Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2732

Search results for: rational testing

2732 A Comparative Study of Three Major Performance Testing Tools

Authors: Abdulaziz Omar Alsadhan, Mohd Mudasir Shafi

Abstract:

Performance testing is done to prove the reliability of any software product. There are a number of tools available in the markets that are used to perform performance testing. In this paper we present a comparative study of the three most commonly used performance testing tools. These tools cover the major share of the performance testing market and are widely used. In this paper we compared the tools on five evaluation parameters which are; User friendliness, portability, tool support, compatibility and cost. The conclusion provided at the end of the paper is based on our study and does not support any tool or company.

Keywords: software development, software testing, quality assurance, performance testing, load runner, rational testing, silk performer

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2731 A Note on Decidability Structure of Rational Numbers in Different Languages

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the theories of rational numbers in different languages, and we will review the rational number and their properties. A theory T is decidable if there exists an effective procedure to determine whether T ⊢ ϕ where ϕ is any sentence of the language. Quantifier elimination is a very powerful property, as it helps in the proof of decidability. To prove the decidability of the theory of rational numbers in different languages, we will show that these theories supports quantifier elimination.

Keywords: decidability, model theory, quantifier elimination, rational number

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2730 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers

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2729 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.

Keywords: conceptual, procedural knowledge, rational number, pupils

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2728 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers and Its Effects on Pupils Achievement of Rational Numbers

Authors: Raliatu Mohammed Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers to determine how it effects on pupil’s achievement on rational number. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual and procedural knowledge about rational number and its effects on their pupils understanding of rational number in primary school was explored. The study was carried out in Bauchi state of Nigeria, Using a multistage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test post-test only quasi experiment design. The population of the study comprises of six mathematics teachers holding the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and their two hundred and ten pupils in intact class. Two instrument namely Conceptual and Procedural knowledge Test (CPKT) and Rational number Achievement Test (RAT) were used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Test. The result revealed a significant differences between pupils taught by teachers with high conceptual and procedural knowledge and those target by teachers with low conceptual and procedural knowledge.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, rational numbers, multistage design

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2727 Monotone Rational Trigonometric Interpolation

Authors: Uzma Bashir, Jamaludin Md. Ali

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the visualization of monotone data using a piece-wise C1 rational trigonometric interpolating scheme. Four positive shape parameters are incorporated in the structure of rational trigonometric spline. Conditions on two of these parameters are derived to attain the monotonicity of monotone data and other two are left-free. Figures are used widely to exhibit that the proposed scheme produces graphically smooth monotone curves.

Keywords: trigonometric splines, monotone data, shape preserving, C1 monotone interpolant

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2726 Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ

Authors: Manish Jain, Dinesh Gopalani

Abstract:

Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.

Keywords: aspect oriented programming, AspectJ, aspects, JU-nit, software testing

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2725 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: data interpolation, rational ball curve, hermite condition, continuity

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2724 Cryptography Over Sextic Extension with Cubic Subfield

Authors: A. Chillali, M. Sahmoudi

Abstract:

In this paper we will give a method for encoding the elements of the ring of integers of sextic extension, namely L = Q(a,b) which is a rational quadratic over cubic field K =Q(a ) where a^{2} is a rational square free integer and b is a root of irreducible polynomiale of degree 3.

Keywords: coding, integral bases, sextic, quadratic

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2723 Improvement of the Numerical Integration's Quality in Meshless Methods

Authors: Ahlem Mougaida, Hedi Bel Hadj Salah

Abstract:

Several methods are suggested to improve the numerical integration in Galerkin weak form for Meshless methods. In fact, integrating without taking into account the characteristics of the shape functions reproduced by Meshless methods (rational functions, with compact support etc.), causes a large integration error that influences the PDE’s approximate solution. Comparisons between different methods of numerical integration for rational functions are discussed and compared. The algorithms are implemented in Matlab. Finally, numerical results were presented to prove the efficiency of our algorithms in improving results.

Keywords: adaptive methods, meshless, numerical integration, rational quadrature

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2722 The Principle of Methodological Rationality and Security of Organisations

Authors: Jan Franciszek Jacko

Abstract:

This investigation presents the principle of methodological rationality of decision making and discusses the impact of an organisation's members' methodologically rational or irrational decisions on its security. This study formulates and partially justifies some research hypotheses regarding the impact. The thinking experiment is used according to Max Weber's ideal types method. Two idealised situations("models") are compared: Model A, whereall decision-makers follow methodologically rational decision-making procedures. Model B, in which these agents follow methodologically irrational decision-making practices. Analysing and comparing the two models will allow the formulation of some research hypotheses regarding the impact of methodologically rational and irrational attitudes of members of an organisation on its security. In addition to the method, phenomenological analyses of rationality and irrationality are applied.

Keywords: methodological rationality, rational decisions, security of organisations, philosophy of economics

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2721 Rational Bureaucracy and E-Government: A Philosophical Study of Universality of E-Government

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Hegel is the first great political philosopher who specifically contemplates on bureaucracy. For Hegel bureaucracy is the function of the state. Since state, essentially is a rational organization, its function; namely, bureaucracy must be rational. Since, what is rational is universal; Hegel had to explain how the bureaucracy could be understood as universal. Hegel discusses bureaucracy in his treatment of ‘executive power’. He analyses modern bureaucracy as a form of political organization, its constituent members, and its relation to the social environment. Therefore, the essence of bureaucracy in Hegel’s philosophy is the implementation of law and rules. Hegel argues that unlike the other social classes that are particular because they look for their own private interest, bureaucracy as a class is a ‘universal’ because their orientation is the interest of the state. State for Hegel is essentially rational and universal. It is the actualization of ‘objective Spirit’. Marx criticizes Hegel’s argument on the universality of state and bureaucracy. For Marx state is equal to bureaucracy, it constitutes a social class that based on the interest of bourgeois class that dominates the society and exploits proletarian class. Therefore, the main disagreement between these political philosophers is: whether the state (bureaucracy) is universal or particular. Growing e-government in modern state as an important aspect of development leads us to contemplate on the particularity and universality of e-government. In this article, we will argue that e-government essentially is universal. E-government, in itself, is impartial; therefore, it cannot be particular. The development of e-government eliminates many side effects of the private, personal or particular interest of the individuals who work as bureaucracy. Finally, we will argue that more a state is developed more it is universal. Therefore, development of e-government makes the state a more universal and affects the modern philosophical debate on the particularity or universality of bureaucracy and state.

Keywords: particularity, universality, rational bureaucracy, impartiality

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2720 Investigating the Abolishment of Virginity Testing in South Africa

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

Abstract:

This paper argues that the custom of virginity testing has been revived in order to combat against social ills such as unwanted pregnancies, immorality, promiscuity and the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, virginity testing is not free from challenges such as the belief that having sexual intercourse with a virgin can cure men from AIDS, virginity testing is not accurate because there is scientific evidence supporting the fact that there many ways of losing virginity other than sexual intercourse, for example, the usage of tampons and participation in physical activities may tear the hymen. South African parliament took some positive steps in combatting against harm associated with virginity testing by regulating it in the Children’s Act. It is argued, in this paper, that the abolition of virginity testing may lead to paper law and it would be premature to abolish virginity testing in South Africa.

Keywords: equality rights, virginity testing, human rights, interdisciplinary law and legal studies

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2719 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh

Abstract:

Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

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2718 Rational Thinking and Forgiveness in Pakistan: The Role of Democratic Values and Mass Media Attitude

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

Every society has a set of beliefs, norms, values, folkways, mores and laws. All the principles, customs, traditions and procedures of societies are directly or indirectly related to the religion of the society and changed with the passage of time by the mediation of democratic values attitudes and mass media influence. The main objective of the present study is to examine the effects of rational thinking values on forgiveness attitude by the mediation of democratic values and mass media attitude among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social change, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Rational thinking attitude has great effects on the forgiveness attitude among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results support that the net of other factors, favorable democratic values attitudes are positively associated rational thinking attitudes. The results also provide support that all other things equal, mass media attitudes also have a significant positive effect on rational thinking attitudes. Favorable democratic values attitudes have a significant net positive effect and the effect of mass media attitudes is positive and statistically highly significant. It shows that the effects of both democratic values attitudes and mass media attitudes diminish in magnitude when the rational thinking attitudes scale is included. However, the effect of democratic values remains highly significant. In comparison, the effect of mass media attitudes is only marginally significant.

Keywords: rationality, forgiveness, democratic values, mass media, attitudes, Pakistan

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2717 Mobile Application Testing Matrix and Challenges

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Sardasht Mahmood, Joan Lu

Abstract:

The adoption of smartphones and the usages of mobile applications are increasing rapidly. Consequently, within limited time-range, mobile Internet usages have managed to take over the desktop usages particularly since the first smartphone-touched application released by iPhone in 2007. This paper is proposed to provide solution and answer the most demandable questions related to mobile application automated and manual testing limitations. Moreover, Mobile application testing requires agility and physically testing. Agile testing is to detect bugs through automated tools, whereas the compatibility testing is more to ensure that the apps operates on mobile OS (Operation Systems) as well as on the different real devices. Moreover, we have managed to answer automated or manual questions through two mobile application case studies MES (Mobile Exam System) and MLM (Mobile Lab Mate) by creating test scripts for both case studies and our experiment results have been discussed and evaluated on whether to adopt test on real devices or on emulators? In addition to this, we have introduced new mobile application testing matrix for the testers and some enterprises to obtain knowledge from.

Keywords: mobile app testing, testing matrix, automated, manual testing

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2716 A New Approach for Assertions Processing during Assertion-Based Software Testing

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel

Abstract:

Assertion-based software testing has been shown to be a promising tool for generating test cases that reveal program faults. Because the number of assertions may be very large for industry-size programs, one of the main concerns to the applicability of assertion-based testing is the amount of search time required to explore a large number of assertions. This paper presents a new approach for assertions exploration during the process of Assertion-Based software testing. Our initial exterminations with the proposed approach show that the performance of Assertion-Based testing may be improved, therefore, making this approach more efficient when applied on programs with large number of assertions.

Keywords: software testing, assertion-based testing, program assertions, generating test

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2715 Methodology for Various Sand Cone Testing

Authors: Abel S. Huaynacho, Yoni D. Huaynacho

Abstract:

The improvement of procedure test ASTM D1556, plays an important role in the developing of testing in field to obtain a higher quality of data QA/QC. The traditional process takes a considerable amount of time for only one test. Even making various testing are tasks repeating and it takes a long time to obtain better results. Moreover, if the adequate tools the help these testing are not properly managed, the improvement in the development for various testing could be stooped. This paper presents an optimized process for various testing ASTM D1556 which uses an initial standard process to another one the uses a simpler and improved management tools.

Keywords: cone sand test, density bulk, ASTM D1556, QA/QC

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2714 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi

Abstract:

The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

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2713 Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.

Keywords: open jet testing, aerodynamics, hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles, airships

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2712 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

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2711 Competence-Based Human Resources Selection and Training: Making Decisions

Authors: O. Starineca, I. Voronchuk

Abstract:

Human Resources (HR) selection and training have various implementation possibilities depending on an organization’s abilities and peculiarities. We propose to base HR selection and training decisions about on a competence-based approach. HR selection and training of employees are topical as there is room for improvement in this field; therefore, the aim of the research is to propose rational decision-making approaches for an organization HR selection and training choice. Our proposals are based on the training development and competence-based selection approaches created within previous researches i.e. Analytic-Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Linear Programming. Literature review on non-formal education, competence-based selection, AHP form our theoretical background. Some educational service providers in Latvia offer employees training, e.g. motivation, computer skills, accounting, law, ethics, stress management, etc. that are topical for Public Administration. Competence-based approach is a rational base for rational decision-making in both HR selection and considering HR training.

Keywords: competence-based selection, human resource, training, decision-making

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2710 Numerical Evolution Methods of Rational Form for Diffusion Equations

Authors: Said Algarni

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected numerical methods that demonstrate good performance in solving PDEs. We adapted alternative method that involve rational polynomials. Padé time stepping (PTS) method, which is highly stable for the purposes of the present application and is associated with lower computational costs, was applied. Furthermore, PTS was modified for our study which focused on diffusion equations. Numerical runs were conducted to obtain the optimal local error control threshold.

Keywords: Padé time stepping, finite difference, reaction diffusion equation, PDEs

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2709 An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation

Authors: Zakir H. Shaik, Punam L. Vartak

Abstract:

Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.

Keywords: growth, leadership, management by objectives, Management By Objectives (MBO), profit, rational

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2708 A Rational Intelligent Agent to Promote Metacognition a Situation of Text Comprehension

Authors: Anass Hsissi, Hakim Allali, Abdelmajid Hajami

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a doctoral research which aims to integrate metacognitive dimension in the design of human learning computing environments (ILE). We conducted a detailed study on the relationship between metacognitive processes and learning, specifically their positive impact on the performance of learners in the area of reading comprehension. Our contribution is to implement methods, using an intelligent agent based on BDI paradigm to ensure intelligent and reliable support for low readers, in order to encourage regulation and a conscious and rational use of their metacognitive abilities.

Keywords: metacognition, text comprehension EIAH, autoregulation, BDI agent

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2707 Analyzing Software Testing Phase in Agile Project Management: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Ghaleb Y. Abbasi, Satanay Alhiary

Abstract:

This paper focused on software testing phase of activities, types, techniques, teams and methods under agile project management (APM) in the Jordanian software industry. The effect of using agile principles and practices on testing process in software development life cycle (SDLC) was analyzed in order to create full view of the agile testing aspects such as phases, levels, types, methods, team and customers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized to cover earlier literature and collect data via web survey and short interviews in Jordanian software companies. Results indicated that agile testing had positive influence on quality of product, team performance, and customer satisfaction with a rate above 80%. APM is a powerful practice of moving software project forward in current markets with a rate above 51% by early involvement of testing activities in development.

Keywords: agile project management, software development life cycle, agile methods, agile testing, software testing

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2706 Factors Affecting the Readiness in the License Examination Testing of Nursing Students

Authors: Suwannee Sroisong, Angkhana Ruenkon, Ronnaphop Eimtab

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to examine the relationship of the Readiness on the License Examination Testing (RLET) with factors namely achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, perception in testing among the nursing students at Baromarajonani College of Nursing, Buddhachinaraj, Thailand (BCNB); and secondly, to investigate the factors affecting the RLET of the nursing students. All data were collected from a set of 214 questionnaires of nursing students, second semester and in academic year 2010, at BCNB. As a set of variables in the questionnaire, it consisted of factors of readiness in testing, achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, and perception in testing. The following statistics were analyzed: frequency, percentage, means, standard deviation, and Stepwise-multiple regression correlation. Research results were as follows: 1) For the relationship among following factors, namely achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, perception in testing, there were positive correlation coefficients between .324 to .560 at the .05 level of significance; and 2) One crucial factor affecting the RLET of nursing students, namely achieved motivation, was found. The achieved motivation factor could explain the variance or predict the RLET of nursing students at 31.40 percent and at the .05 level of significance.

Keywords: readiness, nursing, license examination testing, Thailand

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2705 Social Action for Strengthening Craftsmen's Bargaining Position in Marketing of Product of Tourism Souvenir

Authors: Dumasari, Pujiati Utami

Abstract:

The bargaining position is important for a craftsman in every transaction. A strong bargaining position to encourage craftsmen to gain feasible prices on souvenirs tourism products are sold in several market segments. Some social actions of craftsmen turned out to also determine the conditions bargaining. The main goal of this study is to assess the range of social action to strengthen the bargaining position of craftsmen in marketing various products of tourism souvenir. Location of the study is set intentionally in the Sub-District of Baturaden, Banyumas Regency and also the Sub-District of Purbalingga Wetan, Purbalingga Regency. Both of them are located in the Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research method is the descriptive case study. The results showed that the craftsmen not only carry out one or two type of social action. They do all of the social action: the first is rational based instrumental, the second is rational based on the values, the third is affective, and the fourth is traditional. However, craftsmen also develop other social actions namely: collective, productive and creative action. At respondents in Baturaden dominant type of social action that is instrumentally rational, productive and creative. Meanwhile, respondents in Purbalingga more dominant social action collective, productive and creative. Some social actions implemented simultaneously by the respondents. Because of this, they concluded that the rational action that modified by themselves is more easily for strengthening the bargaining position when facing the craftsmen traders collectors. Collective and rationality social action has the highest sensitivity value for strengthening the bargaining position of craftsmen.

Keywords: bargaining position, craftsmen, strengthen, social actions, marketing of tourism souvenir

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2704 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann

Abstract:

In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.

 

Keywords: defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography

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2703 The Effect of Program Type on Mutation Testing: Comparative Study

Authors: B. Falah, N. E. Abakouy

Abstract:

Due to its high computational cost, mutation testing has been neglected by researchers. Recently, many cost and mutants’ reduction techniques have been developed, improved, and experimented, but few of them has relied the possibility of reducing the cost of mutation testing on the program type of the application under test. This paper is a comparative study between four operators’ selection techniques (mutants sampling, class level operators, method level operators, and all operators’ selection) based on the program code type of each application under test. It aims at finding an alternative approach to reveal the effect of code type on mutation testing score. The result of our experiment shows that the program code type can affect the mutation score and that the programs using polymorphism are best suited to be tested with mutation testing.

Keywords: equivalent mutant, killed mutant, mutation score, mutation testing, program code type, software testing

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