conceptual framework regarding the impact of market orientation on environmental and firm’s performance through green innovation practices in the context of small and medium scale industries (SMEs). The propositions developed in the present paper would provide scope for future research study to validate the conceptual framework in the emerging economy like India.

Keywords: market orientation, green innovation practices, environment performance, corporate performance, emerging market

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7697 Invention of Novel Technique of Process Scale Up by Using Solid Dosage Form

Authors: Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

The aim of this technique is to reduce the steps of process scales up, save time & cost of the industries. This technique will minimise the steps of process scale up. The new steps are, Novel Lab Scale, Novel Lab Scale Trials, Novel Trial Batches, Novel Exhibit Batches, Novel Validation Batches. In these steps, it is not divided to validation batches in three parts but the data of trials batches, Exhibit Batches and Validation batches are use and compile for production and used for validation. It also increases the batch size of the trial, exhibit batches. The new size of trials batches is not less than fifty Thousand, the exhibit batches increase up to two lack and the validation batches up to five lack. After preparing the batches all their data & drugs use for stability & maintain the validation record and compile data for the technology transfer in production department for preparing the marketed size batches.

Keywords: batches, technique, preparation, scale up, validation

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7696 Constructing Service Innovation Model for SMEs in Automotive Service Industries: A Case Study of Auto Repair Motorcycle in Makassar City

Authors: Muhammad Farid, Jen Der Day

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the construct of service innovation model for Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in automotive service industries. A case study of repair shop of the motorcycle at Makassar city illustrates measure innovation implementation, the degree of innovation, and identifies the type of innovation by the service innovation model for SMEs. In this paper, we interview 10 managers of SMEs and analyze their answers. We find that innovation implementation has been slowly; only producing new service innovation 0.62 unit average per year. Incremental innovation is the present option for SMEs, because they choose safer roads to improve service continuously. If want to create radical innovation, they still consider the aspect of cost, system, and readiness of human resources.

Keywords: service innovation, incremental innovation, SMEs, automotive service industries

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7695 A Study on Fundamental Problems for Small and Medium Agricultural Machinery Industries in Central Region Area

Authors: P. Thepnarintra, S. Nikorn

Abstract:

Agricultural machinery industry plays an important role in the industrial development especially the production industry of the country. There has been continuing development responding to the higher demand of the production. However, the problem in agricultural machinery production still exists. Thus, the purpose of this research is to investigate problems on fundamental factors of industry based on the entrepreneurs’ point of view. The focus was on the small and medium size industry receiving a factory license typed number 0660 from the Department of Industrial Works. The investigation was on the comparison between the management of the small and medium size agricultural industry in 3 provinces in the central region of Thailand. Population in this study consisted of 189 company managers or managing directors, of which 101 were from the small size and 88 were from the medium size industry. The data were analyzed to find percentage, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation with independent sample T-test at the statistical significance .05. The results showed that the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers in the central region of Thailand reported high problems in every aspect. When compared the problems on basic factors in running the business, it was found that there was no difference statistically at .05 in managing of the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers on the aspect of policy and services of the government. The problems reported by the small and medium size agricultural machinery manufacturers were the services on public tap water and the problem on politic and stability of the country.

Keywords: agricultural machinery, manufacturers, problems, on running the business

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7694 Early Adolescents Motivation and Engagement Levels in Learning in Low Socio-Economic Districts in Sri Lanka (Based on T-Tests Results)

Authors: Ruwandika Perera

Abstract:

Even though the Sri Lankan government provides a reasonable level of support for students at all levels of the school system, for example, free education, textbooks, school uniforms, subsidized public transportation, and school meals, low participation in learning among secondary students is an issue warranting investigation, particularly in low socio-economic districts. This study attempted to determine the levels of motivation and engagement amongst students in a number of schools in two low socio-economic districts of Sri Lanka. This study employed quantitative research design in an attempt to determine levels of motivation and engagement amongst Sri Lankan secondary school students. Motivation and Engagement Scale-Junior School (MES-JS) was administered among 100 Sinhala-medium and 100 Tamil-medium eighth-grade students (50 students from each gender). The mean age of the students was 12.8 years. Schools were represented by type 2 government schools located in Monaragala and Nuwara Eliya districts in Sri Lanka. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to measure the construct validity of the scale. Since this did not provide a robust solution, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted. Four factors were identified; Failure Avoidance and Anxiety (FAA), Positive Motivation (PM), Uncertain Control (UC), and Positive Engagement (PE). An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare PM, PE, FAA, and UC in gender and ethnic groups. There was no significant difference identified for PE, FAA, and UC scales based upon gender. These results indicate that for the participants in this study, there were no significant differences based on gender in the levels of failure avoidance and anxiety, uncertain control, and positive engagement in the school experience. But, the result for the PM scale was close to significant, indicating there may be differences based on gender for positive motivation. A significant difference exists for all scales based on ethnicity, with the mean result for the Tamil students being significantly higher than that for the Sinhala students. These results indicate those Sinhala-medium students’ levels of positive motivation and positive engagement in learning was lower than Tamil-medium students. Also, these results indicate those Tamil-medium students’ levels of failure avoidance, anxiety, and uncertain control was higher than Sinhala-medium students. It could be concluded that male students levels of PM were significantly lower than female students. Also, Sinhala-medium students’ levels of PM and PE was lower than Tamil-medium students, and Tamil-medium students levels of FAA and UC was significantly higher than Sinhala-medium students. Thus, there might be particular school-related conditions affecting this situation, which are related to early adolescents’ motivation and engagement in learning.

Keywords: early adolescents, engagement, low socio-economic districts, motivation

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7693 Basic Business-Forces behind the Surviving and Sustainable Organizations: The Case of Medium Scale Contractors in South Africa

Authors: Iruka C. Anugwo, Winston M. Shakantu

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to uncover the basic business-forces that necessitated the survival and sustainable performance of the medium scale contractors in the South African construction market. This study is essential as it set to contribute towards long-term strategic solutions for combating the incessant failure of start-ups construction organizations within South African. The study used a qualitative research methodology; as the most appropriate approach to elicit and understand, and uncover the phenomena that are basic business-forces for the active contractors in the market. The study also adopted a phenomenological study approach; and in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 medium scale contractors in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, between months of August to October 2015. This allowed for an in-depth understanding of the critical and basic business-forces that influenced their survival and performance beyond the first five years of business operation. Findings of the study showed that for potential contractors (startups), to survival in the competitive business environment such as construction industry, they must possess the basic business-forces. These forces are educational knowledge in construction and business management related disciplines, adequate industrial experiences, competencies and capabilities to delivery excellent services and products as well as embracing the spirit of entrepreneurship. Convincingly, it can be concluded that the strategic approach to minimize the endless failure of startups construction businesses; the potential construction contractors must endeavoring to access and acquire the basic educationally knowledge, training and qualification; need to acquire industrial experiences in collaboration with required competencies, capabilities and entrepreneurship acumen. Without these basic business-forces as been discovered in this study, the majority of the contractors gaining entrance in the market will find it difficult to develop and grow a competitive and sustainable construction organization in South Africa.

Keywords: basic business-forces, medium scale contractors, South Africa, sustainable organisations

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7692 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

Abstract:

Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
7691 Empirical Study for the Project and the Project Management Dimensions Comparison between SMEs and Large Companies

Authors: Amina Oukennou, Zitouni Beidouri, Otmane Bouksour

Abstract:

Small to Medium-sized enterprises are a very important component of the economy. They are present in the whole industries all over the world. They are considered as the engine for future growth in the economy. Project management is an economical international factor impacting all types of enterprises including the SMEs. This paper has the aim of measuring the weight of using projects and project management in Moroccan SMEs in comparison with the large companies. The study is based on interviews with experts: project managers, managers, directors, and consultants. They were asked questions measuring the weight of using projects, the level of using project management, and the resources employed. Eighteen Moroccan companies from a range of industries and sizes were consulted. All the companies consider projects as a key element in their strategy. Most of them affirm the great usefulness of the approach 'project', especially for the external activities. The main differences lie in the duration and the size of used projects. Despite the commonly shared idea about the importance of the project management, the interviewed persons believe that the project management knowledge has the same importance or less than the technical knowledge. All the companies affirm the need for a simpler version of project management. The content varies from one company to another.

Keywords: project dimension, project management, small to medium-sized entreprise, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
7690 Performance Enhancement of Autopart Manufacturing Industry Using Lean Manufacturing Strategies: A Case Study

Authors: Raman Kumar, Jasgurpreet Singh Chohan, Chander Shekhar Verma

Abstract:

Today, the manufacturing industries respond rapidly to new demands and compete in this continuously changing environment, thus seeking out new methods allowing them to remain competitive and flexible simultaneously. The aim of the manufacturing organizations is to reduce manufacturing costs and wastes through system simplification, organizational potential, and proper infrastructural planning by using modern techniques like lean manufacturing. In India, large number of medium and large scale manufacturing industries has successfully implemented lean manufacturing techniques. Keeping in view the above-mentioned facts, different tools will be involved in the successful implementation of the lean approach. The present work is focused on the auto part manufacturing industry to improve the performance of the recliner assembly line. There is a number of lean manufacturing tools available, but the experience and complete knowledge of manufacturing processes are required to select an appropriate tool for a specific process. Fishbone diagrams (scrap, inventory, and waiting) have been drawn to identify the root cause of different. Effect of cycle time reduction on scrap and inventory is analyzed thoroughly in the case company. Results have shown that there is a decrease in inventory cost by 7 percent after the successful implementation of the lean tool.

Keywords: lean tool, fish-bone diagram, cycle time reduction, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
7689 Validity of Universe Structure Conception as Nested Vortexes

Authors: Khaled M. Nabil

Abstract:

This paper introduces the Nested Vortexes conception of the universe structure and interprets all the physical phenomena according this conception. The paper first reviews recent physics theories, either in microscopic scale or macroscopic scale, to collect evidence that the space is not empty. But, these theories describe the property of the space medium without determining its structure. Determining the structure of space medium is essential to understand the mechanism that leads to its properties. Without determining the space medium structure, many phenomena; such as electric and magnetic fields, gravity, or wave-particle duality remain uninterpreted. Thus, this paper introduces a conception about the structure of the universe. It assumes that the universe is a medium of ultra-tiny homogeneous particles which are still undiscovered. Like any medium with certain movements, possibly because of a great asymmetric explosion, vortexes have occurred. A vortex condenses the ultra-tiny particles in its center forming a bigger particle, the bigger particles, in turn, could be trapped in a bigger vortex and condense in its center forming a much bigger particle and so on. This conception describes galaxies, stars, protons as particles at different levels. Existing of the particle’s vortexes make the consistency of the speed of light postulate is not true. This conception shows that the vortex motion dynamic agrees with the motion of all the universe particles at any level. An experiment has been carried out to detect the orbiting effect of aggregated vortexes of aligned atoms of a permanent magnet. Based on the described particle’s structure, the gravity force of a particle and attraction between particles as well as charge, electric and magnetic fields and quantum mechanics characteristics are interpreted. All augmented physics phenomena are solved.

Keywords: astrophysics, cosmology, particles’ structure model, particles’ forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 44